3 ESO Technologies Drawing
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  • 1. Unit 1.Drawing applied to technology
  • 2.
    • What are we going to see in this unit?
      • 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments
      • 1.2 Drafts and sketches
      • 1.3 Drafting scale
      • 1.4 Diedric system
      • 1.5 Marking and standardizing
      • 1.6 Perspective systems
    Unit 1.Drawing applied to technology
  • 3. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Paper
    • Paper is made of cellulose that is obtained from trees
    • The paper size that we use is A4 . It is the result of dividing 1 m 2 (A0) four times by half the longest side.
  • 4. 1.1 DRAWING TOOLS THE RULER It is a precision tool that makes it possible to measure and to transfer a distance. TRIANGULAR SET SQUARE A set square is a tool for drawing perpendicular (vertical) and parallel lines and for obtaining angles. There are 2 types of trianglular set squares A 45 degree A 60 degree
  • 5. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments How to draw vertical and parallel lines with the set square Vertical: Parallel: Activity: Draw the set squares in your notebook as you can see them in both positions
  • 6. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments Drawing angles: we can get 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, 75º, 90º, 120º, 135º…angles combining the 30º, 45º , 60º and the 90º angles from the set squares You don't have to copy them because you can find them in your text book on page 25
  • 7. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
  • 8. 1.1 Drawing materials and instruments Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
  • 9. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH
    • DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it.
    Page 41
  • 10. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH
    • ATTENTION!
    • A DRAFT IS NOT A BAD DRAWING AND A SKETCH IS NOT A GOOD DRAWING !!!!!!
  • 11. 1.1 DRAFT AND SKETCH The sketch: It is a free hand drawing too , but it includes the measures, therefore it shows the precise size and a shape similar to the final drawing. measure Page 41
  • 12. 1.3 Drafting scale
    • We define scale as the relation between the drawing size and the real object
    A model uses a reduction scale
  • 13. 1.3 Drafting scale 1:2 The Drawing size The Real size Page 38
  • 14. 1.3 Drafting scale 1 cm measured on the drawing is equivalent to 1200cm in reality Page 38 1200 reality 1cm drawing 1:1200
  • 15. 1.3 Drafting scale
    • Scale types:
    • Reduction scale: it is used to represent big objects, so they can be drawn on paper
      • We usually use: 1:2 1:5 1:10…
    • In this example we have reduced 1000 times the real size of the tree
    1:1000 Real drawn Real Real
  • 16. 1.3 Drafting scale
    • Enlargement scale: it is used to represent small objects so we can see them on paper
      • It is used: 2:1 5:1 10:1 …
    • In this example the drawing is two times the real object
    Drawing Real Safety pin 2:1 2:1
  • 17. 1.3 Drafting scale
    • An example of scale application
    • Let’s draw a pencil that is 10cm high and 1cm wide using different scales: 2:1, 1:2, 1:4
    1cm 10cm
  • 18. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale 2:1 Real 2:1 High wide Drawn Real 10 1
  • 19. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale 1:2 2:1 Real 1:2 High wide Drawn 1 Real 2 10 1
  • 20. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale 1:4 Real 2:1 1:2 1:4 Real 2:1 1:2 Real 1:2 2:1 Real 1:2 High wide Drawn 1 Real 4 10 1
  • 21. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale exercise Using an electronic microscope we can see a virus that is 1,5pm. This picture is 6 cm long, do you know the scale used to draw it?
  • 22. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale ???:1 Long Drawn ????? 6 10 10 pm Real 1 1,5 pm
  • 23. 1.3 Drafting scale Scale ???:1 Long Drawn 410 7 6 10 7 pm Real 1 1,5 pm
  • 24. 1.4 Diedric system
  • 25. 1.4 Diedric system The diedric system represents the objects using a perpendicular projection on a plane
  • 26. 1.4 Diedric system The projection or VIEW consists of drawing just what we see when we are perpendicular to the object and to the plane Page 28
  • 27. 1.4 Diedric system
    • Insert video
  • 28. 1.4 Diedric system
    • Insert video
  • 29. 1.4 Diedric system
    • To define an object we only need 3 views, floor, front and profile:
    • Floor view : from the top of the object
    • Front view: facing the object
    • Profile view: from the side
    Profile view Floor view Front view Front view Floor view Profile view
  • 30. 1.4 Diedric system
    • Diedric Rules
    • The front is usually indicated with an arrow
    • The views distribution
      • The front is always on top of the floor
      • The profile is situated the other way around, that is, the left profile is situated on the right
    front floor Left profile Right profile floor front
  • 31. 1.4 Diedric system
    • Remember:
    • The same height: the object has the same height on the floor and on the profile views
    • The same width: on the front and on the floor views
    • The same depth: on the floor and on the profile views
  • 32. 1.4 Diedric system
    • Exercise: Draw the front, left profile and floor views of the class chair. This chair is 80 cm high, 40 cm wide and 40 cm deep. Use the proper scale
  • 33. 1.4 Diedric system
    • Exercise: Draw the front, profile and floor views of the class chair
  • 34. 1.4 Diedric system Where do we have to be situated to see these objects like circles?
  • 35. 1.4 Diedric system
  • 36. 1.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects Page 31
  • 37. 1.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  • 38. 1.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  • 39. 1.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  • 40. 1.4 Diedric system
    • Non visible lines: when we know there is a hidden line we have to draw it using a discontinuous line
    hidden line
  • 41. 1.4 Diedric system Activity: draw the front, floor and left profile views of this figure colouring each face in one colour.
  • 42. 1.4 Diedric system Activity: draw the front, floor y left profile views of this figure colouring each face in a different colour.
  • 43. 1.4 Diedric system
    • Exercice: draw the right profile, front and floor views of these objects
  • 44. 1.4 Diedric system
  • 45. 1.4 Diedric system
  • 46. 1.5 Marking and standardizing
    • The standardizing is the group of rules that define objects in technical drawing.
  • 47. 1.5 Marking and standardizing Using a standard language we can define the size, materials and properties of an object so that anyone can read it
  • 48. 1.5 Marking and standardizing
    • There are several elements used to draw a object, but we are going to see only the most relevant:
      • Paper
    • For paper size we use the DIN rule: A0,A1,A2…
  • 49. 1.5 Marking and standardizing
    • 2.- Lines
      • The lines are:
        • Thick continuous lines: are used to outline objects
        • Thick discontinuous lines: indicate hidden lines
        • Thin continuous lines: are used for auxiliary measures and reference lines.
        • Dots and thin discontinuous lines: indicate a circumference or cylinder axis
  • 50. 1.5 Marking and standardizing Measure line Auxuliary Line Measure Circumference axis line Reference line
  • 51. 1.5 Marking and standardizing Marking : indicating the real dimensions above the object
  • 52. 1.5 Marking and standardizing.
    • The measure lines:
      • We place them parallel to the edge and slightly separated
      • They are limited by the auxiliary lines
      • The arrows are thin and elongated, they go from one side to the other
    Marking follows some rules
  • 53. 1.5 Marking and standardizing
    • Auxiliary lines
      • We place them perpendicular to the measure lines
      • They cross the measure line a little bit
      • They never cut the measure line
  • 54. 1.5 Marking and standardizing
    • The measures:
      • We indicate the real measure in milimetres, but “mm” is never written
      • They are placed above the measure line, never under it
      • We only use the extrictly necessary measures
  • 55. Measure line ends Arrow: ends in a aux. Line Line: ends in a measure line Dot: ends in a line object Measures position
  • 56. 1.5 Marking and standardizing
    • Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
    Correct Wrong
  • 57. Exercice: Make a file of this object, drawing its views including all measures, AND SCALE Assembled size Width: 79 cm Wood widht: 5 cm Depth: 39 cm Height: 79 cm Max load/shelf: 13 kg
  • 58. 1.6 Perspective systems Which one of these objects is a cube?
  • 59. 1.6 Perspective systems They are all cubes, but drawn with different perspectives
  • 60. 1.6 Perspective systems But, what is a perspective? It is an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is perceived by the eye.
  • 61. 1.6 Perspective systems The simplest one is the one point perspective, where all lines go to one vanishing point
  • 62. Vanishing Point Video link
  • 63. 1.6 Perspective systems If we want to create a more realist drawing we have to use a two point perspective Now we have two vanishing points, where the left and right lines go
  • 64.  
  • 65. 1.6 Perspective systems Finally, we have the three points perspective, that creates an almost real view Lines go to the left, the right and the floor vanishing points
  • 66.  
  • 67. 1.6 Perspective systems Regular objects are drawn using the caballera perspective All lines are parallel to Z, X or Y axes
  • 68. 1.6 Perspective systems X and Y axes form a 90º angle and Z axe form a 135º angle Z axe Y axe X axe 90º 90º 135º
  • 69. 1.6 Perspective systems In X and Y axes measures are applied directly. But, in order to create a human vision of the object, Z axe form a 135º angle and measures have a ½ reduction ½ reduction in all z measures
  • 70. 1.6 Perspective systems Exercise. You have to present the standard file of this object that has to describe the scale used, measures, views and caballera perspective. Measures: Assembled size Width: 79 cm Depth: 39 cm Height: 149 cm Wood width: 5 cm Max load/shelf: 13 kg Standard File Data : Name and Family name Grade and Group Scale and units Name of the file and short description