Mobile applications


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  • What is the technology behind it.
  • - Client: connect to gateway onlyWAP Gatway: is the entity that connects the wireless domain with the InternetConnects to any serverTranslate HTTP-TCP-IP into WSP-WTP-WDP-bearerCompiles WML« abstracts » HTML, converts to WML (optional)Server : provides WML (or HTML)
  • WAP works like this:- The user selects an option on his mobile device that has a URL with Wireless Markup language (WML) content assigned to it.- The phone sends the URL request via the wireless network to a WAP gateway, using the binary encoded WAP protocol.- The gateway translates this WAP request into a conventional HTTP and sends it on to the Internet.- The appropriate Web server picks up the HTTP request.- The server processes the request.If the URL refers to a static WML file, the server deliversit.-The Web server adds the HTTP header to the WML content and returns it to the gateway.- The WAP gateway compiles the WML into binaryform and sends the WML response back to the phone.- The phone receives the WML via the WAP protocol and with a micro-browser it displays the content on the screen.
  • WSP (Wireless Session Protocol)WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol)WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security)WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol)
  • Mobile applications

    1. 1. Mobile applications
    2. 2. Outline Introduction Mobile Services What is WAP ? WAP Architecture WAP Protocols Demonstration Conclusion 2
    3. 3. Introduction Mobile Growth 2000 – 2009 • An estimated 4.1 Billion Mobile Phone subscriptions till 2009. By the International telecommunications union (ITU). •Total subscriptions grew 563 % Mobile Application Growth • Total value of all applications stores was worth 343 million dollar ; Yankee Group 2009 3
    4. 4. Mobile Services
    5. 5. Imagine.. Anytime, Anywhere you can Get financial information Order and buy tickets Pay your bills Read the news Read and send e-mails Receive your voice-mail Get a local guide to restaurants Make stock queries 5
    6. 6. WAP makes it possible!!
    7. 7. What is WAP ?Wireless Application Protocol : RFC 2636  A set of protocols which allow data exchange for mobile cellular systems  The current world standard for the presentation and delivery of wireless information  It is device independent  It is network independent 7
    8. 8. Current Constraints ofWireless Interfaces: Mobile Devices: Less Bandwidth  Less CPU Power High Latency  Less Memory and Storage Less Stable Connections  Restricted Power Consumption Less Predictable Availability  Small / Variable Sized Displays Diverse range of network  Variable Input Types standards (Keypad, Pen, etc,) 8
    9. 9. Why use WAP ?The importance of WAP comes due to the fact that it is promoted, developed and supported byimportant names in the world of wireless communications, of Internet, and of finance. In concreteterms, 90 % producers of equipment of mobile communications are members of the WAP Forum, thetrue promoter of standards WAP. Names appearing above constitute a very partial list. 9
    10. 10. WAP Key FeaturesDesigned to create services Multiple OS like Palm OS,for small handheld terminals EPOC, Flex OS, Java OS, OS/9, PocketPC ec. Designed to minimize required bandwidth and impact of latencyAccess to telephonyrelated functionality 10
    11. 11. WAP Architecture (1/2) Any WAP enable system consists of:  WAP Gateway  The HTTP Web Server  and The WAP device (ex any WAP enabled mobile) 11
    12. 12. WAP Architecture (2/2)Client Web Server WAP Gateway WML with WML-Script WML Encoder CGI WML DecksWML- Scripts WSP/WTP WMLScript HTTP etc.Script Compiler WTAI Protocol Adapters Content Etc. 12
    13. 13. How WAP Works?1 --WSP Request (URL)2 --WSP Response (Binary WML)3 --HTTP Request (URL)4 --HTTP Response (WML) 13
    14. 14. Comparison between Internet and WAP Models Internet Wireless Application Protocol HTML Wireless Application Other Services andJavaScript Environment (WAE) Applications Session Layer (WSP) HTTP Transaction Layer (WTP)TLS - SSL Security Layer (WTLS) Transport Layer (WDP) TCP/IP UDP/IP Bearers: SMS USSD GPRS CSD IS-136 CDMA CDPD PDC-P Etc.. 14
    15. 15. WAP Protocols (1/4)• WSP (Wireless Session Protocol) – Provides the application layer of WAP with a consistent interface for two session services. • A connection-oriented service that operates above the transaction layer protocol WTP. • A connectionless service that operates above a secure or non-secure datagram service (WDP). Wireless Session Layer (WSP) 15
    16. 16. WAP Protocols (2/4)• WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol) – Provides efficient request/reply based transport mechanism suitable for devices with limited resources over networks with low to medium bandwidth. • WTP Push mode allows server to “push” data to a client without request (e.g. notification of stock hitting target price) • WTP/WDP uses less than half the packets that TCP/IP uses to transfer the same amount of data. Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) 16
    17. 17. WAP Protocols (3/4)• WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security) – A security protocol based upon the industry-standard Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, formerly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). – WTLS is intended for use with the WAP transport protocols and has been optimized for use over narrow-band communication channels. Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) 17
    18. 18. WAP Protocols (4/4)• WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol) – The Transport layer protocol in the WAP architecture – Provides a common interface to the Security, Session, and Application layers – Allows these upper layers to function independently of the underlying wireless network. This is the key to global interoperability Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) 18
    19. 19. How limits are handled ? (1/2) Low bandwidth • WML contents are encoded • WSP supports long-lived sessions • WTP designed to minimize number of transactions High latency • Asynchronous request/response model • Client side programming using WMLScript • WTA repositories Unreliable connection • WSP supports long-lived sessions to resume efficiently • Selective retransmission of segments by WTP 19
    20. 20. How limits are handled ? (2/2) Small Display • Decks and card interface Limit input facilities • Decks and cards makes inter-page navigation easier Limited memory & CPU • Binary encoding of WML contents saves memory • Limited set of functionality of WMLScript & libraries Limited battery power • Minimizing bandwith needs 20
    21. 21. Demonstration
    22. 22. Conclusion With the arrival of mobile 3G, WAP will be in strong usage, and will become probably a spread and common standard. Anytime, Anywhere, Any ...  The future of WAP depends largely on : • whether consumers decide to use WAP devices to access the Web, • and also on whether a new technology comes along that would require a different infrastructure than WAP. 22
    23. 23. Thank You !