Conventional Energy


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  • This is beautiful isn’t! Anders Bedroom: I am 30 – cusp of the electronics era. Anders is 16. How many lights do you now have in your bathroom? Beautiful but disgusting!
  • Conventional Energy

    1. 1. Conventional Energy Conventional Energy Professor Hector R Rodriguez School of Business Mount Ida College Business, Society & Environment
    2. 2. <ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Corporation and Its Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Responsibility of Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shareholder Primacy Norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSR, Citizenship and Sustainability Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible Investing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Community and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation and Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Philanthropy Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing a Diverse Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Balanced Look at Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Information Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation, Electric Vehicles and the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geo-Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Capture and Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, Toxic and Hazardous Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Use and Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pollution </li></ul></ul>Course Map – Topics Covered in Course
    3. 3. <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Coal  </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas  </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul>How is most domestic U.S. energy produced? Test Your Energy I.Q. Source: Renewable Source Energy ?
    4. 4. <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Coal   </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas  </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul>How is most domestic U.S. energy produced? Test Your Energy I.Q. Source: Renewable Source Energy A
    5. 5. <ul><li>5% </li></ul><ul><li>20% </li></ul><ul><li>15%  </li></ul><ul><li>25% </li></ul>Though the US has only 4% of the world’s population, what percentage of the world’s energy does it consume?? Test Your Energy I.Q. Source: Renewable Source Energy ?
    6. 6. <ul><li>5% </li></ul><ul><li>20% </li></ul><ul><li>15%  </li></ul><ul><li>25% </li></ul>Test Your Energy I.Q. Source: Renewable Source Energy Though the US has only 4% of the world’s population, what percentage of the world’s energy does it consume?? ?
    7. 8. Introduction to Energy <ul><li>Fundamental lifeblood for industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Disproportionate amount (~70%) of energy resources come from non-renewable fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. energy consumption increasing over time. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Introduction to Energy
    9. 10. GHG Concentrations Increasing Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,” 2007 The reason why we want to reduce them? The Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Challenge? Reducing concentrations in the atmosphere </li></ul>
    10. 11. One of the Causes of Climate Change One of the Main Sources of GHG’s are Fossil Fuels
    11. 12. For many years, we have generated electricity in much the same way: Side Note: Generating Electricity Fuels are burnt to heat water and turn it to steam. The steam is forced through large fans called turbines, making them turn around. The turbines turn generators The electricity flows along cables into the National Grid. Fuel creates heat, movement, energy in form of electricity…
    12. 13. Similar process as that of creating energy Side Note: Internal Combustion Engine Fuel creates heat, movement, energy in form of torque… What else do they have in common? They both need fuel…
    13. 14. What Fuels do we Mostly Use? Fossil Fuels The main concern? CO 2 … <ul><li>Organic matter buried and preserved as fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact: Significant impact from exploration, production, processing, and final use </li></ul>
    14. 15. Fossil Fuel Emissions (Global Warming Potential) Coal, Oil and Gas Next… Over 80% of fossil fuel emissions comes from burning coal, oil and gas…
    15. 16. Fossil Fuel Emissions
    16. 17.
    17. 18. <ul><li>Coal: Transformed plant matter in ancient swamps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estuaries, lagoons, low-lying coastal plains or delta environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coal forming process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive dead plants buried in an anaerobic (O-deficient) environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged burial and transformation to increase carbon content  coal </li></ul></ul>Geology of Coal Made from the remains of plants which died millions of years ago
    18. 19. Distribution of Coal
    19. 20. Distribution of Coal
    20. 21. Environmental Impacts of Coal <ul><li>Land disturbances from open-pit and strip mining </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water and groundwater pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution from thermoelectric power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal of coal ash (5–20% of original coal) – hazardous waste </li></ul>
    21. 23. Geology of Oil and Gas <ul><li>Oil and Gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed from the remains of tiny aquatic animals and plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These organisms, once dead, would have sunk to the bottom of the body of water they were living in and then started to decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure and heat drive out other substances such as water leaving mostly the carbon chains behind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas molecules such as methane are so small that they do not stick together well enough to be a liquid, and so they are gaseous. For this reason Natural Gas is almost always found with crude oil. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 24. Distribution of Oil and Gas
    23. 25. Environmental Impacts of Oil and Gas <ul><li>Land disturbance: Access, drilling </li></ul><ul><li>By-products: Salty brine water, evaporation, and waste disposal problems </li></ul><ul><li>Oil field development in sensitive areas </li></ul><ul><li>Blow-outs or fires at oil and gas wells </li></ul><ul><li>Acid rain </li></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shale gas is natural gas produced from shale rocks which are formed by compaction and because of this they tend to have low porosity and extremely low permeability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result of their physical properties, extraction of gas from shale rocks is challenging and requires efficient and improved techniques, such as fracturing and horizontal drilling. </li></ul></ul>“ Emerging” Source - Shale Gas
    25. 27. <ul><li>Why now? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three factors have come together in recent years to make shale gas production economically viable: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>advances in horizontal drilling, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>advances in hydraulic fracturing, and, perhaps most importantly, </li></ul></ul></ul>Shale Gas <ul><ul><ul><li>rapid increases in natural gas prices in the last several years as a result of significant supply and demand pressures. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the lower 48, states thought to be in decline as a natural gas source, production surged an astonishing 15% from the beginning of 2007 to mid-2008. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 28. United States Shale Basins Source: Modern Shale Gas, US Department of Energy; 2009
    27. 29. United States Proven Reserves
    28. 30. “ Emerging” Source – Oil Sands <ul><li>Bitumen-laced sand is dug from the ground , then washed off the sand with hot water and sometimes caustic soda. </li></ul><ul><li>Wherever the bitumen layer lies too deep to be strip-mined, the industry melts it &quot;in situ&quot; with copious amounts of steam, so that it can be pumped to the surface. </li></ul>Dust hangs in the sunset sky above the Suncor Millennium mine, an open-pit north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Canada's oil sands are layers of sticky, tarlike bitumen mixed with sand, clay, and water. Around a hundred feet of soil must be stripped off to reach many deposits.
    29. 31. “ Emerging” Source – Oil Sands <ul><li>The U.S. imports more oil from Canada than from any other nation, about 19 percent of its total foreign supply, and around half of that now comes from the oil sands. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A barrel of crude from the oil sands emits as much as three times more carbon dioxide than a barrel of oil from Saudi Arabia. </li></ul></ul>A fistful of oil sand contains just 10 to 15 percent bitumen. Only in the past decade have technology and demand merged to make this complex industry profitable.
    30. 32. Oil Sands – The Challenge <ul><li>Oil sands turns gold into lead from an environmental perspective (uses natural gas to create oil) </li></ul><ul><li>Each barrel of synthetic crude contains about five times more energy than the natural gas used to make it, and in much more valuable liquid form, turning lead into gold from an economic point of view. The gold in our society is liquid transportation fuels. </li></ul>After being separated from its sandy matrix in a hot water wash, bitumen is transferred to upgrading facilities like Syncrude's in Canada, where it is heated and processed in order to break its long, heavy chain of hydrocarbon molecules. Carbon is removed, hydrogen is added, and the new, lighter product is transformed into synthetic crude oil.
    31. 33. “ Emerging” Source – Oil Sands
    32. 34. The Challenge <ul><li>We need to reduce our dependency on Fossil Fuels, yet… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human population is growing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of life for most of the world is improving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving energy demands up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some of our options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop renewable sources of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement comprehensive International Protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish emission trading markets (Cap & Trade) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency (in buildings, IT, transportation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement engineering controls (geo-engineering, CCS) </li></ul></ul>We’ll turn to those next…