Gamify Your Team Design Thinking
: Experimental Study on a Co-Evolution Theory of Team Design Thinking

Heejung Kwon, Ph.D...
Introduction
• Team design thinking within a digital ecology framework is one of the
most rapidly developing areas in desi...
Research Background
• How the gamification method brings benefits to the design thinking,
especially when we design future...
Research Background
• Team design thinking or collaborative design thinking
– should merge both analytic and synthetic fun...
Design Process

Problem
definition

Problem
Solution

An Analytic sequence in which the
designer determines all of the ele...
Game Rules

Invite

User
Unit 1

Invite

User
Unit 2

Visit

Invite

User
Unit 3

Visit

……

User
Unit 4

Visit

Visit

Sh...
Social Game Proximity

Me
(Avatar)

Build Area
Friends Zone

Team Meeting #7

@HCI Lab

7
Agents on Design Thinking Platforms

Bridge Object
(Interface)

Idea Initiator
(Innovator)

Output Score
Output Numbers
Li...
Narratives for Creativity

Bridge Object
(Interface)

Idea Initiator
(Innovator)

Make Stories()
reuse Stories()

Adaptor
...
Experimental Design for Participatory Modelling
Gamification Setting
- Manito Game
- Motivation
- Engagement
- Sharing Sto...
Collective Behaviors
• Collective memory
– has been defined as a reconstruction of the past that adapts images of
ancient ...
Methods : Gamification
•

The General Term
– Gamification has been widely used and adopted for service design [Gray, 2010;...
Methods : Gamification
• Motivation by Curiosity
– The research installed Manito game for the basic rule of the participat...
Methods : Gamification
• Engagement by Learning
– Weekly 33 participants have “Show & Tell” session about what they
observ...
Methods : Gamification
• Rewards of Intimacy
– As the participants belonged to three different faculties, environmental
de...
Methods : Gamification
•

Gift Economy
– Gift economy is a typical game that exchanges the expectation, and rewards. It ha...
Methods : Gamification
Table 1. Simulation Group Workshop Procedures
Procedures

Phases

Workshop 1

Writing Personal Stat...
Bill Buxton(2007) Example

Team Meeting #7

@HCI Lab

18
Workshop Template

Team Meeting #7

@HCI Lab

19
Participants’ Outputs

Team Meeting #7

@HCI Lab

20
Sketches on Sketches

Team Meeting #7

@HCI Lab

21
Contextmappings & Prototypes

Team Meeting #7

@HCI Lab

22
Data Collection
Table 2. Post Hoc Evaluation Survey Questions
Criteria

5 Likert Scale Evaluation

Product Story

Does it ...
One Way ANOVA Test
Sum of Squares

Pin*

Between Groups

df

Mean Square

176196.071

30

258343.515

32

3080.727

2

154...
Model of Iterative Participants
Pin

Like

Iterative
Participations

Followers

Followings

Team Meeting #7

@HCI Lab

25
Conclusions
• Key Findings
– The iterative participation measurements by online usage are strong
empirical evidences that ...
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Gamify Your Team Design Thinking : Experimental Study on a Co-Evolution Theory of Team Design Thinking

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Heejung Kwon(2013) "Gamify your team design thinking" Proceedings of One Conference Seoul 2013

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Gamify Your Team Design Thinking : Experimental Study on a Co-Evolution Theory of Team Design Thinking

  1. 1. Gamify Your Team Design Thinking : Experimental Study on a Co-Evolution Theory of Team Design Thinking Heejung Kwon, Ph.D. Candidate School of Business, Yonsei University Sat. 14. Dec. 2013. One Conference Seoul 2013 >>Session EN2<< Product Design
  2. 2. Introduction • Team design thinking within a digital ecology framework is one of the most rapidly developing areas in design methodologies. – It is highly combined to digital evolutions of technology, society, corporate ideas, and human values following to them. • Team design thinking for the co-evolution that is backed up by digital networks and their complexity, requires a holistic approach to the three convergence phenomena ; – the convergence of users and creators, the convergence of markets, and firms, and lastly the convergence of devices, and services. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 2
  3. 3. Research Background • How the gamification method brings benefits to the design thinking, especially when we design future interactive devices, and services? • There are three major key components for interaction design; users, context, and behaviors. – Who will use the devices, and services? – In what context including cultural, social, relational, physical, and temporal variables, are they going to use? – Finally what will they do with the devices, and service? Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 3
  4. 4. Research Background • Team design thinking or collaborative design thinking – should merge both analytic and synthetic functions of cognitive processes as a team, and it should build a design space, define design problems, and finally deliver problem solving results. • In this paper, we focus on two focal points of collaborative design thinking – “How it forms, and how it evolves.” • In the process the “gamification” technique is adapted. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 4
  5. 5. Design Process Problem definition Problem Solution An Analytic sequence in which the designer determines all of the elements of the problem and specifies all of the requirements that a successful design solution must have. A synthetic sequence in which the various requirements are combined and balanced against each other, yielding a final plan to be carried into production. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 5
  6. 6. Game Rules Invite User Unit 1 Invite User Unit 2 Visit Invite User Unit 3 Visit …… User Unit 4 Visit Visit Sharing Memories & Peership learning Synchronous(Inworld) vs. Asynchronous(SNS) Media Effects Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 6
  7. 7. Social Game Proximity Me (Avatar) Build Area Friends Zone Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 7
  8. 8. Agents on Design Thinking Platforms Bridge Object (Interface) Idea Initiator (Innovator) Output Score Output Numbers Likes Follows Adaptor Bridge (Actor) Output Score Output Numbers Likes Follows Diffusion of Innovation Model Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 8
  9. 9. Narratives for Creativity Bridge Object (Interface) Idea Initiator (Innovator) Make Stories() reuse Stories() Adaptor Bridge (Actor) Make stories() Reuse Stories() Memory Sharing Mechanism Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 9
  10. 10. Experimental Design for Participatory Modelling Gamification Setting - Manito Game - Motivation - Engagement - Sharing Stories Pinterest ID from F acebook Design Thinking Toolkit for Interaction Design - User Pinboards - Objects - Context Friend Zone - Touch Point Design Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 10
  11. 11. Collective Behaviors • Collective memory – has been defined as a reconstruction of the past that adapts images of ancient facts to present beliefs (Halbwachs, 1992). – more broadly, is part of a community’s “moral and intellectual framework” (Schwartz, 2000: 8) and confers identity on individuals and groups alike (Halbwachs, 1992). It is an active pursuit that allows “mnemonic communities” to cohere and adapt (Misztal, 2003; Schwartz, 2000; Wagner-Pacifici & Schwartz, 1991) and has been posited to be “a central, if not the central, medium through which identities are constituted” (Olick & Robbins, 1998: 133). – Collective memory as an identity endurance. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 11
  12. 12. Methods : Gamification • The General Term – Gamification has been widely used and adopted for service design [Gray, 2010; Zichermann, 2011]. – It is an informal umbrella term for the use of game elements in non-gaming systems to improve user experience(UX) and user engagement[Deterding, 2011]. – Gamification has been diversified its application areas from web, mobile, app designs, and now to enterprise managements that utilize the techniques to motivate, engage, and reward the firm participants for the better performance[Kumar, 2013]. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 12
  13. 13. Methods : Gamification • Motivation by Curiosity – The research installed Manito game for the basic rule of the participation. Manito game is a longitudinal hide-and-seek in a positive coupling. All members in the group select their manito in the group secretly. Everyone shadows their manito on campus and on social media. They used Facebook, Blogs, and Pinterest for their social media sharing. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 13
  14. 14. Methods : Gamification • Engagement by Learning – Weekly 33 participants have “Show & Tell” session about what they observed, what they found, and what they designed for their secret manito. While the show and tells, not only they learn about their manito facts, but also they learn how other class mates observed, sketched, and used social media, and get close to each other. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 14
  15. 15. Methods : Gamification • Rewards of Intimacy – As the participants belonged to three different faculties, environmental design, fashion design, and digital media design, they heavily communicated on social media. They visited each other’s pages, and follow, like, comment, and were followed. They adopted such social interaction as social rewards. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 15
  16. 16. Methods : Gamification • Gift Economy – Gift economy is a typical game that exchanges the expectation, and rewards. It has no monetary exchange systems while it utilizes the self-accumulation of give and take of emotion. – In contrast to a market economy, social norms and custom govern gift exchange, rather than an explicit exchange of goods or services for money or some other commodity [Kranton, 1996]. – Digital open innovation has been discoursed in terms of self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation that would result iterative engagements in empathic situations. In this research, we magnified the participants’ motivation and engagement in the perspective of emotional capitals, so that it clarified the agents’ behavior in parametric terms to measure the significant substances. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 16
  17. 17. Methods : Gamification Table 1. Simulation Group Workshop Procedures Procedures Phases Workshop 1 Writing Personal Statement Semantic Description Workshop 2 Producing Personal Visual Identity Visual Description Workshop 3 Analyzing Friends’ Identity Reproducing Friends’ Visual Identity Composition Workshop 5 Idea Sketches Creation Workshop 6 Cultural Probe Package Design External Collaboration Workshop 7 Service Architecture Design Internal Collaboration Workshop 8 Prototyping Embodiments of Experience Post Hoc UX Innovativeness Evaluation Design Thinking Stages Exploring Workshop 4 Team Meeting #7 Tasks Evaluation @HCI Lab Reflective Analytic Synthetic 17
  18. 18. Bill Buxton(2007) Example Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 18
  19. 19. Workshop Template Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 19
  20. 20. Participants’ Outputs Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 20
  21. 21. Sketches on Sketches Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 21
  22. 22. Contextmappings & Prototypes Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 22
  23. 23. Data Collection Table 2. Post Hoc Evaluation Survey Questions Criteria 5 Likert Scale Evaluation Product Story Does it explain the use cases and users well? Sketch Does it reveal the product/services characteristics, forms, and use situations well? Digital Design Does it produce digital representations in excellent skills? Product/Service Character Does it visualize the characteristics of product/service effectively? Idea Presentation Does it logically explain the intension, process, and outputs of design well? Product/Service Attractiveness Does it achieve the attractiveness of product/service in a desirable manner? Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 23
  24. 24. One Way ANOVA Test Sum of Squares Pin* Between Groups df Mean Square 176196.071 30 258343.515 32 3080.727 2 1540.363 4008.788 30 133.626 Total 7089.515 32 8.354 2 4.177 Within Groups 84.615 30 2.821 Total 92.970 32 244.521 2 122.260 821.115 30 27.371 1065.636 32 4078.605 2 2039.303 Within Groups 17733.455 30 591.115 Total 21812.061 32 Between Groups Between Groups Between Groups Within Groups Total Following* Team Meeting #7 Sig. 5873.202 Within Groups Followers* 41073.722 Total Comment 2 Within Groups Like* 82147.445 F Between Groups @HCI Lab 6.993 .003 11.527 .000 1.481 .244 4.467 .020 3.450 .045 24
  25. 25. Model of Iterative Participants Pin Like Iterative Participations Followers Followings Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 25
  26. 26. Conclusions • Key Findings – The iterative participation measurements by online usage are strong empirical evidences that support the social media conventions of co- creation is highly reliable user interfaces that encourage participants continuous involvement. – The iterative participation was highly correlated to co-creation activities, and peer evaluations which mean digital values are initiated and formed in co-evolution communities of the user group. Team Meeting #7 @HCI Lab 26

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