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Solid, Toxic and Hazardous Waste

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  • The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) FSC is an international certification and labeling system that guarantees that the forest products you purchase come from responsibly managed forests and verified recycled sources.
  • The FSC was founded in 1993 as a voluntary and market-based mechanism for ensuring that the world’s forests are managed in an environmentally responsible, socially acceptable and economically viable manner. Under FSC certification, forestry companies are independently audited to meet the FSC’s strict forest management standards. Beyond the forest, all producers along the supply chain must be chain of custody certified. At every stage of manufacturing or distribution, the fibre going into a product is tracked and identified. The FSC system not only makes certain that wood fibre used in a product is from a sustainable source, but it ensures that claims regarding the recycled content of products are verifiable. In an unbroken chain of commitment from forest to consumer, the FSC label carries the promise that a product comes from a forest friendly source.
  • Fibre in an FSC-certified paper is tracked through the Chain of Custody certification system. Chain of Custody certification applies to all members in the supply chain for an FSC-certified paper product. FSC-certified fibre is tracked through the entire supply chain - from forest, to pulp mill, to manufacturer, to final paper product. This guarantees that when a paper product carries the FSC label, it has come from a responsibly managed forest and can be traced back to the FSC-certified forest from which it came.
  • Fibre in an FSC-certified paper is tracked through the Chain of Custody certification system. Chain of Custody certification applies to all members in the supply chain for an FSC-certified paper product. FSC-certified fibre is tracked through the entire supply chain - from forest, to pulp mill, to manufacturer, to final paper product. This guarantees that when a paper product carries the FSC label, it has come from a responsibly managed forest and can be traced back to the FSC-certified forest from which it came.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks Business, Society & Environment Professor Hector R Rodriguez School of Business Mount Ida College Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks
    • 2.
      • Society
        • The Corporation and Its Stakeholders
        • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
        • Corporate Citizenship
        • The Social Responsibility of Business
        • The Shareholder Primacy Norm
        • CSR, Citizenship and Sustainability Reporting
        • Responsible Investing
        • The Community and the Corporation
        • Taxation and Corporate Citizenship
        • Corporate Philanthropy Programs
        • Employees and the Corporation
        • Managing a Diverse Workforce
      • Environment
        • A Balanced Look at Climate Change
        • Non-anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change
        • Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost
        • Conventional Energy
        • The Kyoto Protocol
        • Green Building
        • Green Information Technology
        • Transportation, Electric Vehicles and the Environment
        • Geo-Engineering
        • Carbon Capture and Storage
        • Renewable Energy
        • Solid, Toxic and Hazardous Waste
        • Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks
        • Life Cycle Analysis
        • Water Use and Management
        • Water Pollution
      Course Map – Topics Covered in Course
    • 3.
      • A forest is any area where trees cover more than 10% of the land.
        • Closed canopy - tree crowns cover most of ground
      World Forests
      • Old growth forests - cover a large enough area and have been undisturbed by humans long enough that trees can live out a natural life cycle
        • Home to much of world’s biodiversity, endangered species and indigenous people
      The linkages to this class? Climate Change and Stakeholder Management
    • 4. One of the Causes of Climate Change Forests act as “carbon sinks”…
    • 5.
      • Forests are a vital carbon sink
      • Whereas deforestation, degradation and poor forest management reduce carbon storage in forests, sustainable management, planting, and rehabilitation of forests could increase carbon sequestration.
      • The carbon stored in forest biomass, deadwood, litter and soil together is roughly 50 percent more than the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.
      Global Forests and Climate Change
    • 6.
      • Carbon in forest biomass decreased in Africa, Asia and South America in the period 1990–2005, but increased in all other regions.
      Global Forests
      • For the world as a whole carbon stocks in forest biomass decreased by 1.1Gt of carbon annually
      • This is due to continued deforestation and forest degradation
      What are the causes of deforestation?
    • 7.
      • Logging
      • Conversion of forest to agriculture
      • As forests are cleared, plant transpiration and rainfall decrease.
        • This leads to drought, which kills more vegetation, fires become more numerous and extensive, more of the forest is lost.
      Causes of Deforestation
    • 8. Logging is Old Industry Excelsior Redwood Company lumber train and camp operating out of Freshwater, approximately 1890. Ericson Photograph Collection, Humboldt State University Library.
    • 9.
      • Clear cutting - every tree in a given area is cut regardless of size
        • Increases erosion and eliminates habitat
      • Selective cutting - only a small percentage of the mature trees are taken in each 10 to 20 year rotation
      Sample Harvest Methods Clear Cutting Selective Harvesting Why harvest?
    • 10.
      • Wood products
        • Developed countries provide less than half of industrial wood, but 80% of consumption.
        • Paper, fuel and construction are the most significant uses
      Forests Provide Products Steps being taken…
    • 11.
      • Some places are being reforested (U.S. and China have had greatest gains.)
      Forest Protection
      • About 12% of world’s forests are protected.
        • Guanacaste National Park, Costa Rica
        • Chipko Andolan movement in India. Women hugged trees to prevent logging and preserve firewood for their families.
      • Debt for Nature Swaps - conservation organizations buy debt obligations, then offer to cancel the debt if the debtor country protects biologically important areas
    • 12.
      • In December 1996, in Humboldt County, California, Julia Hill climbed a redwood tree (which she dubbed Luna) to prevent Pacific Lumber from cutting down sequoias.
      The Case of Julia Hill
      • Julia lived in Luna on a platform 150 feet above the ground for two years until Pacific Lumber agreed to preserve the tree and surrounding forest.
      What has been the industry reaction? Improve and Defend
    • 13. The FSC is an international certification and labeling system that guarantees that paper and wood products carrying the FSC label come from an environmentally and socially responsible source. The FSC’s mission is to promote the environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world's forests through standards development and certification Improve - Forest Stewardship Council
    • 14. Voluntary, market based tool for forest conservation. Forest management certification Chain of Custody certification The FSC label Tracking of products from forest to shelf. What Does it Do?
    • 15. FSC Certified Forest Manufacturing FSC Certified Paper FSC-certified papers are tracked from forest to final product. The FSC label is your guarantee that the paper has come from a responsibly managed forest, verified recycled source, or other controlled forest friendly sources. FSC Certified Paper
    • 16.
      • The concept can be described as the attainment of balance between society's increasing demands for forest products and benefits, and the preservation of forest health and diversity.
        • This balance is critical to the survival of forests, and to the prosperity of forest-dependent communities.
      • Forest managers must assess and integrate a wide array of sometimes conflicting factors - commercial and non-commercial values, environmental considerations, community needs, even global impact - to produce sound forest plans.
      Improve – Managed Forests (Video) Side note: Managed forests… can we predict any concerns?
    • 17.
      • With its small trees and few leaves that do the photosynthesizing work turning carbon dioxide into carbon, the new trees actually absorb less carbon from the atmosphere than the older forest.
      Managed Forests – A Concern Source: http://www.greenpressinitiative.org/documents/ClimateSection.pdf
    • 18.
      • This pine plantation stores very little carbon and sequesters carbon at rates far below healthier, natural forests. This plantation strategy directly reduces the amount of carbon stored across the landscape.
      Typical Plantations
    • 19. Defend – “Down to Earth” by International Paper Source: http://www.internationalpaper.com/US/EN/Company/Sustainability/DownToEarth.html How can this position be challenged?
    • 20.
      • The advocates of the notion of carbon neutral paper essentially assert that the paper they make has no negative impact on the climate. There are two major claims made in order to make that claim:
      Source: Jim Ford, “Carbon Neutral Paper, Fact or Fiction,” Environmental Paper Network: (2009) Defend - Carbon Neutrality How can this position be challenged?
        • The burning of biomass is ‘carbon neutral’ and therefore emits no carbon to the atmosphere.
        • Any biomass used to power the paper industry itself is not only neutral, but displaces fossil fuels and thus should be counted (again) on the positive side in their carbon ledger.
    • 21.
      • In 2008, the amount of paper used per billion dollars of gross domestic product decreased by the largest amount since 2000, while the amount of total paper recovered climbed faster than it has in the last 10 years.
      Source: GreenBiz.com,“The State of Green Business,”: (2009) The Bottom Line
      • There are two reasons for this improvement:
        • Technologies that have increasingly freed the business world from the need for paper, and
        • The steady growth of recycling programs.
    • 22. A Balanced Conclusion
      • Forests are a vital carbon sink
      • Deforestation continues at a pace faster than reforestation
      • Deforestation is driven by commercial demand (construction paper and fuel)
      • Industry is reacting and driving meaningful initiatives, but defensive postures tend to spread misinformation and therefore limit the value of the meaningful initiatives.
      • Paper consumption (normalized to GDP) is decreasing