Jamestown Who: John Smith was a soldier and adventurer who saved the Jamestown colony by forcing the colonists to work. “He who shall not work, shall not eat. Pocahontas was a Native American who helped bring peace between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan tribe. Powhatan was the leader of the Powhatan tribe who formed an alliance with the colonists and Jamestown and helped them survive by trading corn with them. John Rolfe introduced the cash crop of tobacco into Jamestown and saved them economically by developing the plantation economy . The plantation economy made Jamestown economically self-sufficient, but also made the colonists land hungry and caused the rise of indentured servants and slaves. What: Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in the North America. When: 1607 Where: on the Atlantic Coast of Virginia, on the James River, in the Chesapeake Bay Why: Jamestown was financed by a joint-stock company . Tobacco plantations in Jamestown gave rise to the plantation economy where planters became a wealthy and powerful elite class whose wealth was possible because of slavery and whose power was passed down to their children.
Virginia House of Burgesses Who: The House of Burgesses was made up mostly of tobacco planters who came from the elite planter class. Nathaniel Bacon was a member of the House of Burgesses who wanted to wage war on the Native Americans for more land. His rebellion resulted in the burning of Jamestown. Several patriot leaders served in the House of Burgesses including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry . What: Created in 1619, the first representative assembly in the American colonies. When: 1619 Where: The House of Burgesses began in Jamestown, but was later moved to Williamsburg. Why: The House of Burgesses gave colonists local control and helped them develop a system of self-government . Colonists got used to making their own decisions.
Mayflower Compact Who: The Mayflower Compact was written by male pilgrims aboard the Mayflower . What: An agreement established by the men who sailed to America on the Mayflower , which called for laws for the good of the colony and set for the idea of self-government. When: 1620 Where: Written on the Mayflower off the Atlantic Coast of North America near the Plymouth Colony. Established the rule of order for Plymouth, Massachusetts. Why: The Mayflower compact established the ideas of majority rule and self-government. It did not establish equality. Women, minorities, landless poor, and non-church members had no say in how they were governed.
Triangular Trade Who: English colonists developed a system of trade that allowed them to profit personally. What: The transatlantic system of trade in which goods, including slaves, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America. When: 1600s-1800s Where: Goods were traded among the West Indies, Africa, and the New England colonies. There were other triangular trade routes, but the most important feature of the routes is that they cut Britain off from the profits. Why: Triangular trade helped the American colonies become wealthy because merchants were able to buy molasses from the West Indies, turn it into rum which was sold to Africa, and Africa was able to sell their slaves to the West Indies. Slaves from the West Indies were sold into the southern colonies and used as the labor force for the plantation economy. Because triangular trade cut Britain off from trade profits England passed the Navigation Acts to ensure England made a profit from colonial trade.
The Great Awakening Who: Jonathan Edwards was a revival preacher who terrified his listeners with “fire and brimstone” sermons. George Whitfield was a skillful preacher who used his sermons to raise money for an orphanage in Georgia. What: A revival of religious feeling in the American colonies during the 1730s and 1740s. When: 1730s-1740s Where: The Great Awakening began in New England, but spread to all the colonies and had the largest impact in the Backcountry. Why: The Great Awakening established the ideas of equality and the right to challenge authority. Many people left their “old light” churches and joined new denominations called “new light” churches. People were also inspired to make social reforms like caring for orphans and socializing outside their social and ethnic classes.
The Enlightenment Who: John Locke inspired people to believe that they have certain inalienable rights (life, liberty, and property) that government must protect. Benjamin Franklin is an example of an enlightenment figure because he used science to invent things which made life easier for others. What: an 18 th -century movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method to obtain knowledge. When: mid 1700s Where: England and North America Why: The Enlightenment established the ideas of reason and science as the paths to knowledge.
Magna Carta Who: King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta. The nobles of England benefited from Magna Carta. What: “Great Charter”; a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, approved by King John in 1215. When: 1215 Where: England Why: The Magna Carta limited the king’s power for the first time. It gave rights to the nobles of England and set a president for Parliament. Because of the Magna Carta colonists believed they had certain rights that government must protect.
Magna Carta <ul><li>English document that limited the King’s power </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by Jury </li></ul>
A – R – E E – Y – E G – E – E A – C – H T – E – E E – S - S Bill of
English Bill of Rights <ul><li>Spells out the rights of Englishmen </li></ul><ul><li>Gave Parliament (England’s Representatives) more power </li></ul>
Mercantilism <ul><li>Mother Country (England) benefits from trading with the 13 Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>England trades manufactured goods in return for raw materials ($) </li></ul>
French & Indian War <ul><li>England (British) / Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>VS. </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Indians help both sides (mostly the French) </li></ul>
<ul><li>France lost most of their land in North America to the British (England). </li></ul><ul><li>The Proclamation of 1763 forbid the colonists to go west past the Appalachian Mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>England taxed the colonies to help pay for the French & Indian War. </li></ul>