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Planning management process


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Next step in Management Process is planning.

Next step in Management Process is planning.

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  • 1. MANAGEMENT PROCESS H Ramasubramanian Planning
  • 2. Planning Definition: Types of plans: 2Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 3. Planning . 3Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 4. Planning - Definition Planning (also called forethought) is the process of thinking about and organising the activities required to achieve a desired goal. Steps in planning process: Establish Goals • The first step of the management planning process is to identify specific company goals. • This portion of the planning process should include a detailed overview of each goal, including the reason for its selection and the anticipated outcomes of goal-related projects. • Where possible, objectives should be described in quantitative or qualitative terms. An example of a goal is to raise profits by 25 % over a 12-month period. Identify Resources • Each goal should have financial and human resources projections associated with its completion. • For example, a management plan may identify how many sales people it will require and how much it will cost to meet the goal of increasing sales by 25 %. 4Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 5. Planning - Definition Establish Goal-Related Tasks • Each goal should have tasks or projects associated with its achievement. • For example, if a goal is to raise profits by 25 %, a manager will need to outline the tasks required to meet that objective. • Examples of tasks might include increasing the sales staff or developing advanced sales training techniques. Prioritise Goals and Tasks • Prioritising goals and tasks is about ordering objectives in terms of their importance. • The tasks deemed most important will theoretically be approached and completed first. • The prioritising process may also reflect steps necessary in completing a task or achieving a goal. • For example, if a goal is to increase sales by 25 % and an associated task is to increase sales staff, the company will need to complete the steps toward achieving that objective in chronological order. Create Assignments and Timelines • As the company prioritises projects, it must establish timelines for completing associated tasks and assign individuals to complete them. • This portion of the management planning process should consider the abilities of staff members and the time necessary to realistically complete assignments. 5Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 6. Planning - Definition • For example, the sales manager in this scenario may be given monthly earning quotas to stay on track for the goal of increasing sales by 25 %. Establish Evaluation Methods • A management planning process should include a strategy for evaluating the progress toward goal completion throughout an established time period. • One way to do this is through requesting a monthly progress report from department heads. Identify Alternative Courses of Action • Even the best-laid plans can sometimes be thrown off track by unanticipated events. • A management plan should include a contingency plan if certain aspects of the master plan prove to be unattainable. • Alternative courses of action can be incorporated into each segment of the planning process, or for the plan in its entirety. Intellectual Process: • Planning is an intellectual process of thinking in advance. • It is a process of deciding the future on the series of events to follow. Planning is a process where a number of steps are to be taken to decide the future course of action. 6Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 7. Planning - Definition • Managers or executives have to consider various courses of action, achieve the desired or set goal. • Go in details of the pros and cons of every course of action and then finally decide what courses of action may suit them best. Primary function: • Planning precedes other function in the management process. • Certainly, setting of goals to be achieved and lines of action to be followed precedes the organisation, direction, supervision and control. • No doubt, planning precedes other functions of management. • It is primary requisite before other management functions step in. • But all functions are inter-connected. • It is mixed in all managerial functions. • But there too gets the precedence. • Planning thus gets primary everywhere. 7Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 8. Planning - Definition All pervasive: (Present throughout) • Planning pervades management activities. • From primary of planning follows pervasiveness of planning. • It is the function of every managerial personnel. • The character, nature and scope of planning may change fro personnel to personnel. • But, the planning as an action remains intact. • Plans cannot make an enterprise successful. Action is required. • Planning seeks to achieve a consistent, coordinated structure of operations focused on desired goals / trends. • Without plans, action must become merely activity producing nothing but chaos. Perpetual process: (continuous) • Planning is a continuous process and a never ending activity of a manger. • It is based upon some assumptions which may or may not come true in the future. • Managers has to go on modifying, revising and adjusting plans in the light of changing circumstances. 8Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 9. Planning - Definition Role, Significance, Importance & Advantages: • Organisation without planning – sailboat without rudder. • Subject to the winds of organisational change. • Without planning, business becomes random in nature and decisions become meaningless and adhoc choices. • Planning is the foundation of most successful actions of any enterprise. 9Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 10. Planning - Definition 10Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 11. Planning - Definition Steps involved in planning: • The planning process is valid for one organisation and for one plan. • May not be valid for other organisation or for all types of plans. • Various factors that go into planning process may differ from organisation to oeganisation or from plan to plan in the same organisation. • Major steps involved. 1. Establish objectives: – Primary step in planning process. – What is to be done – When to be done – How to do – What is priority activity – To align with policies, procedures, budget – Objective must be understandable, rational and doable to make planning effective. 11Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 12. Planning - Definition 2. Establishment of planning premises: – Assumption about the future and expected situation. – Internal premises are internal variables that affect planning. • Policies • Resources • Budget • Timing – External premises are variables outside the organisation • Political • Social • Technological • Competition • Government rules / policies • Market condition. 12Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 13. Planning - Definition 3. Determining alternative courses: – Determine and evaluate alternative actions. – No occasions without alternatives. – Worthy and meaningful – It is imperative that alternative plans must be developed before deciding upon the exact plan. 4. Evaluation of alternatives: – Study their strong and weak points – Give weightage to various factors involved. • More cash flow • Least risk • Long term business • Competition pressure – Decision to be taken on an alternate. 5. Selection of course of action: – It is the point of decision making – Deciding upon the plan to be adopted to meet objectives. 13Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 14. Planning - Definition 6. Formulating derivative plans: – Gives effect and support basic plan. – Ex: Run a flight from Chennai – Patna • Staffing • Operation • Fuel • Maintenance • Stores purchase – Each manager and department need to contribute to prepare the master plan on the basis of derived plans. 7. Establishing sequence of activities: – After basic and derivative plans are prepared for the activities, timing plan to be made. – Timing is essential. – Gives practical shape and concrete form to the project. – Starting and finishing time is fixed. – Bad timing and sequence result in project failure. – Who will do, what they will do, when they will do. 14Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 15. Planning - Definition 8. Feed-back or follow-up actions: – Planning alone is not sufficient. – To see whether actions are taken as per plan. – If not, what is the cause, how to resolve and keep going. – Whether the plan is working for that project and that situation. – If conditions have changed, plan becomes outdated and require change. – Regular follow-up / review required for effective implementation. • The plan should be communicated to all connected in the project. • Objective and course of action should be clearly defined. • No ambiguity. 15Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 16. Planning - Definition Types of planning: 16Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 17. Planning - Definition Types of planning: 17Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS
  • 18. Planning - Definition Types of planning: 18Planning - MANGEMENT PROCESS