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• 1. Unit 5. Energy Unit 5. Energy 5.1 Energy 1.1Units 1.2 Forms and Sources 5.2 Electric energy 2.1 Generation 2.2 Main Power Stations 2.3 Distribution 5.3 Consume 5.1.1 Energy. Units5.1.1 Energy. Units In physics we define mechanical work asEnergy is the capacity of an the amount of energy transferred by a force acting through a distance object to do a work. d= distance between A and B W= F•d F= Force applied to move the object F dAnd work is the force applied along a distance 5.1.1 Energy. Units5.1.1 Energy. Units Therefore, in this example, the energy Units that black cartoon has, the express the There are several units of energy that are work that can apply to this box, used in special areas, the most popular are the j, cal and kwh. Joule calorie kwh 1
• 2. 5.1.1 Energy. Units 5.1.1 Energy. UnitsJoule (J) is the International Calorie (cal) This unit is usually used toSystem’s unit for work, and is usually express energy that involves calorificexpressed in Kj. transference. When energy is used in the alimentary industry, it’s usually express in Kcal. In the USA, they write Cal instead of 1 meter Kcal… 1kj is the energy need In order to heat 1 L of to raise 100kg 1 meter water from 20 to 21 ºC high we need 1kcal5.1.1 Energy. Units 5.1.1 Energy. UnitsA human being needs around 2000 kcal When you drink a Coke you are absorbingper day of energy to do all the work that 139 Kcal of energy that is stored in theit needs. 39gr of sugar dissolved in the liquid. 139 Kcal 420Kcal 840Kcal 5.1.1 Energy. Units5.1.1 1º Exercise KiloWatt/hour(kwh) It’s the unit used toInvestigate the energy that these foods measure the electric consumption of anhave per 100 gr: electric installation. Yogurt Big Mac Bread Apple Biscuits Orange Fanta Cereals Oil When we use a hairdrier Chips Butter of 1000 W for 1h, we have consumed 1 kwh Solution 2
• 3. 5.1.1 2º Exercise Conversion units 5.1.2 Forms and Sources Solution 1Kwh= 1000Wh So Energy is the capacity of an object to 1 W= 1 j/s do a work, and it can be stored in 1calorie= 4,18 joules different forms of enery: Electric energy Mechanical 2º Exercise: Nuclear energy •  alculate the energy of a Coke in joules. C Light energy energy Electrical •  alculate the energy measured in kwh that C energy we absorb in 2h when we drink 2 Cokes? Calorific •  f we use a 100W lamp, and we use Cokes to I energy Chemical provide energy, how many Cokes do we need energy per second? 5.1.2 Forms and Sources 5.1.2 Forms and Sources The law of conservation of energy In order to obtain expresses that can neither be created energy we have to nor destroyed, it can only be transformed from one state to another use the different Nuclear energy energy sources Electric energy Mechanical present in Earth: energy oil, coal, wind,Light energy Electrical uranium, etc. Calorific energy energy Chemical energy 5.1.2 Forms and Sources 5.1.2 Forms and Sources We can classify the energy sources 3º Exercise: according to its: a)  xplain the difference between E Origin: Renewable or Non Renewable the concepts of source and form Historical use: traditional or alternative of energy. Transformation: Primary or secondary b)  efine the six groups of energy D sources, and give four examples of each. solution 3
• 4. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources 5.1.2 Forms and SourcesOrigin: Origin: .a)  enewable : These sources are R a)  Inexhaustible, therefore we can use them continuously. For example: Wind, Waves, etc… b)  on Renewable : These sources are N exhaustible, therefore we consume the source when we use it. For example: oil, Uranium 5.1.2 Forms and Sources 5.1.2 Forms and SourcesHistorical use: Historical use: a) Traditionala)  raditional: these sources have been T used for at least 30 years, and they b)  lternative: these sources can provide A energy but they can’t displace the provide more than the 90% global alternative energy because they are energy. They are: cheaper or easier to obtain. For exampleHydraulic, Coal, Oil, Gas, Uranium Solar Wind bio-mass Wave Geothermal 5.1.2 Forms and Sources 5.1.2 Forms and Sources Transformation: Transformation:a)  rimary: These sources are obtained P a) Primary: directly from the environment and b)  econdary: These sources are obtained S they can be used directly without any after the transformation of a primary transformation. source. We use them because they are cleaner or easier to useFor example:Hydraulic, Coal, Oil, Gas, Solar Wind bio-mass Wave Geothermal For example: Electricity, Oil derivatives (Gasoline, Diesel, etc), Town Gas 4
• 5. 5.1.2 exercise 5Forms and Sources5º Exercise: Make a list of 20 objects indicating the source of energy used and the energy obtained .For example: TV-Electricity Sol Electricity Object Energy Source Energy obtained production. TV Electricity Light . . . Why do we like . . . Electricity so . . . much? 5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation 5.2.1 Exercise. Electric energy. ProductionElectricity is the 1º Exercise: principal source Compare the use of electricity at of energy in the home with the use of coal, oil, gas, developed homes solar, wind, geothermal, uranium. and in industries 2º Exercise: because it’s the What do we mean when we say that cleanest and the electricity is clean? most versatile Solution energy. 5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation 5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation When we have all elements together, we As we know, if we want to create an find that we create an alternate electric artificial electric current, we only need: current due to the movement of the spiral.  A closed circuit  An artificial magnetic field  A mechanical energy to move the circuit inside the field. 5
• 6. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations The only difference between power One big group of use different stations is how they get the sources to HEAT water and create energy to move the turbine that steam to move the turbine moves the circuit inside the steam generator turbine Generator turbine 5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation 5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation Other small group use the primary In conclusion we will always find these source to move the turbine, using elements in a Power Station: water or wind Electric Transport Primary Mechanical Electric Energy Energy generation Electric Transformation Transformer Turbine Generator 5.2.1 Electric energy. GenerationAnd this is the summary of the production in a block diagram POWER STATIONS Primary Mechanical Electric Electric Energy Energy generation Transformation Water or Air Turbine Generator Transformer Steam from a combustion, nuclear Electricreaction, solar Transportor geothermal 6
• 7. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Steam Power Station Diagram Turbine Mechanical Turbine Mechanical Water, Energy Steam Energy Steam Wind Boiler Cold Generator Generator Water Steam Electricity Electricity All Power stations will have Heat Cooling this elements, now we will Transformer Transformer see how they move the We use the energy source to High Volt High Volt turbines create steam pressure to Pylon move the turbine Pylon 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Coal power Station Steam pressureWater Turbine Mechanical EnergyWind Generator ElectricityWe use the primary Transformer Energy like wind or water High Volt pressure to move the turbine Pylon 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Coal power Station Diagram Turbine Mechanical Steam Energy 9º Exercise. Steam Boiler Cold Draw the diagram of all Power Stations Water Generator as we have seen in the Coal Station Electricity Heat Cooling Diagram Coal Transformer Mine Furnace High Volt Pylons 7
• 8. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power StationsCoal power Station Nuclear power stationAdvantages DiagramInexpensive compared to other energy sourcesCoal is present in most of the countries, so they don’t have to buy it abroad InfografíaBy-product of burning, ash, can be used for concrete and roadwaysDisadvantagesLimited supply, non-renewable resource. 100 yearsThe Carbon dioxide generated increase the effect of the global warming.Generated smoke can cause health conditions such as emphysemaSulphur dioxide and nitrogen emissions can bind to water creating acid rainCoal mining mars the landscape 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations DiagramNuclear power station Hydro Power StationAdvantagesWorldwide nuclear energy avoids on average the emission of more than two billion metric tones of carbon dioxide per year, decreasing the effect of the global warming.Although nuclear power reactors are expensive to build, they are relatively cheap to operate.It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant.DisadvantagesThe waste from nuclear energy is extremely dangerous and it has to be carefully looked after for several thousand years .Despite a generally high security standard, accidents can still happen.Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks.Is a non renewable source. 50 years Primary Energy 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Hydro Power Station Solar Power Tower Plant Diagram Advantages When the electricity is generated, no greenhouse gases are made. Water is a renewable energy source and free. We create huge potable water deposits. Disadvantages The dam is expensive to build and the nearby area has to be flooded In drought season we may not have enough water to turn the turbines. Steam pressure 8
• 9. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Diagram Solar photovoltaic Plant Solar Energy Advantages Inexhaustible fuel source No greenhouse gasses emited Versatile since it is used for powering items as diverse as solar cars and satellites Disadvantages It does not work at night. Very diffuse source means low energy production. Only areas of the world with lots of sunlight are suitable for solar power generation They need great lands creating high temperatures below the panels5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Diagram 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Wind Plant Wind Plant Advantages It is available over a greater area than occurs with fossil fuels. There is no air pollution after manufacture. Modern wind energy converter systems can be set up for individual houses. Wind energy produces more energy per area of land than other energy sources. Disadvantages Modern wind energy systems are expensive, although the source is free. They can be rather ugly or the noise of the rotor could be annoying if the installation is located close to homes or workplaces. The wind does not blow all the time. Potential TV interference caused by rotor.Primary Energy 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Stations Diagram Tide Energy Tide Energy Advantages Tides are free once the power station has been built and will not run out. No greenhouse gases are produce. We know exactly when the tides happen so we know when electricity will be made. Disdvantages Dams may not be good for plants and animals that live nearby. The tides only happen twice a day, so can only produce electricity for that time. Primary Energy 9
• 10. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Stations Wave Energy Wave Energy Advantages Waves are free and will not run out so the cost is in building the power station. Wave power does not produce greenhouse gases. There are very few safety risks with wave power generation. Disdvantages Waves can be big or small so you may not always be able to generate electricity. You need to find a way of transporting the electricity from the sea onto the land. Not many people have tried to generate electricity this way yet so the equipment is expen- sive. Primary Energy 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power StationsBiomass Diagram Biomass. Advantages The fuel is cheap and can use things that we might otherwise throw away. We can find waste everywhere and should not run out. Disadvantages Natural Dry Wet Energetic Crops When the fuel is burned greenhouse gases are made which biomass Biomass Biomass pollute the environment. Waste Human or High Sometimes people grow biomass crops where we could from animal Energy grow food. industrial disposal Plants We may not have enough space to grow enough biomass process Are fuel.Steam pressure cultivated 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Diagram Geothermal Energy Geothermal Energy Advantages Geothermal energy does not produce greenhouse gases The energy source is free and will not run out Disadvantages There are not many places where we can build geothermal power stations Harmful gases and minerals may occasionally come up from the ground below. These can be difficult to control.Steam pressure 10
• 11. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Stations Fusion Energy the Future Energy Source Renowable/ Non reno. Type of central Advantages Disavantag es DC/CC Wind CC Thermical Water Radioactive waste Tide Steam pressure 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution 5.2.3 Electric energy. DistributionOnce we create electricity we have to transport it to the final users. Nowadays we use these Why do we need a elements: transformer??? Final User Transformer Transformer Pylons 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution 5.2.3 Electric energy. DistributionAll conductors have resistance, and Therefore, in order to transmit high electric power, we have to decrease the intensity its opposition to the intensity by increasing the voltage creates HEAT !!! so our electric P=I2R distribution could be a huge heater!!!! So, with high voltage distribution, we lose less calorific energy and thanks to that we can use thinner cables 11
• 12. 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution 5.2.3 Electric energy. DistributionExercise 8 Exercise 8 Calculate the % of energy wasted in calorific energy when we transportCalculate the % of energy wasted in 1250 MW with a cable that has 10 Ohm if:   Voltage is 250kW calorific energy when we transport 1250 kw with a cable that has 10 Ohm if: Voltage is 250kV Voltage is 25 KV 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution 5.2.3 Electric energy. DistributionExercise 8Calculate the % of energy wasted in calorific energy when we transport But, how does it work? 1250 MW with a cable that has 10 Ohm if:  Voltage is 25 KV 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution 5.2.3 Electric energy. DistributionAny transformer is based in the This is the relation between the I and relation between the magnetic field V in each Reel: created by two reels that have the same nucleus Nucleus Nucleus Reel Exit Reel Entrance 12
• 13. 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution Therefore, if we want to have a high Electricity arrives at home trough the volt current, we have to increase the electric panel that we find close to number of spirals of the 2º reel (N2) the entrance door Electric meter HOMEBasic electric panel High electric panel 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution In the control panel we find: In the control panel we find: 1º The ICP: This circuit 1º The IGA: This circuit break is placed by your break allows us to break electric company to control the hole circuit with one that you don’t pass the top switch consume that you have contracted 13
• 14. 5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution 5.2.3 Electric energy. DistributionIn the control panel we find: In the control panel we find:1º The Differential switch : 1º PIA: These circuit This circuit break protects breakers control the us against a electric different circuits that we discharge have at home These are the main centrals in Spain 5.3 Consume 5.1.3 ConsumeIn Spain, we use too much fossil energy to produce electricity 5.3 Consume 5.3 ConsumeThis is the evolution of the self energy This is the use of the different forms supply for the last 35 years of energy. 2008 consume Coal ; 14,2 Renowable; Oil; 0,4 Gas; 0 Self energy 28,8 Year Self Energy Supply Supply Nuclear; 1975 22,6 50 40 Hydro; 6,5 1985 38,9 30 20 1995 28,0 10 1998 25,6 0 Fuente de energía Producción 2007 (ktep) 2007 % Producción 2008 (ktep) 2008 % 2008/2007 1975 1985 1995 1998 2003 2008 2003 22,1 1975-1998:, Carbón 5.865 19,3 4.374 14,2 -25,4 Fuentes: Petróleo 143 0,5 127 0,4 -11,2 2008 21,6 Gas natural 16 0,1 14 0,0 -10,9 Nuclear 14.360 47,3 15.368 50,0 7,0 Fuentes: 1975-1998:,[6] 2003:[7] Hidráulica 2.342 7,7 2.001 6,5 -14,5 2008: Ministerio de Industria, Otras energías renovables 7.624 25,1 8.841 28,8 16,0 Turismo y Comercio[1 Total 30.348 100,0 30.725 100,0 1,2 14
• 15. 5.1.1 Energy. Units 5.1.1 1º Exercise Solution 2º Exercise Solution: Investigate the energy that these foods have per •  alculate the energy of a Coke in joules. C 100 gr: Yogurt 85 kcal Big Mac 498 kcal Bread 250kcal Apple 59 kcal Biscuits 450 kcal Orange 58 kcal •  alculate the energy measured in kwh that C Fanta we absorb in 2h when we drink 2 Cokes? Cereals 400kcal Oil 900kcal Chips 234kcal Butter 760 kcal Solution 5.1.1 Energy. Units Exercise 5.1.2 3 Exercise Forms and Sources2º Exercise Solution: 3º Exercise:•  f we use a 100W lamp, and we use Cokes to I a) Explain the difference between the concepts of sourceprovide energy, how many Cokes do we need and form of energy.per second? Both terms are related to energy. Energy is the capacity of an object to do a work, and it can be stored in different forms of energy, like electric, chemical, mechanical, etc. A source of energy is how this form of energy is stored for its use around us. A form of energy is a energy resource, i.e. wind, sun light, etc. So, coal is a source of energy because it store a lot of useful chemical energy liberated when we burn it 5.1.2 3 Exercise Forms and Sources 5.1.2 Exercise 5 sol Forms and Sources 3º Exercise: 5º Exercise: Make a list of 20 objects indicating the source of energy a)  Define the six groups of energy sources, and give four examples of each. used and the energy obtained .   Define the six groups of energy sources, and give four examples of For example: TV-Electricity each.  Renewable (Origin): Inexhaustible sources which can be used Object Energy Source Energy obtained continuously. Ex: Wind, waves, sun and firewood. TV Electricity Light  Non renewable (Origin): Exhaustible sources which can be exhausted as Washing machine Electric energy Mechanical years go. Ex: Oil, uranium, natural gas and coal. Radiator Electric energy Calorific  Traditional (Historical use): This type provides a big amount of global Computer electric light energy. Ex: Hydraulic, coal, uranium and oil. Fridge Electric energy Mechanical-Calorific  Alternative (Historical use): This type provides energy and it´s easier to obtain than traditional energy. Ex: Wind, solar, biomass and geothermal. Toaster Electric energy Calorific  Primary (Transformation): This type is obtained from the environment Bulb Electric energy light whitout any kind of transformation. Ex: Gas, solar, coal and wind. Dishwasher Electric energy Mechanical  Secondary (Transformation): This source is obtained after the Transformer Electric energy Electrical transformation of a primary source. Ex: Electricity, gas, petrol and oil. Furnace Electrical energy Calorific Back 15
• 16. Object Energy source Energy obtainedFridge Electricity CalorificComputer Electricity LightLamp Electricity LightMicrowave Electricity Light- CalorificToaster Electricity CalorificVitro Electricity CalorificDeep fryer Electricity CalorificLoudspeaker Electricity SoundFreezer compartment Electricity CalorficThermal printer Electricity CalorificGames console Electricity LightCoffee maker Water and Electricity CalorificCalculator Electricity LightMobile phone Electricity LightTelephone Electricity SoundCar Electricity MechanicalAlarm clock Electricity SoundDishwasher Electricity Calorific and MechanicalWashing machine Electricity Calorific and MechanicalAlarm Electricity Sound 5.2.1 Exercise Sol. Electric energy. Production 1º Exercise: Compare the use of electricity at home with the use of coal, oil, gas, solar, wind, geothermal, uranium. Coal produces a lot of smoke and dust if we use it to heat or cook. Also requires a lot of space to store it. Oil is used to heat houses but is really dangerous if we use it to cook or to create light. Solar energy can be used to heat water, but it doesn’t get really hot. We can use it to cook but it is too slow. Gas is used to cook but it’s quite dangerous and is more difficult to clean. We use it to heat water and houses. Wind, geothermal and uranium can’t be used directly at home, so we need to get electricity from them. 5.2.1 Exercise Sol. Electric energy. Production 5.2.2 Nuclear Power Stations 2º Exercise: Nuclear power station Nuclear What do we mean when we say that the electricity is clean? Electricity is usually defined as clean energy because we can use it at home anytime anyplace. It doesn’t create Turbine Mechanical Steam Energy any dust, gas or smell as does coal, gas or oil. Steam But we have to remember that to create electricity we are Boiler Cold Generator different energy sources like coal, oil, nuclear, etc that Water Electricity have several disadvantages like pollution, nuclear waste, Heat Cooling environment destruction, etc. Uranium Transformer Back Mine Reactor High Volt Pylons 16
• 17. 5.2.2 Hydro Power StationsThe water from the river is stored in a dam. The water is released has high 5.2.2 Solar Tower Power Stations energy thanks to the height, so it moves the turbine. The mechanical energy obtained is transformed into electricity inside the generator. Solar Tower power station Back This electricity is transformed into high voltage electricity in a transformer. This electricity is connected to the pylons and transmitted to the electric grid Mechanical Steam Turbine Mechanical Energy El Energy Steam ec Turbine tr ici Boiler Generator Generator ty Cold Water Electricity Water Transformer high Light High Volt Cooling pressure Light Transformer River Dam Water Sun Heliostats Water High Volt Pylons River Back Pylons 5.2.2 Photovoltaic Power Stations 5.2.2 Wind Power Stations Photovoltaic power station Back Wind power station Back Multiplied Mechanical Alternate Energy Current Gear Box Generator Electricity Mechanical energy Light Electric Sun Solar panel current Wind Rotor Transformer Inverter High Volt Mechanical photovoltaic energy Pylons 5.2.2 Tide Power Stations 5.2.2 Biomass Power StationsTide Power Station Biomass power station Back Back Mechanical Generator Energy El Turbine Mechanical ec Steam tr Energy ici Steam ty Turbine Boiler Generator Cold Water Electricity Water Transformer high Heat High Volt Cooling pressure Transformer Sea Dam Water Biomass Furnace Tide High Volt Pylons Bio fuel Water raise Pylons 17
• 18. 5.2.2 Geothermal Power StationsGeothermal power station Back Steam Turbine Mechanical Energy Lava Steam Generator ElectricityWater Cold Cooling Water TransformerWater High Voltpump Pylons 18