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# Energy Unit if 3 ESO Technology

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• 1. Unit 5. Energy
• 2. Unit 5. Energy 5.1 Energy 1.1Units 1.2 Forms and Sources 5.2 Electric energy 2.1 Generation 2.2 Main Power Stations 2.3 Distribution 5.3 Consume
• 3. 5.1.1 Energy. Units
• Energy is the capacity of an object to do a work.
And work is the force applied along a distance
• 4. 5.1.1 Energy. Units In physics we define mechanical work as the amount of energy transferred by a force acting through a distance W= F • d d= distance between A and B F= Force applied to move the object F d
• 5. 5.1.1 Energy. Units Therefore, in this example, the energy that black cartoon has, the express the work that can apply to this box,
• 6. 5.1.1 Energy. Units Units There are several units of energy that are used in special areas, the most popular are the j, cal and kwh. Joule calorie kwh
• 7. 5.1.1 Energy. Units Joule (J) is the International System’s unit for work, and is usually expressed in Kj. 1kj is the energy need to raise 100kg 1 meter high 1 meter
• 8. 5.1.1 Energy. Units Calorie (cal) This unit is usually used to express energy that involves calorific transference. When energy is used in the alimentary industry, it’s usually express in Kcal. In the USA, they write Cal instead of Kcal… In order to heat 1 L of water from 20 to 21 ºC we need 1kcal
• 9. 5.1.1 Energy. Units A human being needs around 2000 kcal per day of energy to do all the work that it needs.
• 10. 5.1.1 Energy. Units When you drink a Coke you are absorbing 139 Kcal of energy that is stored in the 39gr of sugar dissolved in the liquid. 139 Kcal 420Kcal 840Kcal
• 11. 5.1.1 1º Exercise Investigate the energy that these foods have per 100 gr: Solution Yogurt Big Mac Bread Apple Biscuits Orange Fanta Cereals Oil Chips Butter
• 12. 5.1.1 Energy. Units KiloWatt/hour(kwh) It’s the unit used to measure the electric consumption of an electric installation. When we use a hairdrier of 1000 W for 1h, we have consumed 1 kwh
• 13. 5.1.1 2º Exercise Conversion units 1Kwh= 1000Wh 1 W= 1 j/s 1calorie= 4,18 joules
• 2º Exercise:
• Calculate the energy of a Coke in joules.
• Calculate the energy measured in kwh that we absorb in 2h when we drink 2 Cokes?
• If we use a 100W lamp, and we use Cokes to provide energy, how many Cokes do we need per second?
Solution
• 14. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• So Energy is the capacity of an object to do a work, and it can be stored in different forms of enery:
Calorific energy Light energy Mechanical energy Electrical energy Electric energy Chemical energy Nuclear energy
• 15. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• The law of conservation of energy expresses that can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed from one state to another
Calorific energy Light energy Mechanical energy Electrical energy Electric energy Chemical energy Nuclear energy
• 16. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• In order to obtain energy we have to use the different energy sources present in Earth: oil, coal, wind, uranium, etc.
• 17. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• We can classify the energy sources according to its:
• Origin: Renewable or Non Renewable
• Historical use : traditional or alternative
• Transformation: Primary or secondary
• 18. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• 3º Exercise:
• Explain the difference between the concepts of source and form of energy.
• Define the six groups of energy sources, and give four examples of each.
solution
• 19. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• Origin:
• Renewable : These sources are Inexhaustible, therefore we can use them continuously. For example: Wind, Waves, etc…
• 20. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• Origin: .
• Non Renewable : These sources are exhaustible, therefore we consume the source when we use it. For example: oil, Uranium
• 21. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• Historical use :
• Traditional : these sources have been used for at least 30 years, and they provide more than the 90% global energy. They are:
• Hydraulic, Coal, Oil, Gas, Uranium
• 22. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• Historical use :
• Alternative : these sources can provide energy but they can’t displace the alternative energy because they are cheaper or easier to obtain. For example
• Solar Wind bio-mass Wave Geothermal
• 23. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• Transformation:
• Primary: These sources are obtained directly from the environment and they can be used directly without any transformation.
• For example:
• Hydraulic, Coal, Oil, Gas, Solar Wind bio-mass Wave Geothermal
• 24. 5.1.2 Forms and Sources
• Transformation:
• Primary :
• Secondary: These sources are obtained after the transformation of a primary source. We use them because they are cleaner or easier to use
• For example:
• Electricity, Oil derivatives (Gasoline, Diesel, etc), Town Gas
• 25. 5.1.2 exercise 5Forms and Sources
• 5º Exercise: Make a list of 20 objects indicating the form of energy used and the energy obtained .
• For example: TV-Electricity
Sol Object Energy Form Energy obtained TV Electricity Light . . . . . . . . .
• 26.
• Electricity production .
• Why do we like Electricity so much?
• 27. 5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation
• Electricity is the principal source of energy in the developed homes and in industries because it’s the cleanest and most versatile energy.
• 28. 5.2.1 Exercise. Electric energy. Production
• 1º Exercise:
• Compare the use of electricity at home with the use of coal, oil, gas, solar, wind, geothermal, uranium.
• 2º Exercise:
• What do we mean when we say that the electricity is clean?
Solution
• 29.
• As we know, if we want to create an artificial electric current, we only need:
• A closed circuit
• An artificial magnetic field
• A mechanical energy to move the circuit inside the field.
5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation
• 30.
• When we have all elements together, we find that we create an alternate electric current due to the movement of the spiral.
5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation
• 31.
• The only difference between power stations is how they get the energy to move the turbine that moves the circuit inside the generator
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Generator turbine
• 32.
• One big group of use different sources to HEAT water and create steam to move the turbine
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations turbine steam
• 33.
• Other small group use the primary source to move the turbine, using water or wind
5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation
• 34.
• In conclusion we will always find these elements in a Power Station:
5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation Mechanical Energy Generator Turbine Electric generation Electric Transformation Electric Transport Transformer Primary Energy
• 35.
• And this is the summary of the production in a block diagram
5.2.1 Electric energy. Generation Mechanical Energy Electric generation Electric Transformation Primary Energy Electric Transport Water or Air Steam from a combustion, nuclear reaction, solar or geothermal Turbine Generator Transformer
• 36.
• POWER STATIONS
• 37.
• Steam
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Mechanical Energy Electricity High Volt All Power stations will have this elements, now we will see how they move the turbines Water, Wind Turbine Generator Transformer Pylon
• 38.
• Steam Power Station Diagram
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations We use the energy source to create steam pressure to move the turbine Steam Boiler Turbine Generator Transformer Cooling Mechanical Energy Electricity Cold Water Heat Pylon High Volt Steam
• 39. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Mechanical Energy Electricity High Volt We use the primary Energy like wind or water pressure to move the turbine Wind Water Turbine Generator Transformer Pylon
• 40.
• Coal power Station
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Steam pressure
• 41.
• Coal power Station Diagram
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Steam Mine Furnace Boiler Turbine Generator Transformer Cooling Mechanical Energy Electricity Cold Water Heat Pylons High Volt Steam Coal
• 42.
• 9º Exercise.
• Draw the diagram of all Power Stations as we have seen in the Coal Station Diagram
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• 43.
• Coal power Station
• Inexpensive compared to other energy sources
• Coal is present in most of the countries, so they don’t have to buy it abroad
• By-product of burning, ash , can be used for concrete and roadways
• Limited supply, non-renewable resource. 100 years
• The Carbon dioxide generated increase the effect of the global warming.
• Generated smoke can cause health conditions such as emphysema
• Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen emissions can bind to water creating acid rain
• Coal mining mars the landscape
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• 44.
• Nuclear power station
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Diagram Infografía
• 45.
• Nuclear power station
• Worldwide nuclear energy avoids on average the emission of more than two billion metric tones of carbon dioxide per year, decreasing the effect of the global warming.
• Although nuclear power reactors are expensive to build, they are relatively cheap to operate.
• It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant.
• The waste from nuclear energy is extremely dangerous and it has to be carefully looked after for several thousand years .
• Despite a generally high security standard, accidents can still happen.
• Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks.
• Is a non renewable source. 50 years
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• 46.
• Hydro Power Station
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Diagram Primary Energy
• 47. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Hydro Power Station
• When the electricity is generated, no greenhouse gases are made.
• Water is a renewable energy source and free.
• We create huge potable water deposits.
• The dam is expensive to build and the nearby area has to be flooded
• In drought season we may not have enough water to turn the turbines.
• 48.
• Solar Power Tower Plant
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Diagram Steam pressure
• 49.
• Solar photovoltaic Plant
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Diagram
• 50.
• Solar Energy
• Inexhaustible fuel source
• No greenhouse gasses emited
• Versatile since it is used for powering items as diverse as solar cars and satellites
• It does not work at night.
• Very diffuse source means low energy production.
• Only areas of the world with lots of sunlight are suitable for solar power generation
• They need great lands creating high temperatures below the panels
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• 51.
• Wind Plant
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Diagram Primary Energy
• 52.
• Wind Plant
• It is available over a greater area than occurs with fossil fuels.
• There is no air pollution after manufacture.
• Modern wind energy converter systems can be set up for individual houses.
• Wind energy produces more energy per area of land than other energy sources.
• Modern wind energy systems are expensive, although the source is free.
• They can be rather ugly or the noise of the rotor could be annoying if the installation is located close to homes or workplaces.
• The wind does not blow all the time.
• Potential TV interference caused by rotor.
5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• 53. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Tide Energy
Diagram Primary Energy
• 54. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Tide Energy
• Tides are free once the power station has been built and will not run out.
• No greenhouse gases are produce.
• We know exactly when the tides happen so we know when electricity will be made.
• Disdvantages
• Dams may not be good for plants and animals that live nearby.
• The tides only happen twice a day, so can only produce electricity for that time.
• 55. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Wave Energy
Primary Energy
• 56. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Wave Energy
• Waves are free and will not run out so the cost is in building the power station.
• Wave power does not produce greenhouse gases.
• There are very few safety risks with wave power generation.
• Disdvantages
• Waves can be big or small so you may not always be able to generate electricity.
• You need to find a way of transporting the electricity from the sea onto the land.
• Not many people have tried to generate electricity this way yet so the equipment is expen-
• sive.
• 57. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Biomass
• .
Natural biomass Dry Biomass Waste from industrial process Wet Biomass Human or animal disposal Energetic Crops High Energy Plants Are cultivated Diagram Steam pressure
• 58. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Biomass
• The fuel is cheap and can use things that we might otherwise throw away.
• We can find waste everywhere and should not run out.
• When the fuel is burned greenhouse gases are made which pollute the environment.
• Sometimes people grow biomass crops where we could grow food.
• We may not have enough space to grow enough biomass fuel.
• 59. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Geothermal Energy
Diagram Steam pressure
• 60. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Geothermal Energy
• Geothermal energy does not produce greenhouse gases
• The energy source is free and will not run out
• There are not many places where we can build geothermal power stations
• Harmful gases and minerals may occasionally come up from the ground below. These can be
• difficult to control.
• 61. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations
• Fusion Energy the Future Energy
Steam pressure
• 62. 5.2.2 Electric energy. Power Stations Source Renowable/ Non reno. Type of central Advantages Disavantages Wind Thermical Water Radioactive waste Tide
• 63.
• Once we create electricity we have to transport it to the final users. Nowadays we use these elements:
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution Transformer Pylons Transformer Final User
• 64.
• Why do we need a transformer???
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 65.
• All conductors have resistance, and its opposition to the intensity creates HEAT !!!
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution so our electric distribution could be a huge heater!!!! P=I 2 R
• 66.
• Therefore, in order to transmit high electric power, we have to decrease the intensity by increasing the voltage
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution So, with high voltage distribution, we lose less calorific energy and thanks to that we can use thinner cables
• 67.
• But, how does it work?
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 68.
• Any transformer is based in the relation between the magnetic field created by two reels that have the same nucleus
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution Nucleus Reel Reel
• 69.
• This is the relation between the I and V in each Reel:
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution V 1 V 2 Nucleus Input Output
• 70.
• We want V 2 as high as possible so we have to increase the number of spirals of the 2º reel (N 2 ) and decrease on N 1
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 71.
• Exercise 5.2.3. Calculate the V 2, before and after we increase the number of spirals. I= 20A
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 72.
• Lets calculate V 2
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution Before After
• 73.
• Lets calculate V 2
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution Before After
• 74.
• Electricity arrives at home trough the electric panel that we find close to the entrance door
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution Electric meter HOME
• 75. Basic electric panel
• 76. High electric panel
• 77.
• In the control panel we find:
• 1º The ICP: This circuit break is placed by your electric company to control that you don’t pass the top consume that you have contracted
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 78.
• In the control panel we find:
• 1º The IGA: This circuit break allows us to break the hole circuit with one switch
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 79.
• In the control panel we find:
• 1º The Differential switch : This circuit break protects us against a electric discharge
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 80.
• In the control panel we find:
• 1º PIA: These circuit breakers control the different circuits that we have at home
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 81. 5.3 Consume
• In Spain, we use too much fossil energy to produce electricity
• 82. 5.1.3 Consume
• These are the main centrals in Spain
• 83. 5.3 Consume
• This is the evolution of the self energy supply for the last 35 years
Year Self energy Supply 1975 22,6 1985 38,9 1995 28,0 1998 25,6 2003 22,1 2008 21,6 Fuentes: 1975-1998:, [6] 2003: [7] 2008: Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio [1
• 84. 5.3 Consume
• This is the use of the different forms of energy.
Fuente de energía Producción 2007 (ktep) 2007 % Producción 2008 (ktep) 2008 % 2008/2007 Carbón 5.865 19,3 4.374 14,2 -25,4 Petróleo 143 0,5 127 0,4 -11,2 Gas natural 16 0,1 14 0,0 -10,9 Nuclear 14.360 47,3 15.368 50,0 7,0 Hidráulica 2.342 7,7 2.001 6,5 -14,5 Otras energías renovables 7.624 25,1 8.841 28,8 16,0 Total 30.348 100,0 30.725 100,0 1,2
• 85. 5.1.1 1º Exercise Solution Investigate the energy that these foods have per 100 gr: Solution Yogurt 85 kcal Big Mac 498 kcal Bread 250kcal Apple 59 kcal Biscuits 450 kcal Orange Fanta 58 kcal Cereals 400kcal Oil 900kcal Chips 234kcal Butter 760 kcal
• 86. 5.1.1 Energy. Units
• 2º Exercise Solution:
• Calculate the energy of a Coke in joules.
• Calculate the energy measured in kwh that we absorb in 2h when we drink 2 Cokes?
• 87. 5.1.1 Energy. Units
• 2º Exercise Solution:
• If we use a 100W lamp, and we use Cokes to provide energy, how many Cokes do we need per second?
Exercise
• 88. 5.1.2 3 Exercise Forms and Sources
• 3º Exercise:
• Explain the difference between the concepts of source and form of energy.
• The source of energy is how we get energy, for example the coal or wind; and the form of energy is the type of energy, for example mechanical or nuclear energy.
• Or more detailed
• Both terms are related to energy. Energy is the capacity of an object to do a work, and it can be stored in different forms of energy, like electric, chemical, mechanical, etc.
• A source of energy is how this form of energy is stored for its use around us. A form of energy is a energy resource, i.e. wind, sun light, etc.
• So, coal is a source of energy because it store a lot of useful chemical energy liberated when we burn it
• 89. 5.1.2 3 Exercise Forms and Sources
• 3º Exercise:
• Define the six groups of energy sources, and give four examples of each.
• Define the six groups of energy sources, and give four examples of each.
• Renewable (Origin): Inexhaustible sources which can be used continuously. Ex: Wind, waves, sun and firewood.
• Non renewable (Origin): Exhaustible sources which can be exhausted as years go. Ex: Oil, uranium, natural gas and coal.
• Traditional (Historical use): This type provides a big amount of global energy. Ex: Hydraulic, coal, uranium and oil.
• Alternative (Historical use): This type provides energy and it´s easier to obtain than traditional energy. Ex: Wind, solar, biomass and geothermal.
• Primary (Transformation): This type is obtained from the environment whitout any kind of transformation. Ex: Gas, solar, coal and wind.
• Secondary (Transformation): This source is obtained after the transformation of a primary source. Ex: Electricity, gas, petrol and oil.
• 90. 5.1.2 Exercise 5 sol Forms and Sources
• 5º Exercise: Make a list of 20 objects indicating the source of energy used and the energy obtained .
• For example: TV-Electricity
Back Object Energy Source Energy obtained TV Electricity Light Washing machine Electric energy Mechanical Radiator Electric energy Calorific Computer electric light Fridge Electric energy Mechanical-Calorific Toaster Electric energy Calorific Bulb Electric energy light Dishwasher Electric energy Mechanical Transformer Electric energy Electrical Furnace Chemical energy Calorific
• 91. Object Energy source Energy obtained Fridge Electricity Calorific Computer Electricity Light Lamp Electricity Light Microwave Electricity Light- Calorific Toaster Electricity Calorific Vitro Electricity Calorific Deep fryer Electricity Calorific Loudspeaker Electricity Sound Freezer compartment Electricity Calorfic Thermal printer Electricity Calorific Games console Electricity Light Coffee maker Water and Electricity Calorific Calculator Electricity Light Mobile phone Electricity Light Telephone Electricity Sound Car Electricity Mechanical Alarm clock Electricity Sound Dishwasher Electricity Calorific and Mechanical Washing machine Electricity Calorific and Mechanical Alarm Electricity Sound
• 92.
• 93.
• 94. 5.2.1 Exercise Sol. Electric energy. Production
• 1º Exercise:
• Compare the use of electricity at home with the use of coal, oil, gas, solar, wind, geothermal, uranium.
• Coal produces a lot of smoke and dust if we use it to heat or cook. Also requires a lot of space to store it.
• Oil is used to heat houses but is really dangerous if we use it to cook or to create light.
• Solar energy can be used to heat water, but it doesn’t get really hot. We can use it to cook but it is too slow.
• Gas is used to cook but it’s quite dangerous and is more difficult to clean. We use it to heat water and houses.
• Wind, geothermal and uranium can’t be used directly at home, so we need to get electricity from them.
• 95. 5.2.1 Exercise Sol. Electric energy. Production
• 2º Exercise:
• What do we mean when we say that the electricity is clean?
• Electricity is usually defined as clean energy because we can use it at home anytime anyplace. It doesn’t create any dust, gas or smell as does coal, gas or oil.
• But we have to remember that to create electricity we are different energy sources like coal, oil, nuclear, etc that have several disadvantages like pollution, nuclear waste, environment destruction, etc.
Back
• 96.
• Nuclear power station
5.2.2 Nuclear Power Stations Nuclear Steam Mine Reactor Boiler Turbine Generator Transformer Cooling Mechanical Energy Electricity Cold Water Heat Pylons High Volt Steam Uranium
• 97.
• The water from the river is stored in a dam. The water is released has high energy thanks to the height, so it moves the turbine. The mechanical energy obtained is transformed into electricity inside the generator. This electricity is transformed into high voltage electricity in a transformer. This electricity is connected to the pylons and transmitted to the electric grid
5.2.2 Hydro Power Stations Mechanical Energy Electricity Water high pressure High Volt Water Water Back River Dam Turbine Generator Transformer Pylons River
• 98.
• Solar Tower power station
5.2.2 Solar Tower Power Stations Back Steam Sun Heliostats Boiler Turbine Generator Transformer Cooling Mechanical Energy Electricity Cold Water Light Pylons High Volt Steam Light
• 99.
• Photovoltaic power station
5.2.2 Photovoltaic Power Stations Alternate Current Electric current Light Back High Voltage current Sun Solar panel photovoltaic Inverter Transformer Pylon
• 100.
• Wind power station
5.2.2 Wind Power Stations Back Wind Rotor Gear Box Generator Transformer Multiplied Mechanical Energy Electricity Pylons High Volt Mechanical energy Mechanical energy
• 101.
• Tide Power Station
5.2.2 Tide Power Stations Mechanical Energy Electricity Water high pressure High Volt Tide Water raise Water Back Sea Dam Turbine Generator Transformer Pylons
• 102.
• Biomass power station
5.2.2 Biomass Power Stations Back Steam Biomass Furnace Boiler Turbine Generator Transformer Cooling Mechanical Energy Electricity Cold Water Heat Pylons High Volt Steam Bio fuel
• 103.
• Geothermal power station
5.2.2 Geothermal Power Stations Back Steam Water pump Lava Turbine Generator Transformer Cooling Mechanical Energy Electricity Cold Water Pylons High Volt Steam Water
• 104.
• Exercise 8
• Calculate the % of energy wasted in calorific energy when we transport 1250 kw with a cable that has 10 Ohm if:
• Voltage is 250kV
• Voltage is 25 KV
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 105.
• Exercise 8
• Calculate the % of energy wasted in calorific energy when we transport 1250 MW with a cable that has 10 Ohm if:
• Voltage is 250kW
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution
• 106.
• Exercise 8
• Calculate the % of energy wasted in calorific energy when we transport 1250 MW with a cable that has 10 Ohm if:
• Voltage is 25 KV
5.2.3 Electric energy. Distribution