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Mis   system analysis and system design

Mis system analysis and system design






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    Mis   system analysis and system design Mis system analysis and system design Presentation Transcript

    • Group No. 3Bhuvan AryaAnoop ShetDeepak KhuntwalAmit SharmaKumar AnupamRahul Hedau
    • System analysis describes what a system should do tomeet the information needs of users.System design specifies how the system will accomplishthis objective.System design consists of design activities • that produce system specifications • satisfying the functional requirements • developed in the systems analysis stage.
    •  Describe the strategic planning process, and why it is important to IT managers Explain the purpose of a mission statement Explain the SDLC as a framework for systems development and business modeling Explain the reasons for information systems projects and the factors that affect such projects
    •  Describe the initial review of systems requests and the role of the systems review committee Describe the internal and external factors that affect information systems projects Define operational feasibility, technical feasibility, and economic feasibility Describe the steps and end product of a preliminary investigation
    •  Systems planning tasks ◦ Examine the systems request ◦ Conduct a preliminary investigation ◦ Using SDLC and CASE tools to provide a framework
    • The SDLC is generally presented as an iterative sequence of five steps: ◦ Systems Planning ◦ Systems Analysis ◦ Systems Design ◦ Systems Implementation ◦ Systems Operation and Supporteach culminating in a deliverable, either a written document or a piece of software (or both)SDLC allows organizations to incorporate new requirements, technology and human resources to IT development
    • 1. Systems Planning  Project definition  Feasibility study  Project scope, deliverables  Standards, techniques and methods  Task assessment, skill assessment, preliminary time estimation2. Systems Analysis  Analysis of existing hardware/software  User requirements analysis  Logical systems design: A. Conceptual data model B. Conceptual process model C. Functional application description
    • 3. Systems Design  Relational database model and data dictionary  Detailed description of application inputs and outputs  Detailed conceptual design of forms, reports, application programs and other application components4. Systems Implementation  Application development  Testing and Evaluation  Yields Functional Information System5. Systems Operation and Support  Maintenance  Revisions  Yields Operating Information System
    •  Reasons for Systems Analysis ◦ Improved service ◦ Better performance ◦ More information ◦ Stronger controls ◦ Reduced cost
    •  Overview of feasibility ◦ Feasibility study uses three main yardsticks:  Operational feasibility  Technical feasibility  Economic feasibility
    •  Operational feasibility ◦ Is the system a practical and effective approach? Operational feasibility depends on: ◦ Management and user support ◦ User involvement in planning ◦ Impact of performance on customers and company image ◦ Reasonable schedules
    •  Technical feasibility ◦ Does the organization have resources to develop/purchase and operate the system? Technical feasibility depends on: ◦ Technical expertise within the organization ◦ Availability of necessary equipment ◦ Hardware and software reliability ◦ Adequate performance that will meet specifications ◦ Capacity for future needs/projected growth
    •  Economic feasibility ◦ Do the projected benefits outweigh the estimated costs of development, installation, and operation? Economic feasibility depends on: ◦ Costs — one time and continuing costs ◦ Benefits — tangible and intangible benefits ◦ Timing of various costs and benefits ◦ Cost of not developing the system
    •  Determining feasibility ◦ First step is a determination of feasibility ◦ Goal is to identify non-feasible projects as soon as possible ◦ Feasibility can change over time  Non-feasible projects can be resubmitted  Initially feasible projects can be rejected later
    •  Criteria used to evaluate systems requests ◦ Reduce costs ◦ Increase revenue ◦ Produce more information or better results ◦ Serve customers and the organization better ◦ Reasonable time frame and lasting results ◦ Resources available ◦ Necessary or discretionary ◦ Tangible or intangible factors
    •  Discretionary and non-discretionary projects ◦ Necessity of project ◦ Possibly no need to review non-discretionary projects in committee
    •  Purpose ◦ To decide whether to continue the project Objectives for a preliminary investigation 1. Understand the problem 2. Define the project scope and constraints 3. Identify the benefits 4. Estimate the time and costs 5. Report to management Interaction with managers and users
    •  Step 1: Understand the problem ◦ Identify the true nature of the problem and the reason for the systems request ◦ Stated problem may not be the real problem ◦ Clear statement defines the investigation scope
    •  Step 2: Define the project scope and constraints ◦ Project scope  Define the range or extent of the project  Set project boundaries ◦ Constraints  Identify conditions, restrictions, or requirements « Present vs. future « Internal vs. external « Mandatory vs. desirable
    •  Step 3: Perform fact finding ◦ Analyze organization charts ◦ Conduct interviews ◦ Observe operations ◦ Carry out a user survey
    •  Step 4: Determine feasibility ◦ Determine operational, technical, and economic feasibility
    •  Step 5: Estimate time and cost to continue development ◦ Determine what information is needed ◦ Identify the sources of information ◦ Decide whether to use interviews, if so how many, and what time needed ◦ Decide whether to use surveys, if so who to complete it, and what time needed ◦ Estimate the cost of gathering, analyzing, and reporting the information to management
    •  Step 6: Present results and recommendations to management ◦ Final task in the preliminary investigation ◦ Key elements  Evaluation of systems request  Estimate of costs and benefits  Recommendations
    •  Focuses on designing the interactions between end users and computer systems. Designers concentrate on - input/ output methods and - the conversion of data and information between human-readable and machine-readable forms. This is a proto typing process where working models or prototypes of user interface methods are designed and modified with feedback from the end users.
    •  Focuses on -the design of the structure of databases and -files to be used by a proposed information system. Data design frequently produces a data dictionary, which catalogs detailed descriptions of: • The attributes of the entities about which the proposed information system needs to maintain information. • The relationships these entities have with each other. • The specific data elements(databases, files, record, etc..) that need to be maintained for each activity. • The integrity rules that govern how each data
    •  Focuses on the development of software resources, (the programs, procedures) needed by the proposed information system. Process design produces detailed program specifications and procedures needed to meet -the user interface and data design specifications that are developed. -meet the functional control and performance requirements developed in the analysis stage.
    •  Final design must specify what types of hardware resources, network resources, and people resources will be needed. It must specify how such resources will convert data resources into information products. These specifications are the final product of the systems design stage called system specifications.
    •  User interface specifications - Content, format, sequence of user interface products and methods. Database specifications - Content, structure, distribution, maintenance, retention of databases. Software specifications - The required software package of the proposed system
    •  Hardware specifications - The physical and performance characteristics of the equipments and networks. Personnel specifications - Job descriptions of persons who will operate the system.
    • Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition