=>Addressing:IPV4 no longer permit to simplyaddress all the equipements in the world.to resolvethis issue we use NAT or proxiesThe use of @in the world isdominated by The usa with 72% of the number of ipv4@, Europe 17%, Asia 9%, others 2%=> Routing: 2.Increasing routing information- Rapid growth of routing tables in backbones3. Increasing the number of Network Address Translation (NAT) - Breaking the Internet architecture4.Security issues - Number of ways to encrypt IPv4 trafficExample: IPSec - No real standard encryption method5.Real-time delivery of multimedia content and necessary bandwidth allocationQuality of Service (QoS) Different interpretationsQoS compliant devices are not compatible one another
(Internet Protocol Version 6) The next generation IP protocol. Started in 1991, the specification was completed in 1997 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). IPv6 is backward compatible with and is designed to fix the shortcomings of IPv4, such as data security and maximum number of user addresses.
Virtually Unlimited AddressesIPv6 increases the address space from 32 to 128 bits, providing for a virtually unlimited (for all intents and purposes) number of networks and systems. It also supports quality of service (QoS) parameters for real-time audio and video. Originally called "IP Next Generation" (IPng), IPv6 is expected to slowly replace IPv4, with the two existing side by side for many years.IPv6 was officially deployed in July 2004 when ICANN added IPv6 records to its DNS root server for the .jp (Japan) and .kr (Korea) country codes.
Bigger address space128 bits for addressingReduce the size of routing tablesNo NATs are neededAllows full IP connectivityFor Computers, Mobile devices MobilityFacility for mobile devices Allows roaming between different networksBuilt-in securityIncludes IpsecAuthenticationEncryptionCompression
Prefix : used in the address of the subnetprefix = global prefix + subnet idSuffix: identify the host within the subnet suffix = interface id
Version : same us IPv4, spécify in 4 bits the currentprotocol version thisfeildequals to 6 (0110 in binary).Traffic Class: in 8 bits, samerolelike the TOS field in IPv4. It identifies the encapsulated content type in IPv6, to permit the specialtreatementsFlow Label: It offers the QoS, it’sbuilded in 20 bitsPayloadLength: in 16 bits, itpermits to define the size ofIPv6 packet, Next Header: specify in 8 bits the first header folowing the content in the vehiculed data in IPV6 tram. Hop Limit : gives the maximum number of jumpsthat an ipv6 packetcanfrom the source to the destination it’s the Equivalent ofTTLfeild in IPv4.
Outline Introduction Inconvenients of IPv4 Internet Protocol vesion 6 Hirearchical Mobile Internet Protocol vesion 6 Conclusion
Introduction:Today the number of devices using IP address hasincreased exponentially.Most of these devices are mobile(phones, cars, PDAs, sensors…)Problematic: •Have an address and Keep contact •Be reachable •Maintain communication while moving. 1
Inconvenients of IPv4 Insuffieciency Increasing routing information Increasing the number of Network Address Translation (NAT) Security issues Percentage of IPv4 USA EUROPE ASIA Others 10/30/2011 4
What isIPv6 ?What’s IPv6 IPv6 = Internet Protocol Version 6 IPv6: The next generation IP protocol, is backward compatible with and is designed to fix the shortcomings of IPv4, such as data security and maximum number of user addresses. IPv6 increases the address space from 32 to 128 bits IPv4= 4 billion addresses. IPv6= over 340 trillion addresses. IPv4 @ = 32 bits IPv6@ = 128 bits 10/30/2011 6
IPv6 Better! Larger address space Reduce the size of Security & Qos routing tables IPv6 Remove the need for Overcome the Network Addresslimitations of IPv4 Translation (NAT) Adapted for: auto-configuration and Mobile devices 10/30/2011 8
IPv6 address componentsIPv6 Address Components Architecture: IP address space from 32 bits to 128 bits. The new 128-bit IPv6 addresses are represented in the form of eight 16 bit components divided in columns: IPv6 address :is made ofX : X parts: Prefix & X X : X : X : two : X : X Suffix 64 bits Prefix 64 bits suffix 10/30/2011 9
Definition of MIPv6 IPv6:Definition of Mobile : Mobile IPv6 is a protocol developed as a subset of Internet Protocol version 6 to support mobile connections. Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) specifies routing support which permits an IPv6 host to continue using its home address as it moves around the Internet, enabling continuity of sessions. 10/30/2011 12
MIPv6 PropertiesMIPv6 properties:IPv6 Mobility is based on : Experience in MIPv4; New features of IPv6; The advisability of deploying a new version of IP;MIPv6 enables support communications with a mobile device by making a routing : To the point of attachment of the mobile on the Internet; To the mobile device’s address in the subnet network. 10/30/2011 13
Mobile TerminologyMIPv6 IPv6 Terminology: Home Agent (HA): A router or a node located on the home Network that acts on behalf of the mobile node while away from the home Network. HA Mobile Node (MN): A node that changes its location within the Internet topology. A node’s MN mobility could be a result of physical movement or of changes within the topology. Correspondent Node (CN): Any node that communicates with the mobile node. CN 10/30/2011 15
Exemple MIPv6 communication scenario: Example of of MIPv6 Communication ScenarioVisited Network CN IPv6 MN HA Home Network 10/30/2011 16
Exemple MIPv6 communication scenario: Example of of MIPv6 Communication Scenario Visited Network Care-of-Address MN’s + Route Node’s Mobile @ authenticationCare-of- Address Optimization New Network Router Prefix Solicitation Bindin g CN Update IPv6 Binding MN HA Cache Home Address Home Network 10/30/2011 17
Limits of MIPv6 Limits of MIPv6 MIPv6 is inefficient when the mobile device changes often the anchor point within the same area. =>The solution is the Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 10/30/2011 18
Hierarchical MIPv6 IPv6 Hierarchical Mobile Reduce the exchange messages between the mobile device and home agent. => new Entity Mobility Anchor Point => 2 temporary address * For the local area(subnet). * For the region. 10/30/2011 19
Limits of MIPv6 • Mobile IPv6 & HMIPv6: • Adapted to the long tcp connections (ftp...) & internet standard applications(web browsing, http ...) • Cannot be reliable to real time applications 10/30/2011 20
Conclusion CONCLUSION Today Mobile devices play major role in the growth of Internet. Internet Doubles Every Year. IPv6 starts to be mature enough to be deployed commercially. IPv6 will be the enabling technology for the mobile Internet. 10/30/2011 21