Water, Use and Management


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Water, Use and Management

  1. 1. Water, Use and Management Water, Use and Management Business, Society & Environment Professor Hector R Rodriguez School of Business Mount Ida College
  2. 2. <ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Corporation and Its Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Responsibility of Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shareholder Primacy Norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSR, Citizenship and Sustainability Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible Investing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Community and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation and Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Philanthropy Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing a Diverse Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Balanced Look at Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Information Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation, Electric Vehicles and the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geo-Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Capture and Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, Toxic and Hazardous Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Use and Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pollution </li></ul></ul>Course Map – Topics Covered in Course
  3. 3. <ul><li>Hydrologic Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Major Water Compartments </li></ul><ul><li>Water Use </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater Shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Dams and Diversions </li></ul><ul><li>Water Management </li></ul><ul><li>If All Else Fails </li></ul>Outline
  4. 4. <ul><li>Describes the circulation of water as it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporates from land, water, and organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enters the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condenses and precipitates back to the Earth’s surfaces </li></ul></ul>Part 1 - Hydrologic Cycle <ul><ul><li>Moves underground by infiltration or overland by runoff into rivers, lakes and seas </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Solar energy drives the hydrologic cycle by evaporating surface water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation - changing liquid to a vapor below its boiling point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublimation - changing water between solid and gaseous states without ever becoming liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humidity - amount of water vapor in the air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturation point - when a volume of air contains as much water vapor as it can hold at a given temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative humidity - amount of water vapor in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount that can be held at that temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dew point - temperature at which condensation occurs for a given amount of water vapor </li></ul>Hydrologic Cycle
  6. 6. <ul><li>Three principal factors control global water deficits and surpluses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity to water sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global atmospheric circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul></ul>Regions of Plenty and Regions of Deficit
  7. 7. <ul><li>Atmospheric circulation refers to the unequal heating of different zones of the Earth that sets the atmosphere in motion. </li></ul>Global Atmospheric Circulation
  8. 8. <ul><li>Mountains act as cloud formers and rain catchers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air sweeps up the windward side of a mountain, pressure decreases, and the air cools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually saturation point is reached, and moisture in the air condenses. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rain falls on the mountaintop. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cool, dry air descends and warms, absorbing moisture from other sources. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Topography
  9. 9. Part 2 - Major Water Compartments Source: Facts and Trends, WBCSD
  10. 10. <ul><li>Oceans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Together, oceans contain more than 97% of all liquid water in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain 90% of world’s living biomass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate earth’s temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Stream carries 100X more water than all rivers on earth. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Major Water Compartments <ul><ul><li>Average residence time of water in the ocean is about 3,000 years </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Glaciers, Ice, and Snow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5% of world’s water is classified as fresh. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% in glaciers, ice caps, and snowfields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As recently as 18,000 years ago, one-third of continental landmass was covered by glacial ice sheets. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Major Water Compartments <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now, Antarctic glaciers contain nearly 85% of all ice in the world. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greenland, together with ice floating around the North Pole, is another 10%. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second largest reservoir of fresh water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infiltration - process of water percolating through the soil and into fractures and permeable rocks </li></ul></ul></ul>Major Water Compartments <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of aeration - upper soil layers that hold both air and water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of saturation - lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water table - top of zone of saturation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Rivers and Streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation that does not evaporate or infiltrate into the ground runs off the surface, back toward the sea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best measure of water volume carried by a river is discharge </li></ul></ul></ul>Major Water Compartments <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of water that passes a fixed point in a given amount of time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually expressed as cubic feet per second </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Lakes and Ponds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ponds are generally considered small bodies of water shallow enough for rooted plants to grow over most of the bottom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes are inland depressions that hold standing fresh water year-round. </li></ul></ul>Major Water Compartments <ul><ul><ul><li>Both ponds and lakes will eventually fill with sediment, or be emptied by an outlet stream. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Wetlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play a vital role in hydrologic cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lush plant growth stabilizes soil and retards surface runoff, allowing more aquifer infiltration. </li></ul></ul></ul>Major Water Compartments <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbance reduces natural water-absorbing capacity, resulting in floods and erosion in wet periods, and less water flow the rest of the year. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Half of U.S. wetlands are gone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among the smallest water reservoirs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains < 0.001% of total water supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has most rapid turnover rate </li></ul></ul></ul>Major Water Compartments <ul><ul><ul><li>Provides mechanism for distributing fresh water over landmasses and replenishing terrestrial reservoirs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Withdrawal - total amount of water taken from a source </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption - fraction of withdrawn water made unavailable for other purposes (not returned to its source) </li></ul>Part 3 - Water Use <ul><ul><li>Degradation - Change in water quality due to contamination making it unsuitable for desired use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much water that is not consumed is nevertheless polluted. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Many societies have always treated water as an inexhaustible resource. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural cleansing and renewing functions of hydrologic cycle do not work properly if systems are overloaded or damaged </li></ul></ul>Water Use <ul><ul><li>Renewal of water takes time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate at which we are now using water makes conservation necessary </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Human water use has been increasing about twice as fast as population growth over the past century, but impact varies with location. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada withdraws less than 1% of its renewable supply per year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Israel, groundwater and surface water withdrawals equal more than 100% of the renewable supply. Obviously, this is not sustainable. </li></ul></ul>Quantities of Water Use <ul><ul><li>U.S. uses 20% of renewable water/yr. </li></ul></ul>How do these countries prosper?
  20. 20. <ul><li>Water use is divided into agriculture, domestic use and industrial use. </li></ul>Agricultural Water Use <ul><li>Worldwide, agriculture claims about two-thirds of total water withdrawal and 85% of consumption. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aral Sea, once the fourth largest inland body of water in world, has been drained. </li></ul></ul>Aral Sea
  21. 21. Water Use in Agriculture <ul><ul><li>Sprinklers have high evaporation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation releases water near roots, conserving water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrigation can be inefficient. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood or furrow irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Half of water can be lost through evaporation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flood irrigation used to remove salts from field, but salt contaminates streams </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Worldwide, domestic water use accounts for about one-fifth of water withdrawals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only about 10% of consumption </li></ul></ul>Domestic and Industrial Water Use Typical Household Use in the U.S.
  23. 23. Domestic and Industrial Water Use <ul><li>Industry accounts for 20% of global freshwater withdrawals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range from 5% to 70% in various locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small proportion is consumed, but degradation is a problem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>U.N. estimates a billion people lack access to safe drinking water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.6 billion lack acceptable sanitation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At least 45 countries, mostly in Africa and the Middle East, are considered to have serious water stress. </li></ul>Part 4 - Freshwater Shortages <ul><li>Water shortages could lead to wars as population grows and climate change dries up some areas. </li></ul><ul><li>An underlying cause of the Darfur genocide is water scarcity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Privatization of public water supply in Bolivia sparked a revolution that overthrew the government in 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational corporations are moving to take control of water supplies in many countries. </li></ul>Freshwater Shortages <ul><li>Global warming may make water shortages much worse in many parts of the world. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Renewable Water Supplies are made up of surface runoff plus infiltration into accessible freshwater aquifers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About two-thirds of water carried in rivers and streams annually occurs in seasonal floods too large or violent to be stored effectively for human use. </li></ul></ul></ul>Why the Shortages?
  27. 27. <ul><li>Through most of U.S. history, water policies have generally worked against conservation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In well-watered eastern states, water policy was based on riparian use rights (system of allocating water among those who possess land about its source.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In drier western regions where water is often a limiting resource, water law is based primarily on prior appropriation rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fosters “Use it or Lose it” policies, where if you conserve you lose your rights to the water </li></ul></ul></ul>Why the Shortages? – Price Mechanisms
  28. 28. <ul><li>In most federal reclamation projects, customers were only charged for immediate costs of water delivery. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dam and distribution system costs were subsidized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underpriced water in some areas amounted to a subsidy of $500,000 per farm per year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growing recognition that water is a precious and finite resource has changed policies and encouraged conservation across the U.S. </li></ul>Why the Shortages? – Price Mechanisms
  29. 29. <ul><li>Groundwater is the source of nearly 40% of fresh water in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On a local level, withdrawing water faster than it can be replenished leads to a cone of depression in the water table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy pumping can deplete an aquifer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ogallala Aquifer </li></ul></ul></ul>Why the Shortages? - Depleting Groundwater <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underlies 8 states between Texas and North Dakota </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wells have dried up and whole towns are being abandoned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will take thousands of years to refill </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Withdrawing large amounts of groundwater in a small area causes porous formations to collapse, resulting in subsidence (settling). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinkholes form when an underground channel or cavern collapses. Results in permanent loss of aquifer. </li></ul></ul>Aerial picture of Florida sinkhole lakes. Why the Shortages? - Depleting Groundwater
  31. 31. Why the Shortages? – Salt Water Intrusion
  32. 32. <ul><li>Every continent has regions of scarce rainfall due to topographic effects or wind currents. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water shortages have most severe effect in semiarid zones where moisture availability is the critical factor in plant and animal distributions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. seems to have 30 year drought cycle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dust Bowl in 1930s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Why the Shortages? – Drought Cycles
  33. 33. <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread mass losses from glaciers and reductions in snow cover over recent decades are projected to accelerate throughout the 21st century, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This will reduce water availability , hydropower potential, and change seasonality of flows in regions supplied by meltwater from major mountain ranges. </li></ul></ul>Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,” 2007 IPCC on Droughts <ul><ul><li>There is also high confidence that many semi-arid areas (e.g. the Mediterranean Basin, western United States, southern Africa and north-eastern Brazil) will suffer a decrease in water resources due to climate change. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>A hydropower reservoir along the Colorado River, Lake Mead was intended to serve as one of several &quot;water banks&quot; for 30 million people in the arid U.S. Southwest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid assets have been quickly disappearing due to drought and increased demand. </li></ul></ul>Lake Mead A man stands on the end of a dock that used to lead to the waters of Lake Mead, the largest artificial reservoir in the U.S. (2008). Picture taken near Hoover Dam shows the lake in 2006.
  35. 35. <ul><li>The water-stress index looks at how much water is available per person and counts people with less than 1,000 m 3 (seven gallons per day) as highly water stressed. </li></ul><ul><li>When looking forward to future years, it is clear that more people are going to be water stressed, as a consequence of an increasing population. </li></ul>World Water Report
  36. 36. <ul><li>Before 1900 there were 250 high dams in the world; today there are more than 45,000. </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. dams are built by Army Corps of Engineers and Bureau of Reclamation </li></ul>Part 5 - Dams and Diversions <ul><ul><li>Provide cheap hydroelectric power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow farming on lands that would otherwise be too dry </li></ul></ul>Tallest Dam in the world: Rogun in Tajikistan at over 1,000 feet
  37. 37. <ul><li>Diversion projects can dry up rivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow River in China is dry 226 days per year due to diversions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado River in the U.S. is so depleted that most of the year no water reaches the mouth of the river in the Sea of Cortez </li></ul></ul>Dams and Diversions <ul><ul><li>Mono Lake has been depleted to send water to Los Angeles. Salinity of water doubled, killing the brine shrimp that fed flocks of migratory birds </li></ul></ul>Diversion of water from the lake to Los Angeles has shrunk the lake by 1/3, exposing these towers where calcium- rich springs once entered the lake.
  38. 38. Dams and Diversions
  39. 39. <ul><li>Businesses need to act. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For some it means new economic opportunities in making water available to meet demand or in finding solutions to improve water quality and water use efficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For others, it means closer scrutiny of how they, their supply chains, and their markets access and use water, and of how new business risks emerge as they compete with other users. </li></ul></ul>Part 6 – Water Management Source: “Business in the World of Water,” World Business Council for Sustainable Development: (2006) <ul><ul><li>In any case, it is time for businesses of all sectors and sizes to add water to their strategic thinking. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Physical Risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water scarcity directly impacts business activities, raw material supply, intermediate supply chain, and product use in a variety of ways. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declines or disruptions in water supply can undermine industrial and manufacturing operations where water is needed for production, irrigation, material processing, cooling and/or washing and cleaning. </li></ul></ul>Source: “Water Scarcity and Climate Change,” Ceres: (2009) Water Related Business Risks <ul><ul><li>Water scarcity directly affects power generation, putting some businesses at risk. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Reputational and Regulatory Risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical water resource constraints make companies more susceptible to reputational risks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers near Plachimada, Kerala, SW India, site of large Coke plant, accused company of parching & polluting their villages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The court decided that control over the region's groundwater, belonged to the villagers who now have the right to deny water to Coke. </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: “Water Scarcity and Climate Change,” Ceres: (2009) Water Related Business Risks <ul><ul><li>Besides the lack of water, waste sludge from the plant, supplied to farmers as fertilizer, contained toxic metals such as cadmium and lead that the villagers say resulted in skin disorders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dispute escalated into an anti-globalization protest with villagers and allies calling on Coke to 'Quit India' similar to Mahatma Gandhi's protest against British rule in India in 1940's. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Blue is fresh water, green is rain water, gray is wastewater Impact by Industry Source: “Water Scarcity and Climate Change,” Ceres: (2009)
  43. 43. <ul><li>Companies have a clear economic incentive to closely assess their relationship to their water inputs and outputs and to proactively address and manage them. To do so, companies should take the following steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the company’s water footprint throughout its value chain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the physical, regulatory and reputational risks associated with its water footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate water issues into strategic business planning and governance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclose and communicate water performance and associated risks. </li></ul></ul>What Can Companies Do To Manage Risk? Source: “Water Scarcity and Climate Change,” Ceres: (2009)
  44. 44. Geographic Information Systems Measure Water Footprint
  45. 45. Transparency
  46. 46. Source: “Making Every Drop Count,” National Resources Defense Council: (2009) Available Technologies for Increasing Efficiency
  47. 47. Sidebar - Water Stewardship at Coca Cola
  48. 48. Sidebar - Water Stewardship at Coca Cola
  49. 49. Sidebar - Water Stewardship at Coca Cola
  50. 50. <ul><li>Seeding Clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desalination - removing salt from ocean water or brackish water to get fresh water </li></ul>Part 7 - If All Else Fails - Increasing Water Supplies <ul><ul><li>Most common methods are distillation and reverse osmosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three to four times more expensive than most other sources </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Side Bar - Hidden Water
  52. 52. <ul><li>Hydrologic Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the circulation of water in the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Water Compartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 0.5% of water is available, the majority is in rivers, lakes and groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes conservation necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freshwater Shortages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant throughout the world, critical in the U.S. Southwest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dams and Diversions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact availability of freshwater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Management – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical to ensure business sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If All Else Fails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Radical” measures are available </li></ul></ul>Summary and Conclusion