FINDING THE RIGHT FITDesigning Collections with Shrinking Budgetsand Limited SpaceMarianne HebertSUNY PotsdamSUNYLA 2012http://www.slideshare.net/hebertm3308/sunyla-2012-finding-the-right-fit
Scope of the Weeding Project• Crumb Library shelf capacity has been at 0% growth for many years.• Since 2006, librarians committed to weeding 1-2 hours or one truck per week. Few librarians met their goal, despite repeated reminders, nagging and scolding.• 2014 Renovation Project - we need to shift the ENTIRE stacks collection in the Summer of 2012• ALL volumes on the lower level need to be moved to the 2nd floor• Need to free up ~526+ shelves or roughly 11,000 volumes in ~ 5 months (8 volumes per linear foot and 2.75 feet per shelf)
New Weeding Plan (January 2012)• Two Subcommittees (Collection Development Coordinator) • Periodicals (three CD librarians) • Monographs (three CD librarians + new hire)• Reference (Reference Coordinator)• Government Document (Gov Docs Librarian)• Education (Education Librarian Liaison)
Target Collections for Weeding Review Collection Development Committee decision:• All bound periodicals with zero circulation or low use• Books in main Stacks collection (1850-1950) with zero circs
Aleph Reports – Monographs• ALEPH p_custom_56 Items with zero circulation• SUBLIBRARY: POTMN• Collection code: FBKS• Transaction date from: 00/00/0000• Transaction date to: 12/12/2011• Publication date from: 1850• Publication date to: 1950• Include transactions: loans, renewals, in-house• Output includes all items (periodicals, media, etc. in FBKS) • Output edited in excel to delete all items statuses other than blanks (e.g. WD, LO, MS, SB, BD, etc.) • Edited to clean up ascii character errors • Edited to delete periodicals and annuals• Note that this report will include multi-volume titles that are likely to have both items with zero circs as well as items with several circs.
Aleph Reports – Periodicals• p-custom-56 Items with zero circulation• SUBLIBRARY: POTMN• Collection code: F1PER (Bound periodicals in stacks)• Transaction Date From: 20020101• Transaction Date To: 20111129• Publication Date To: 0000• Publication Date from: 2013• Include the following transactions: Loans Renewals and Inhouse• Note that this report will include multi-volume titles that are likely to have both items with zero circs as well as items with several circs
Periodicals in FBKS Collection Code• GUI search on collection code “FBKS” and document type “periodical” to get all bound volumes that had not been transferred to F1PER. Save set to server.• Services General p-manage-70 to convert records from BIB-to-ITEM• Services Items p_ret_adm_01 to print circ data for the set.• Titles with zero circ were added to weeding spreadsheet above
Sub-Committee Tasks - Gather Data1. ALEPH Circulation Histories (including in-house) prior to 20032. ALEPH Circulation data for multivolume sets3. Serials Solutions Click through statistics (2007-2011)4. Is it available full text online? • Monographs – HathiTrust, Google Books, Archives.org, esp for pre-1922 publications • Periodicals - Serials Solutions Holding data, publisher sites5. Do we have the finding tool? Is the periodical indexed anywhere? https://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/6. Who is this author, person, topic? Check reference sources (Credo, Wikipedia) for background information as necessary7. Is it currently being cited in the literature? (Google Scholar)8. Do we other editions, copies, etc. (ALEPH)9. If the circulation use was low or seldom, was it ILL? • ILLiad canned reports (most loaned journals, most loaned mono)10. Check JSTOR for “old” book reviews11. Sometimes data just isn’t enough. Look on the shelf!
Last Copy in SUNY? • Checking periodicals was complicated…some holdings were split among several SUNYs • Issue of multiple OCLC records, especially for monographs • Some serial holdings were on different records (preceding/succeeding titles=mixed up cataloging) • How many editions of a title should SUNY keep? All? Which ones? • Although we value the concept of Last Copy in SUNY… • We didn’t have resources to check the holdings and post lists, • We didn’t have the space to store volumes, or package and send • It would slow us down • Executive decision was made to NOT offer our discards• We check last copy on a case-by-case basis, e.g. cool stuff
Last Copy in SUNY TestOf 110 periodicals titles targeted for withdrawal during thefirst week, 7 titles were identified as “last copy”• Eastern economic journal. v. 62 (2002) - v. 65 (2005)• The American midland naturalist. v. 147 (2002) – v. 156 (2006)• Economic development review. v. 7 (1989) - v. 17 (2000)• Canadian seismograph operations. 1974 - 1976• The journal of behavioral health services & research. v. 25 (1998)-v. 28 (2001)• Report. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Milk Hygiene. no. 3 (1970)• Texts of communiques and declarations issued after meetings held at ministerial level during .. / North Atlantic Council. 1997-1998
Weeding Spreadsheets1. Excel files were split among librarian team members2. Each librarian reviewed ~50-100 items per week. • Add “Gather Data” information • Add their personal recommendation (Keep, Withdraw, Review Later)3. Spreadsheets are saved to a shared network folder4. CD Coordinator merges the 3 spreadsheets into one and uploads to Google Docs: • Books Example http://bit.ly/KYD8sx • Periodicals Example http://bit.ly/KaReUV5. Librarians then review other’s recommendations, and add their own recommendation and comments6. Weekly weeding meeting, titles in “dispute” are discussed and a FINAL decision is made. K+W=R
Weeding Spreadsheets Follow-up• Track titles that need meta data work (e.g. add Content notes or Subject Headings) or journal titles to be added to Serials Solutions. Future plan to catalog freebies online• Track areas or genres that need to be updated (e.g. “World Literature”) with future purchases• Update Serials Solutions for missing journal titles or found FT online• Coordinator takes FINAL spreadsheet and moves “Keep” and ”Review” to other spreadsheets• The Final Withdraw spreadsheet is “cleaned up” before presenting to faculty for their input
Communicating with Faculty• Project was announced and described at the Liaisons Luncheon held at the beginning of the Spring Semester• It was announced in the Library’s Spring Newsletter: http://www.libraries.potsdam.edu/about/newsletters/spring2012_news.pdf• At the beginning of the project, the Library Director sent an email to all faculty about the project: http://potsdam.libguides.com/content.php?pid=301733&sid=2472950• Each week, a spreadsheet is uploaded to the LibGuides Weeding Project page http://potsdam.libguides.com/weeding• Each week, a weeding list email is sent to Departmental Faculty Liaisons who forward it to departmental colleagues• Faculty Feedback form is a Google doc: • http://bit.ly/M1i5DT• Weeding spreadsheets expire in two weeks, after which they are sent to Technical Services for processing• An update for Faculty was published in the Library’s Summer newsletter:• http://www.lib.potsdam.edu/about/newsletters/summer2012_news.pdf
Communicating with FacultyAlong with the weekly “Weeding update” email to FacultyLiaisons, we include interesting facts about our collections:• 13,500 items published between 1850 and 1950 have had zero circulation since 2003• We do not have a great track record for predicting what students will need. ~40% of the monographs we purchased between 2005-2009 have not circulated• S. R. Ranganathan’s The Five laws of library science• Age of the Collection data (SBII)• Age of monographs that circulated in 2011• Donovan, C. A. (1995). On my mind: Deselection and the Classics. American Libraries, 26(11), 1110.
SUNY Business Intelligence Initiative Data• Very general overall picture of the age of the collections• Cannot limit by: • Collection Code • Sublibrary (we have 3) • Material Type• How I did it: • Uniqueness/Age Analysis tab • Parameters: Campus Name Publication Year Range Bib record count
SBII – Circulation is Declining• http://www2.potsdam.edu/hebertm/SBII%20Circulation%20-%202006-2010.html
Circulation Data for 2011ALEPH Services p-custom-51 (Circulation Stats by title)• Collection code: FBKS• Transaction Date range: Jan. 1, 2011-Dec. 31, 2011• Publication dates 1850 to 2012• Min number of transactions: 1• Include the following transactions: Loans only, no renewals, no inhouseImport into Excel. To get percentages by date and LC, sortcolumns and count rows for each decade and classmanually.
Title Year Call Number # of LOANSThe creative curriculum for preschool / Diane Trister Dodge, Laura J. Colker,Sheard NNY ECDC 2002 372.19 D62 Cate Heroman ; Toni S. 1An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of1955nations. AC1 .G72 v. Crumb Stacks 1Dialogues. / translated by Benjamin Jowett. The seventh letter /AC1 .G72 v.7 Crumb Stacks 1955 translated by J. Harward. 1Mythologies. Selected and translated from the French1972 by Annette Lavers. AC25 .B3132 Crumb Stacks 2Do museums still need objects? / Steven Conn. 2010 AM11 .C63 2010 Crumb Stacks 1Museums and galleries of New York City. 2002 AM13.N5 M87 2002 Crumb Stacks 1Museum collection storage / E. Verner Johnson and Joanne C. Horgan. .J63 Crumb Stacks 1979 AM133 1Care of collections / edited by Simon Knell. 1994 AM141 .K54 1994 Crumb Stacks 1Who owns the past? : cultural policy, cultural property, and the AM221 .W48 2005 Crumb Stacks 2005 law / Kate Fitz Gibbon, editor. 2Caring for your collections / National Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Property ; Arthur 1992 AM303 .C37 1992 Crumb Stacks 1Sigmund Freud and art : his personal collection of antiquities / introduction S54 1989Gay ; edited 1989 AM401.F74 by Peter Crumb Stacks 1Museums in motion : an introduction to the history and functions of museums / Edward P. Alexander ; 1979 AM5 .A38 Crumb Stacks 1The museum educators manual : educators share successful techniques / Anna Johnson ... [et al.]. 2009 AM7 .M866 2009 Crumb Stacks 1Museum frictions : public cultures/global transformations / edited by.M8729 2006[et. al.] ;Stacks 2006 AM7 Ivan Karp ... Crumb with 1Whose culture? : the promise of museums and the debate over AM7 .W47 2009 Crumb Stacks 2009 antiquities / edited by James Cuno. 2John Cage at seventy-five / edited by Richard Fleming 1989William Duckworth. and AP2 .B887 v. Crumb Stacks 1Phenomenology, structuralism, semiology / edited by 1976 R. Garvin. Harry AP2 .B887 v. Crumb Stacks 1New essays in ecofeminist literary criticism / edited by Glynis Carr. .B887 v.44 no.1 Crumb Stacks 2000 AP2 1A guidebook to learning : for a lifelong pursuit of wisdom / Mortimer J..A35 1986 Crumb Stacks 1986 AZ221 Adler. 2Church & learning in the Byzantine Empire, 867-1185.1963 AZ321 .H8 1963 Crumb Stacks 1The possibility of practical reason / J. David Velleman.2000 B105.A35 V435 2000 Crumb Stacks 1The intentional stance / Daniel C. Dennett. 1987 B105.I56 D46 1987 Crumb Stacks 1Practical reason and norms / Joseph Raz. 1999 B105.N65 R39 1999 Crumb Stacks 1Seeds of virtue and knowledge / Maryanne Cline Horowitz. 1998 B105.S43 H67 1998 Crumb Stacks 1Eight women philosophers : theory, politics, and feminism / Jane Duran. D87 2006 Crumb Stacks 2006 B105.W6 1Presenting women philosophers / edited by Cecile T. Tougas and Sara Ebenreck. Crumb Stacks 2000 B105.W6 P74 2000 1Francis Bacon and the modern dilemma [by] Loren Eiseley. 1962 B1198 .E4 C.3 Crumb Stacks 1Francis Bacon, philosopher of industrial science. 1949 B1198 .F3 Crumb Stacks 1
# of titles % of titles that CALL NUMBER that circulated circulatedA -- GENERAL WORKS 20 0.2%B -- PHILOSOPHY. PSYCHOLOGY. RELIGION 805 7.3%C -- AUXILIARY SCIENCES OF HISTORY 69 0.6% % of TitlesD -- WORLD HISTORY 846 7.7% thatE -- HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS 522 4.7%F -- HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS 208 1.9% circulatedG -- GEOGRAPHY. ANTHROPOLOGY. RECREATIONH -- SOCIAL SCIENCES 514 1340 4.7% 12.1% in 2011 byJ -- POLITICAL SCIENCE 169 1.5% LC ClassK -- LAW 118 1.1%L -- EDUCATION 617 5.6%N -- FINE ARTS 2099 19.0%P -- LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 2096 19.0%Q -- SCIENCE 853 7.7% C4DR -- MEDICINE 397 3.6% AspirationalS -- AGRICULTURE 49 0.4%T -- TECHNOLOGY 228 2.1% StrengthsU -- MILITARY SCIENCE 31 0.3%V -- NAVAL SCIENCE 3 0.0%Z -- BIBLIOGRAPHY. LIBRARY SCIENCE 26 0.2%
% of Titles that circulated in 2011 by LC CLASSIFICATION Z -- BIBLIOGRAPHY. LIBRARY SCIENCE V -- NAVAL SCIENCE A -- GENERAL WORKS U -- MILITARY SCIENCE B -- PHILOSOPHY. T -- TECHNOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY. RELIGIONS -- AGRICULTURE C -- AUXILIARYR -- MEDICINE SCIENCES OF HISTORY D -- WORLD HISTORY Q -- SCIENCE E -- HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS F -- HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS P -- LANGUAGE AND G -- GEOGRAPHY. LITERATURE ANTHROPOLOGY. RECREATION H -- SOCIAL SCIENCES N -- FINE ARTS J -- POLITICAL SCIENCE K -- LAW L -- EDUCATION
PUBLICATION # of titles that % of titles that DATE Circulated 2011 Circulated 2000-2012 4037 36.6% 1990-1999 2256 20.4% 1980-1989 1269 11.5% 1970-1979 1006 9.1% 1960-1969 1312 11.9% 1950-1959 507 4.6% 1940-1949 180 1.6% 1930-1939 102 0.9% 1920-1929 47 0.4% 1910-1919 31 0.3% 1900-1909 35 0.3% 1850-1899 40 0.4% TOTAL 10822 100% 1850-1949 435 3.9%
% of titles that Circulated in 2011 by Publication Date Decade 1920-1929 1910-1919 1930-1939 1900-1909 1850-1899 1940-1949 1950-1959 1960-1969 2000-20121970-1979 1980-1989 1990-1999
2011 Circulation Data by Publication Date• Total titles that circulated: 11,034• 2018 titles circulated more than once: 18%• 36% of the titles that circulated were published since 2000.• 3.9% of the books that circulated were published prior to 1950.• 25 titles circulated more than 10 times• The title with highest circs: 38
Faculty Feedback so far…• Mostly, faculty wanted the discarded books for their offices / departments (the answer was NO)• 11 faculty submitted requests to “Keep” (26 titles) via the Feedback form (we kept all)• 3 faculty contacted me directly via email• A few didn’t make their deadline (expiration date) and the books were gone• When faculty make it clear what their assignments are (e.g. history of psychology, Victorian novels, history of technology), we simply either keep titles that would be good (despite zero use), or I contact them directly for feedback
Disposition of Materials1. Local Used Book Dealer (already on contract)2. Better World Books (already a partner) • BWB Sidewalk sale: http://www.betterworldbooks.com/category- H0.aspx?SuffixId=314993. Dumpster
Dealing with Weeding AngstSomeone might need this/want this/use this someday!• Students are not finding these books, or they are not finding them useful• We are weeding part of the collection that has lowest use• We admit upfront that we will probably make weeding mistakes• We’ve made lots of mistakes in the past by buying books that never circulated• We don’t fret about all the books we should have purchased, but didn’t• Many of these books served their purpose back in their day but are no longer useful today
Weeding Angst• We continue to make not-so-good purchase decisions today: we continue to purchase materials that don’t get used• Curriculum has changed. Course assignments have changed, and materials are no longer relevant• We have newer or better materials on the same subject• We are expending a great deal of time, money and professional expertise managing collections that are only partially useful to our users• Weeded shelves make browsing easier.• We are not a research institution. Our collection development policy provides the framework for building the collections.
Weeding Angst• Even if we retain books that aren’t used, if we don’t change something (discovery, metadata, faculty assignments) the likelihood they will ever be used is slim• Materials with old publication dates don’t rise to the top of results screens• Read Jenica Roger’s Attempting Elegance Blog Posts about the weeding project: http://www.attemptingelegance.com/?cat=38
Weeding Angst Unanswered Questions• If ILL is the only user of an item, should we keep it anyway?• Most of our older materials are “primary sources,” but our current discovery tools make them difficult to discover• Better metadata might help students find the cool books that don’t circulate, but recataloging these books is not practical
Collections as a Service• Traditionally we have built the collections with the mindset that "good" books should be on the shelves. While this is still true, now when we purchase books, it is more important to think about "what research projects are being assigned NOW, and which books will be needed to fulfill student research needs NOW?" We are shifting away from a just-in-case mindset to just-in-time.
Keeping books on the shelf is not free• Shifting collections as LC areas shrink and grow• Shelf reading• Relabeling faded spine labels• Database maintenance, authority work• Lost / Search processes• We lend them on ILL• Books that are not used take up a lot of real estate that could be put to better use• "It costs $4.26 to keep a book on the shelf per year" - The Status Quo Has Got To Go: http://www.theconferencecircuit.com/2011/11/06/the- status-quo-has-got-to-go/
Student research behavior has changeStudents do not use traditional research strategies• They don’t intuitively come to the library to do research• They start their research in Wikipedia and Google Scholar• They find library catalogs and databases difficult to use• They don’t use print indexes or print journals• They don’t browse the stacks• They expect easy and instant access to information• Students dont always need a specific book or article, they just need "something" on their topic• Students aren’t likely to use library resources unless their faculty require it a part of their assignment.• Most students don’t read Kierkegaard or other classic authors unless it is assigned.
Positive Outcomes• We are MUCH more familiar with the collections• We are identifying areas of the collection that need to be updated• We are making connections with faculty who use the collections• We are having better conversations with some faculty about building and using the collections• SUNY Potsdam Weeding Teams are AWESOME and doing good work.
Maintain a Sense of HumorWhat if we have a societal meltdown and the governmentshuts down the internet? (Egypt 2012).• We wouldn’t be able to access HathiTrust or our electronic resources• We would need print books on how to live off the land: “Foods America gave the world; the strange, fascinating and often romantic histories of many native American food plants, their origin and other interesting and curious facts concerning them. 1937” • That one was a KEEPER!