CROSS-CULTURE COMMUNICATION““The reasonable person adapts himself to the world,The reasonable person adapts himself to the world,while the unreasonable one persists in trying to adaptwhile the unreasonable one persists in trying to adaptthe world to himself”the world to himself”
What is a culture?• Culture is the "lens" through which you view theworld.• It is central to what you see,• How you make sense of what you see,• How you express yourself."Culture is the arts elevated to a set of beliefs."– Tom Wolfe
What is different?1. Communication Styles2. Attitudes toward conflicts3. Decision making style4. Approaches to knowingWhat is hidden below the surface?1. Beliefs2. Values3. Expectations4. AttitudesFour Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Difference
COMMUNICATONCOMMUNICATONCommunication is the sending of a message from a sourceCommunication is the sending of a message from a sourceto a receiver with the least possible loss of meaning.to a receiver with the least possible loss of meaning.THE COMMUNICATION PROCESSTHE COMMUNICATION PROCESSThe speaker sends a message that is inThe speaker sends a message that is insome kind of code. The listenersome kind of code. The listenerdecodes the message and responds,decodes the message and responds,thereby giving the speaker feedback.thereby giving the speaker feedback.
What is effective communication?• The Art, Science and Practice.Effective SpeakingEffective listeningUnderstanding people’s perception
CODES USED IN COMMUNICATIONCODES USED IN COMMUNICATIONVerbal CommunicationVerbal Communication WordsWords VoiceVoiceNon-Verbal CommunicationNon-Verbal Communication GesturesGestures PosturesPostures Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions Eye ContactEye Contact Vocal CharacteristicsVocal Characteristics Personal AppearancePersonal Appearance TouchTouch
Cross Culture CommunicationCross Culture CommunicationINTERCUlTURAl COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OfINTERCUlTURAl COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OfSENdINg ANd RECEIvINg MESSAgES bETwEENSENdINg ANd RECEIvINg MESSAgES bETwEENPEOPlE wHOSE CUlTURAl bACkgROUNd COUld lEAdPEOPlE wHOSE CUlTURAl bACkgROUNd COUld lEAdTHEM TO INTERPRET vERbAl ANd NON-vERbAl SIgNSTHEM TO INTERPRET vERbAl ANd NON-vERbAl SIgNSdIffERENTly.dIffERENTly.
Why Cross CultureWhy Cross CultureCommunication is important ?Communication is important ?◦ Business OpportunitiesBusiness Opportunities◦ Job OpportunitiesJob Opportunities◦ Improves the contribution of employees in a diverseImproves the contribution of employees in a diverseworkforceworkforce◦ Sharing of views and ideasSharing of views and ideas◦ Talent improvisationTalent improvisation◦ An understanding of diverse marketAn understanding of diverse marketGlobalization:Globalization: Cross border movement of people, goods and dataCross border movement of people, goods and databrings more and more cultures into contact with one another andbrings more and more cultures into contact with one another andincreases the potential of cross culture communication.increases the potential of cross culture communication.
Verbal Communication Differences1.Words1.Words2.Voice2.Voice
High Context and Low Context CulturesHigh Context and Low Context CulturesHigh Context Culture:-High Context Culture:- Cultures that rely heavily on non-Cultures that rely heavily on non-verbal and subtle situational cues in communication.verbal and subtle situational cues in communication.Low Context Culture:-Low Context Culture:- Cultures that rely heavily onCultures that rely heavily onwords to convey meaning in communication.words to convey meaning in communication.
How can a Gestures distort the message………………..How can a Gestures distort the message………………..•A motion of the hands, head or body to emphasize anA motion of the hands, head or body to emphasize anidea or emotion.idea or emotion.Perfect! OK!Perfect! OK! Zero!Zero!Worthless!Worthless!Rubbish!Rubbish!GesturesGestures
How can the same Gestures be treated differently inHow can the same Gestures be treated differently indifferent culturesdifferent cultures
Gestures – Around the WorldGestures – Around the WorldWesternWestern - “Do you have a telephone ?”- “Do you have a telephone ?”BrazilBrazil - “Cuckold (Your wife is cheating to you)”- “Cuckold (Your wife is cheating to you)”USAUSA - “Sign for the Texas Long Horns”- “Sign for the Texas Long Horns”
Blocks to Cultural Communication1. Ethnocentrism : Inability to accept another cultures world view;"my way is the best."2. Discrimination : Differential treatment of an individual due tominority status; actual and perceived; e.g., "we just arent equipped toserve people like that."3. Stereotyping : Generalizing about a person while ignoring presenceof individual difference; e.g., "shes like that because shes Asian – allAsians are nonverbal."
4.Cultural Blindness: Differences are ignored and one proceeds asthough differences did not exist; e.g., "theres no need to worry about apersons culture5.Cultural Imposition: Belief that everyone should conform to themajority; e.g., "we know whats best for you, if you dont like it you cango elsewhere."6.Tone Difference : Formal tone change becomes embarrassing andoff-putting in some cultures.
DEVELOPING CROSS CULTURALCOMMUNICATION SKILLS"Tact is the ability to describe others as they see themselves.“– Abraham Lincoln
Skills To Overcome Differences"To handle yourself, use your head; to handle others, use your heart."– Donald Laird
Skills To Overcome Differences• Respecting Differences and Working Together
Skills To Overcome Differences• Building Trust Across Cultural Boundaries
Skills To Overcome Differences• Understanding Body LanguageUnitedStates of America•Americans tend to refrain fro m greetings that invo lve hugging and o ther clo se physical co ntact.•When sitting, U.S. citizens o ften lo o k very relaxed. They may so metimes sit with the ankle o f o neleg on their knee.ArabCountries•The left hand is co nsidered unclean in the Arab co untries.•When sitting, keep bo th feet o n the gro und.•The " thumbs up" sign is o ffensive thro ugho ut the Arab wo rld.SouthKorea•Bo ws are used fo r expressing appreciatio n, making apo lo gies and requests, as well as fo rgreetings and farewells.•When the Japanese want to give the impressio n that they are in deep tho ught, they willsometimes fo ld their arms.
Skills To Overcome Differences• Connecting with people
Things To Remember While Interacting And ConnectingWith People
• WelcomeTopics of Conversation:Indonesia: Family, travel/tourism, sports, praising the localcuisine, future plans and success of the group ororganizationGermany: Sports--particularlysoccer, tennis, current events,politics, amongthose who imbibe, beer is often agoodtopicof conversation
TEN Pre-cautions in Cultural CommunicationTEN Pre-cautions in Cultural Communication1.1. Slow DownSlow Down2.2. Separate QuestionsSeparate Questions3.3. Avoid Negative QuestionsAvoid Negative Questions4.4. Take TurnsTake Turns5.5. Write it downWrite it down6.6. Be SupportiveBe Supportive7.7. Check MeaningsCheck Meanings8.8. Avoid SlangsAvoid Slangs9.9. Watch the humourWatch the humour10.10. Maintain EtiquetteMaintain Etiquette
Business in To day’ s Scenario is no t a“National Match” but is a“Olympics”, where there areInternatio nal Players. Only thatIndividual / Co mpany can survivewhich has do ne its ho mewo rk well &develo ped its uniqueness.