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Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
Twins  pp
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Twins pp

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  • 1. BY: NURUL HIDAYAH BT MANSOR HILDA ANAK EMAK AMIRAH BT SHAARI AIN NAJWA BT AMRAN Chapter 3 : development of zygote
  • 2. STEP 1 : GROUP SETTING Our group consist of 5 members chosen by ourself This is our group’s member Ain Najwa Bt AmranHilda anak Emak Lee Yian Ping Amirah Bt ShaariNurul Hidayah Bt Mansor
  • 3. HOW TWINS ARE FORM? Twins are two offspring resulting from the same pregnancy. The twins can be the same or different sex which mean they can either be monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic or (non-identical).
  • 4. TYPES OF TWIN •Monozygotic twins •Dizygotic twins •Half twin •Conjoined twins
  • 5. MONOZYGOTIC TWINS Come from one zygote Identical twins DIZYGOTIC TWINS • Come from two zygotes • Non-identical @ fraternal twins
  • 6. HALF TWIN Semi-identical twin Have the same genes from the mother but different genes from the father CONJOINED TWIN • Many complication resulting of shared organ • Occur when the division later than 8 days
  • 7. DEVELOPMENT OF IDENTICAL TWIN!!  Firstly is the union of 1 sperm 1 ovum.  After the sperm fertilized the ovum, cell division occur. Then, it undergoes cleavage.  The cell is divided into 2 cell. Each of the 2 cell then continued divided respectively into morula.  The morula enter the uterus and develops a central cavity. This structure known as blastocyst. The blastocyst attached to the uterine wall to begin the process of implantation.
  • 8. Once the cleavage is complete, gastrulation stage is started. The primary germ layers are organized into 3 layers : ~ The external layer is called ectoderm ~ The middle layer is called mesoderm ~ The most internal layer is called endoderm  The gastrulation followed by organogenesis.
  • 9. Monozygotic twins develop in 3 ways :  1 placenta and 2 amniotic sac ( mono-chorial and bi-amniotic)  Only 1 placenta and 1 amniotic sacs ( mono-chorial and mono-amniotic)  2 placenta and 2 amniotic sacs (bi-chorial and bi-amniotic)
  • 10. 1 PLACENTA AND 2 AMNIOTIC SACS (MONO-CHORIAL AND BI-AMNIOTIC) The inner cell mass of blastocyte split completely before the blastocyte has fully defined the roles of each type of cells. Because there are 2 inner cell mass, hence there are 2 amniotic cell in 1 placenta.
  • 11. ONLY 1 PLACENTA AND 1 AMNIOTIC SACS ( MONO-CHORIAL AND MONO-AMNIOTIC) After implantation, the inner cell mass splitted into epiblast and hypoblast. The fluid-filled space created by the separation becomes the amniotic cavity. The epiblast develop into amniotic sacs while the hypoblast divide into 2 embryo.
  • 12. 2 PLACENTA AND 2 AMNIOTIC SACS ( BI-CHORIAL AND BI-AMNIOTIC) The blastocyte splitting at 2-cell stage form : The inner cell mass will develop into embryo itself. the outer single layer of cells then form tropoblast. Then tropoblast develop into placenta. Because there are 2 blastocyte, they will be 2 placenta and 2 separate amniotic sacs.
  • 13. DEVELOPMENT OF NON- IDENTICAL TWINS Fertilization of 2 different oocyte by 2 different sperms. 2 separate pregnancy occur at the same time forming 2 different amniotic sacs and 2 different placenta. So, the embryo is non-identical.
  • 14. Aspect Identical twins Non-identical twins fertilization One sperm and one ovum Two separate eggs and two separate spermatozoa Formation of zygote Eggs divide into two embryo Each egg divide into one embryo respectively Genetic constitution (chromosomes) Exactly the same Different Number of placenta One or two two Number of amniotic sacs One or two two sex Same sex Can be same or different sex Physical appearance Look alike Doesn’t look alike WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDENTICAL AND NON-IDENTICAL TWINS
  • 15. WHAT IS THE COMPLICATION OF TWINS?  The complication of having multiple are low birth weight of the baby because twin usually born premature.  Twin to twin transfusion syndrome which mean the blood from one twin is being diverted into the other twin.  Miscarried twin usually occur when a mother suffering in their early pregnancy yet the pregnancy still continued.
  • 16. WHAT IS THE MOTHER RISK HAVING MULTIPLE PREGNANCY?  Mother with gestational diabetes during their pregnancy with twins or more, probably because the increase in hormones produced by carrying an additional baby (or babies) interferes with their body's ability to process insulin.  Placenta problem occur whether there is a single, shared or multiple placentas, mothers of twins or more are at greater risk for complications. Problems affecting the placenta can result in dangerous complications for the mother, including hemorrhage during pregnancy or after delivery.  Heart problem usually happen to mother with multiple pregnancy because of each additional fetus raises the level of cardiac output.
  • 17.  Ultrasound scan  The fastest way to know that you are having twins  By producing ultrasound image which shows whether its more than one fetus.  Elevated HcG Levels  HcG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is a hormone detectable in pregnant women's blood or urine about 10 days post-conception.  Twins may produce an elevated level of HcG. HOW DO WE KNOW WE ARE HAVING TWINS?
  • 18.  Doppler heartbeat count  By using Doppler system that amplifier fetal heart sounds  And experienced physician or midwife can hear two heat beats  The sounds can be misleading  The second heartbeat may be background noise or mother’s own heartbeat.  Weight Gain  Mothers of twins usually gain about 10 lbs. more than singleton mothers.  Excessive Morning Sickness  Mother of twins experience double dose of morning sickness  Experience vary greatly depends on individual
  • 19.  Early/Frequent Fetal Movement  many mothers of multiples experience more frequent or earlier fetal movement  considerable disagreement among medical professionals on the subject  Because some women will recognize feeling of early movement even if just carrying one baby  Extreme Fatigue  the body is working overtime to nurture more than one baby History/Hunches  A family history of multiples, or a powerful hunch can be convincing indicators that they are having twins.
  • 20. HOW TO DELIVERED TWINS??  Usually, twins get birth smoothly, with both born head down. However, caesarean sections are more common with twins.  One or both might be breech, coming bottom or feet first. Which mean one baby lies across the uterus, in a case like this, caesarean is essential. Twins can also be smaller and weaker than single babies and a caesarean might be the easiest, least stressful way for them to be born.  Twins are more likely to need some time in special care after the birth. You'll probably be advised to stay a little longer in hospital yourself, even if your twins are perfectly healthy (as most are).
  • 21. HOW TO BREASTFEEDING TWINS?  A mother’s breast can make as much milk as the babies need - twice the stimulation of the supply, means twice the amount made.  It's the practical aspects that might be more tricky - how to hold them so you're all comfortable, whether to feed them one at a time or together and so on. The babies may not have the same appetite and they may be hungry at different times too.
  • 22. THAT’S ALL THANK YOU 

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