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Unit 2 Drawing appplied to technologies
 

Unit 2 Drawing appplied to technologies

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    Unit 2 Drawing appplied to technologies Unit 2 Drawing appplied to technologies Presentation Transcript

    • Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
      • What are we going to see in this unit?
        • 2.1 Drawing tools and how to use them
        • 2.2 Drafts and sketches
        • 2.3 Drafting scale
        • 2.4 Diedric system
        • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • Paper
      • Paper is made of cellulose that is obtained from trees
      • The paper size that we use is A4 . It is the result of dividing 1 m 2 (A0) four times by half the longest side.
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • Pencil
      • A pencil has a lead covered with wood. The lead is made with graphite and clay
      clay Graphite Lead Wood cover
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • Pencil hardness
      • The more clay it contains the harder the lead will be. We use letter H for hard pencils and letter B for soft ones.
      • Hard: H Soft: B
      less clay More clay Technique draw Artistic draw 5H 4H 5B 6B 3B B H 3H 4B 2B HB 2H 6H Very soft Soft Medium Hard Very hard
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • Mechanical pencils
      • They hold a graphite lead. They can be used for technical drawing (if used )with a soft lead.
      • ERASERS
      • Erasers are made of rubber, they absorb
      • graphite and erase it.
    • 2.1 DRAWING TOOLS
      • THE RULER
      • It is a precision tool that makes it possible to measure and to transfer a distance.
      • TRIANGULAR SET SQUARE
      • A set square is a tool for drawing perpendicular (vertical) and parallel lines and for obtaining angles.
      • There are 2 types of trianglular set squares
      A 45 degree A 60 degree
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • How to draw vertical and parallel lines with the set square
      • Vertical: Parallel:
      Activity : Draw the set squares in your notebook as you can see them in both positions
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • Activity :Draw a chessboard using the set square . The separation between squares is 2 cm!
      square 16 cm 16 cm
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • Drawing angles: we can get 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, 75º, 90º, 120º, 135º…angles combining the 30º, 45º , 60º and the 90º angles from the set squares
      You don't have to copy them because you can find them in your text book on page 25
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
    • 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • The Compass
      • It is used for drawing circles and angles
      Advice: sharpen the lead tip by rubbing it on a fingernail file
    • 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
      • DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it.
      Page 41
    • 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
      • ATTENTION!
      • A DRAFT IS NOT A BAD DRAWING AND A SKETCH IS NOT A GOOD DRAWING !!!!!!
    • 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
      • The sketch : It is a free hand drawing too , but it includes the measures, therefore it shows the precise size and a shape similar to the final drawing.
      measure Page 41
    • 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
      • Activity : draw a sketch of your home cupboard.
    • 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
      • the Sketch
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • We define scale as the relation between the drawing size and the real object
      A model uses a reduction scale
    • 2.3 Drafting scale 1:2 The Drawing size The Real size Page 38
    • 2.3 Drafting scale 1 cm measured on the drawing is equivalent to 1200cm in reality Page 38 1200 reality 1cm drawing 1:1200
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Scale types:
      • Reduction scale: it is used to represent big objects , so they can be drawn on paper
        • We usually use: 1:2 1:5 1:10…
        • In this example we have reduced 1000 times the real size of the tree
      1:1000 Real drawn Real Real
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Enlargement scale: it is used to represent small objects so we can see them on paper
        • It is used: 2:1 5:1 10:1 …
      • In this example the drawing is two times the real object
      Drawing Real Safety pin 2:1 2:1
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • An example of scale application
      • Let’s draw a pencil that is 10cm high and 1cm wide using different scales: 2:1, 1:2, 1:4
      1cm 10cm
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Scale 2:1
      Real 2:1 1 wide 10 1 Real 2 Drawn High
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Scale 1:2
      2:1 Real 1:2 1 wide 10 2 Real 1 Drawn High
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Scale 1:4
      Real 2:1 1:2 1:4 Real 2:1 1:2 Real 1:2 2:1 Real 1:2 1 wide 10 4 Real 1 Drawn High
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Scale exercise
      • This drawing is 4,5cm long and 2,5 cm high, if we have used a 1:100 scale How high and long is the real car?
      4.5cm 2.5cm
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Scale 1:100
      250 2,5 High 450 100 Real 4,5 1 Drawn Long 4.5cm 2.5cm
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Activity:
      • Let’s draw a plan of your classroom using your feet and your hands applying the suitable scale to draw it
      1 foot: 20cm 1 hand: 10cm
    • 31 feet are equivalent to 620cm 24 feet are equivalent to 480cm 4,5 hands = 45cm 3,5 hands=35cm Therefore we have 2.3 Drafting scale 4hands x 18cm/hand= 72cm 3hands x 18cm/hand= 54cm 31 feet x 20cm/foot= 620cm 24 feet x 20cm/foot=480cm
    • 2.3 Drafting scale Which scale could we use to draw the classroom and your desks on your notebooks? 54cm 72cm Desk 480cm 620cm Classroom width length
    • 2.3 Drafting scale Let’s use the 1:100 scale , so the drawing will be 100 times smaller than reality 480 4,8 wide 620 100 Real 6,2 1 Drawn Long Classroom 54 0,54 wide 72 100 Real 0,72 1 Drawn Long Desks
    • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • Homework:
      • Draw a plan of your bedroom using your feet and your hands. Apply a 1:25 scale to draw it
      1 foot: 20cm 1 hand: 10cm
    • 15feet= 300cm 20 pies = 400cm 70 100 Bed 150 150 Desk 200 330 bedroom Wide lenght habitación
    • 2.4 Diedric system
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • The diedric system represents the objects using a perpendicular projection on a plane
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • The projection or VIEW consists of drawing just what we see when we are perpendicular to the object and to the plane
      Page 28
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • To define an object we only need 3 views, floor, front and profile:
      • Floor view : from the top of the object
      • Front view: facing the object
      • Profile view: from the side
      Profile view Floor view Front view Front view Floor view Profile view
      • Draw the left profile, floor and front view of your pencil case.
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Diedric Rules
      • The front is usually indicated with an arrow
      • The views distribution
        • The front is always on top of the floor
        • The profile is situated the other way round, that is, the left profile is situated on the right
      front floor Left profile Right profile floor front
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Remember:
      • The same height: the object has the same height on the floor and on the profile views
      • The same width: on the front and on the floor views
      • The same depth: on the floor and on the profile views
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Exercise : Draw the front, left profile and floor views of the class chair
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Exercise : Draw the front, profile and floor views of the class chair
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Where do we have to be situated to see these objects like circles?
    • 2.4 Diedric system
    • 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects Page 31
    • 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
    • 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
    • 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Non visible lines: when we know there is a hidden line we have to draw it using a discontinuous line
      hidden line
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Insert video
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Activity : draw the front, floor and right profile views of this figure colouring each face in one colour.
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Activity : draw the front, floor y left profile views of this figure colouring each face in a different colour.
    • 2.4 Diedric system
      • Exercice: draw the right profile, front and floor views of these objects
    • 2.4 Diedric system
    • 2.4 Diedric system
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • The standardizing is the group of rules that defines technical drawing .
      • For example:
        • For paper size we use the DIN rule: A0,A1,A2…
        • The lines are :
          • Thick continuous lines: are used to outline objects
          • Thick discontinuous lines: indicate hidden lines
          • Thin continuous lines: are used for auxiliary measures and reference lines
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing Measure line Auxuliary Line Measure Reference line
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • Outside thick continuous line
      Thick discontinuous line for a hidden edge
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • Marking : indicating the real dimensions above the object
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
      Correct Wrong Correct Wrong Correct Wrong Correct Wrong
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing.
      • The measure lines:
        • We place them parallel to the edge and slightly separated
        • They are limited by the auxiliary lines
        • The arrows are thin and enlongated, they go from one side to the other
      Marking follows some rules: see page 37
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • Auxiliary lines
        • We place them perpendicular to the measure lines
        • They cross the measure line a little bit
        • They never cut the measure line
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
      Correct Wrong
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • The measures:
        • We indicate the real measure in milimetres, but “mm” is never written
        • They are placed above the measure line, never under it
        • We only use the extrictly necessary measures
    • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
      Correct Wrong
      • Activity : Draw the front, left profile and floor views of your pencil marking the measures
      2.5 Marking and standardizing
      • Let’s revise the important terms
      • What are we going to see in this unit?
        • 2.1 Drawing tools and how to use them
        • 2.2 Drafts and sketches
        • 2.3 Drafting scale
        • 2.4 Diedric system
        • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
      Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
    • Vocabulary
      • Paper size
      • Cellulose
      • Clay, graphite, lead
      • Hard and soft pencils
      • Erasers, technical pencil
      • Sixty and forty-five degree rules
      • Sketch, draft, free hand drawing, measures
      • Scale, real and drawn size, reduction, enlargement scales
      • To be reduced 100 times…
      • Length, height, width
      • Long, high, wide.