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# The computer

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### The computer

1. 1. The computer 6.1. Computer coding 6.2.Computer structure 6.3 Hardware 6.3.1 The tower 6.3.2 The circuit board 6.3.3 The power supply 6.3.4 Microprocessor 6.3.5 Memories RAM /ROM and RAM memory Mass storage 6.3.6 Peripherals •Input: mouse keyboard •Output screen printer •In-Output : router 6.3.7 Peripherals connections
2. 2. The computer Which elements do you associate to IT?
3. 3. 6.1 Encoding information Information technology is made of this set of elements We can define IT as a group of technology and knowledge needed to collect, process and send out information.
4. 4. 6.1 Encoding information Have you ever asked yourself how it is possible for a computer to be able to understand so many different things? To achieve this, computers encode information in a new language made up of only the digits 0 and 1. So, the same way we communicate with each other with 24 digits or letters, the computer does it with only 2.
5. 5. 6.1 Encoding information One example of a codification system is the Morse code. Each letter corresponds to a combination of short and long pulses For example SOS will be: SOS= . . . _ _ _ … Morse Code s o s Save Our Souls
6. 6. Exercise: Write three 6.1 Encoding information words using the Morse code What does this sentence mean? _ _ /.._/ _._ _ _.../.././_.
7. 7. 6.1 Encoding information And why are they so fast? Computers are capable of carrying out very simple operations at a high speed. Because of this, they convert any operation into simple ones that they do at a high speed. For example, when you add 6+7 you do it directly 6+7= 13 but the computer prefers to do…(1+1+1+1+1+1)+(1+1+1+1+1+1+1)= 13
8. 8. 6.2.The structure of a computer But what is a computer??? What we understand by computer encompasses a series of elements which are classified by: Hardware:is the physical, tangible part of the computer, for example the screen, the keyboard. Software: this is the programmes whose job it is to make the hardware carry out useful operations like windows, microsoft office, linux
9. 9. 6.2.The structure of a computer The structure of a computer in based on the relation of various elements which interact to carry out different operations together CPU: the brain of the computer Memories: save information Peripherals: interact with us So the CPU of the computer making use of the memory, thus governs the input and output peripherals.
10. 10. 6.2.The structure of a computer Memory Output peripheral Input peripheral CPU Control unit Arithmetic and logic unit
11. 11. 6.2.The structure of a computer Memory Input CPU Arithmetic Control and unit logic unit Output
12. 12. 6.2.The structure of a computer The CPU: Central Processing Unit, is the brain of the computer The control unit: controls and decides what to do and when it is done. It is the boss Arithmetic and logic unit: is the working part of the brain, doing all the maths operations, so it is the worker CPU Control unit Arithmetic and logic unit
13. 13. 6.2.The structure of a computer Memory: it stores information Peripherals: they connect the computer with humans, receiving and transmitting information Memory Peripherals
14. 14. Exercises 1.-Exercise. Answer these questions: a) Which letters or symbols do the computer use to codify the information? b) Do you know another example of codification? c) Draw a sketch of the main elements of a computer showing their relations d) Define what the CPU, Memory and the peripherals do in a computer.
15. 15. 2.- Exercise. Match these elements using arrows controls and decides what It is the to do and when CPU worker it is done is the working part of the brain, doing all The control It is the brain the maths unit of the computer operations, so it is the worker Central Arithmetic and It is the boss Processing Unit logic unit
16. 16. 6.3 Hardware Now we are going to see all the elements that together make a computer a working unit
17. 17. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.1 The Tower The tower is an empty metallic structure where all the computer’s internal devices are placed Inside a tower we can find these elements: Circuit board Microprocessor Memories Power supply
18. 18. Remember¡¡¡ the CPU, the brain of the computer, is in the microprocessor. The tower contains the microprocessor Circuit board CPU Microprocessor
19. 19. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.1 The Tower This box has external connectors or plugs situated on the front and on the back. They are used to connect peripheral devices
20. 20. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.2 The circuit board It is like an electronic highway where all the devices transmit and receive information Some elements are connected directly through Slots, IDE and others through external connectors
21. 21. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.3 Power supply It transforms the electric current from 230 to 4-12 volts in order to supply electricity individually to all devices
22. 22. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.4 Microprocessor The micro is the brain of the computer and thanks to new materials, we can make them more powerful and smaller. The main problem is that the micro generates high temperatures so we need to place a fan over it to avoid its destruction Fan
23. 23. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.5 Memories They save our data, and they are classified according to how they save the information ROM Memory : Read Only Memory, RAM memory : Random Access Memory. Mass storage: where we save our data
24. 24. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.5 Memories The smallest amount of memory is one byte, and then there is kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte, petabyte… Name Abrev. Size Example Word file Byte B 1 Picture KiloByte Kb 1000B Text doc MegaByte Mb 1000kb Photos Film GigaByte Gb 1000Mb Film TeraByte Tb 1000Gb Library Library PetaByte Pb 1000Tb CIA CIA
25. 25. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.5 Memories ROM Memory : Read Only Memory, so we can save data once and read it, we cannot modify it. For example we have CDROM, DVDROM (except if it is CDRW that is rewritable )
26. 26. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.5 Memories RAM Memory. Random Access Memory. The computer uses this memory to save data that it is going to use soon, therefore it doesn’t have to lose time searching. When we switch off the computer all this data is erased RAM Memory
27. 27. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.5 Memories Mass storage: this memory can save data but you can read, modify or erase it as many times as you need. There are several types of mass storage devices Hard disk External hard disck Memory stick, or pen drive
28. 28. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.5 Memories Hard Disk: it is a tower of disks with several magnetic needles that goes around reading the information. Nowdays you can find hard disks with 600GB of memory or more tower of disks magnetic needles
29. 29. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.5 Memories CD/DVD: it is a disk covered with an opaque layer. In order to read it, a laser goes around making circles detecting whether there is a gap or not CD= 700Mb DVD=4.7Gb Dual layer DVD= 9.4Gb 1 1 0 0 1
30. 30. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.5 Memories Pen drive: it is a rewritable memory easy to carry and resistant. The lastest ones have 64GB of memory. Some of them can reproduce mp3 and videos.
31. 31. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals The computer has to be able to communicate with humans, and that is the reason why we need peripherals: Input Output Input and output Input Input & Out put output
32. 32. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals Input: we use them to send orders to the CPU, as we do with the mouse and the keyboard ORDERS computer
33. 33. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals OUTPUT: The CPU give us the results using devices such as screens, printers, etc… RESULTS
34. 34. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals Input and output: the same device can send orders to the CPU and give us the results. At home you have a modem, that is what you use to connect the computer to the Internet. Touch screen RESULTS ORDERS Router/ Modem
35. 35. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals Exercise: indicate the name of these peripherals and classify them into output, input and in-output
36. 36. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals. Input The Keyboard: We can introduce letters and numbers. The origin of the keyboard is the typewriter, but now we have functional buttons according to the functions of the computer. Typewriter keyboard
37. 37. El ordenador 2.1c Los periféricos El teclado: TAB: It scrolls the text horizontally CapsLocks: it blocks the capital letters Control and Alt: they do special functions when they are pressed simultaneously with other letters
38. 38. Supr: it deletes Home: moves the digit after the the cursor to cursor the beginning of the line
39. 39. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals. Input The mouse This device receives the movement thanks to the ball inside. When the mouse is moving the ball transmits this movement to two wheels which correspond to the two axis Up and down axis wheels Left and right axis
40. 40. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals. Output Monitor It shows with visual elements the results of the computer. Nowadays we can find two types TRC Monitor : they are wide and heavy TFT Monitor : they are thin and light
41. 41. 6.3 hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals Output Printers: They print information from the computer onto paper using: laser printers: a laser marks where the ink has to print and it sticks to the paper • They are expensive but use little ink Worthwhile if you do a lot of printing, like in a company Inkjet: Ink is projected onto paper • They are cheap but they use a lot of ink • Worthwhile if you print little and you don’t require a lot of precision . Multifunction printers: Generally they are inkjet printers and include a scanner
42. 42. 6.3 EL hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals In-Out Modem/ADSL router This peripheral transforms information that cames from the telephone cable to the computer and vice versa. A router connects many pc to internet.
43. 43. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.7 Peripherals connections Peripheral connections: Ports are where the peripherals are connected to the computer in order to transmit the communication between the CPU and the peripherals The main ports are theses ones: Serial Parallel bluetooth wireless USB
44. 44. 6.3 Hardware 6.3.6 Peripherals. Input Peripheral ports: Mouse keyboard USB Monitor Printer Speaker Microphone
45. 45. 6.3 Hardware Mother Board CD-DVDROM 6.3.6 Peripherals. Input Player Power Supply Mirco with fan Hard disck Ports Frontal Ports
46. 46. Final activities We are going to play a championship of IT knowledge. As much questions you answer, more points you get. The best three will get a prize
47. 47. Final activities How to play: You have to find what is the name of the definition I give you. If you know the answer say your name ONCE and raise your hand. If you get the answer right you get 1 point If you miss you get 1 point less
48. 48. Final activities For example: Definition: This device receives the movement thanks to the ball inside Answer : mouse
49. 49. Final activities This _________transforms information on the from the computer so that it can be transmitted by means of a telephone cable which we use to talk. ______:is the physical, tangible part of the computer, for example the screen, the keyboard. The ________ is a tower of disks with several magnetic needles that goes around reading the information
50. 50. Final activities The __________ transforms the electric current from 230 to 4-12 volts in order to supply electricity individually to all devices The _________controls and decides what to do and when it is done. It is the boss The _________ is an empty metallic structure where all the computer’s internal devices are placed
51. 51. Final activities The _______ is an empty metallic structure where all the computer’s internal devices are placed The________ shows with visual elements the results of the computer We use the _______to introduce letters and numbers
52. 52. Final activities The ________ is the brain of the computer This ________memory can save data but you can read, modify or erase it as many times as you need The ________ is the programmes whose job it is to make the hardware carry out useful operations like windows, microsoft office, linux
53. 53. Final activities New game, now you have to know the WORDS missing in the text For example: We can define __ as a group of technology and knowledge needed to ______, _______ and send out information Solution: We can define IT as a group of technology and knowledge needed to collect, process and send out information
54. 54. Final activities You cannot rise your hand until you know ALL THE WORDS
55. 55. Final activities Random ________ Memory. The computer uses this ________ to save data that it is going to use soon, therefore it doesn’t have to lose time searching. When we switch __ the computer all this data is _______ The smallest amount of memory is one ______, and then there is kilobyte, _____, gigabyte, _______, petabyte…
56. 56. Final activities ____ _____ ______, so we can save data once and read it, we _______ modify it. _____ _____: it is a _______ memory easy to carry and resistant. The lastest ones have _____ of memory. The ______ is like an _______ highway where all the devices _______ and receive information
57. 57. Now you have a week to study for the exam !!!!!
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