Two political rivals emerged to fight a civil war Yuang Shih-k'ai Manchu Warlord Sun Yat-sen KUOMINTANG = NATIONAL PEOPLES PARTY
REVOLUTION OF THE DOUBLE TENTH
10.10 1911 Sun Yat-sen proclaimed a New Republic of China with Shanghai as its capital.
China during War I
Civil War continued
Japan invaded China
Independent Mongolia and Tibet
China under Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)
Succeeded Sun Yat-sen in 1925
Determined to centralise control of China using military force
Became dictator of China retaking Beijing in 1928
OPPONENTS OF CHIANG KAI-SHEK
Mao wanted to establish a classless society in China
The Chinese provinces of Kiangse and Hunan became a Communist state called the Kiangse-Hunan Soviet
Chiang Kai-shek employed the Chinese army against the Communists and succeeded in over running the Kiangse - Hunan Soviet in 1931. Mao Zedong began a guerrilla war against the Kuomintang forces
Within 12 months, the Communists had lost 50% of the territory they had controlled in 1933 and 60,000 Communist soldiers (the Red Army) were killed.
The Guomindang was advised by the German general, Hans von Seeckt. Seeckt wanted to starve the Communists out rather than engage in combat with them. Guomindang troops surrounded the Communists. The Guomindang had a policy of making a slow advance building trenches and blockhouses as they went.
The Long March OCT 1934 – October 1935 Mao’s escape
The Red Army started the Long March carrying whatever it could. 87,000 soldiers started the retreat carrying such items as typewriters, furniture, printing presses etc.
They also took with them 33,000 guns and nearly 2 million ammunition cartridges.
Mao adopted new tactics using twisting movement patterns that made predicting its direction very difficult.
Mao also split up the Red Army into smaller units. In theory this made them more open to attack – in practice, they were more difficult to find in the open spaces in China.
The journey was physically demanding as it crossed a very difficult environment. The Red Army had to cross the Snowy Mountains, some of the highest mountains in the world
and the Chinese Grassland which was an area of deep marshes which claimed hundreds of lives
The Red Army did not only have to contend with the Guomindang. The land in northern China was very much controlled by warlords. Even the Guomindang under Chiang had failed to break their power. They did not welcome the arrival of the Red Army into an area they effectively ruled.
By October 1935, what was left of the original 87,000 Red Army soldiers reached their goal of Yanan. Less than 10,000 men had survived the march. These survivors had marched over 9000 kilometres. The march had taken 368 days..
Mao’s rules of discipline
Obey orders in all your actions.
Do not take even a needle or a piece of thread from the people. Turn in everything you capture.
Return everything you borrow.
Pay for any damage.
Do not strike or swear at people .
Pay fairly for what you buy.
Do not damage crops .
Because of the behavior of the Red Army in comparison to that of the other armies the Communists were able to gain local support among the peasants and the poor of the towns.
The Japanese invasion of China in 1931 forced the CCP and the KMT to suspend the civil war
America's entrance into World War II spelled defeat for the Japanese.
After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the struggle for control of China resumed between Mao and Chiang Kei Shek.
The war against the Japanese had weakened the Kuomintang and allowed the Communists to regroup after the Long March .
Chiang Kai Shek's government had become corrupt and was despised by the peasantry.
In contrast Mao’s Communists promoted literacy and improved food production amongst the peasants, thereby winning their loyalty
From 1946 onwards the Kuomintang could offer little resistance to the advancing communist forces; when Peking fell to the Communists the Kuomintang fled from mainland China to the island of Formosa.
Chiang Kai Shek renamed Formosa Taiwan and set up his capital in the city of Taipei.
On 1 October 1949 Mao Zedong became the chairman of the new Peoples Republic of China.