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Aggression
And Violence
By Heba Essawy
Prof. Psychiatry
Definition
Aggression refers to behavior between
members that is :
 Can be phycical or emotional.
 Intended to cause pai...
Violence and Excitement
 Violence : Aggression by force.
- Formed of destructive behavior that can
endanger life or produ...
Forms Of Aggression
 Aggresion has a defensive behavior is not
normally considered "aggression.“
 Forms of aggression:
*...
Situation Producing Aggression
 Toxic and organic state (Substance
abuse ).
 Developmental Disability.
 Florid Psychosi...
Predictors Of Aggression
 Enjoy in watching or inflicting harm.
 Self View as Victim.
 Childhood Deprivation.
 Early L...
MODELS OF AGGRESSION
 Biological Basis of Aggression
Anatomical.
Biological.
chromosomal
 Psychological
Psychoanalytical...
Biological Basis of Aggression
A) Anatomical Basis ( Neural Substrates):
- Limbic System.
- Amygdala.
- Temporal Lobe.
- H...
LIMBIC SYSTEM MODEL
CORTEX
↓
RAS
↓↓
Hippocampus Amygdala for
For relaxation fight
▼ ▼
Hypothalamus
Neurotransmitters
♦ 5HT → Impulsive Bebavior.
♦NE → Arousal
♦DA→ Psychomotor agitation.
♦GABA → Disinhibition
Neuroendocrinal
♦Estrogen → ↓aggression in Receptive period.
♦Progesterone → Increase aggression.
♦Prolactin → Increase ag...
Psychological Model
 1- Psychoanalytic Theory
 2- Humanistic theory.
 3-Social Learning Theory.
Psychoanalytic Theories
 Aggression as an instinctive behavior
♦ Freudian:
* Human behavior stemmed from
interplay betwee...
Psychoanalytic Theories
 Aggression developed during :
_ Oral Phase : pleasure of bitting .
_ Fixation Of Instincts (enfo...
Psychoanalytic Theories
 Impaired mother child relationship:
_ punitive Parents.
_ Sex Difference.
_ Socio – economic Fac...
Psychoanalytic Theories
 Lorenz s view
- Fighting Instincts during evolution
to Protect Human territory.
- Direct Behavio...
Psychoanalytic Theories
 Addller s View:
- Striving for Superiority.
- perfection.
 Mc Dougall s View :( instinct)
- rep...
Humanistic Theory
 Aggression is
1-A Product Of Frustration
2- resulting of blocking goal in life .
SO, Frustration → aro...
Humanistic Theory
Basic Concepts ( Drive theory )
- Is elicited drive depends on external factors as
pain
humiliation
loss...
Humanistic Theory
2- Frustration – Aggression theory
**Arise from deprivation from basic human
needs (Maslow).
- To Contro...
Social learning Theory
 Albert Bandura s View:
- Learned behavior .
- Reinforced by rewards.
- Not born with repertoire o...
Determinants of aggression
 SOCIAL DETERMINANTS
Frustration
Direct Provocation
Media Violence
 Environmental Determinant...
Social determinants
Media Violence:
 Disinhibition .
 Desensitization.
 Arousal of Aggressive feeling.
 Encouragement ...
Social Determinants
 Relies on :
1. Role Modeling .
2. Identification.
3. Human Interaction.
 Learned By :
* Imitation.
...
Enviromental Determinants
 Air Pollution:
*Exposure to noxious odors .
* Chemical plants.
 Noise.
 Crowding .
 Heat.
Situational Determinants
 Heightened Physiological Arousal:
- Stress.
- Anxiety.
- Participation in Competitive Activitie...
Prevention & Control Of
Aggression
 Punishment.
 Catharsis.
 Social Skill Training.
 Induction Of Incompatible Behavio...
Pharmacotherapy
 - Drugs promote Serotonin.
 - Drugs block dopamine
(↓drive & motivation for
aggression).
 - Antiepilep...
THANK S
CONTROL OF AGGRESSION
 1- OPTIMISTIC VIEW:
* Behavioral Therapy
* Behavioral Cognetive Therapy.
 2- Pessimistic view:
* ...
Television Violence
 Has a short – term stimulation effect on
aggressive behavior.
 Portrays the world as a more hostile...
How aggression begins ?
 Conditions producing aggressive
impulses.
 Person have violent thoughts or fantasies.
 If loos...
COGNITIVE THEORY
- Obtaining , organizing and using
intellectual knowledge .
- Mental operation & store bits in memory
to ...
Situational Factors
 Sexual Arousal:
* Depend on the erotic material .
* Erotica are mild → Aggression is low.
* If Expli...
DEFINITION
♣ Forms of Aggression :
∂. Tendency to be physically
assaultive : violence & force.
∂. Indirect expressed hosti...
THANK s
Chromosomal Abnormalities
 Twin Studies
 Chromosomal influence.
 In inborn error in metabolism.
 Genetically determine...
SOCIAL DETERMINANTS
 Frustration:
Aggression Always stems from frustration.
 Direct Provocation:
- Physical or Verbal Ab...
Defensive mechanism.
 Projection .
 Narcissism.
 Repression.
 Introjection .
 Displacement.
Can We Predict Aggression ?
Personal Factor :
 Frequent Threats.
 Access to instrument Of Violence.
 Chronic Anger and ...
Psychology of Aggression
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Psychology of Aggression

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predictors of aggression , violence, excitement , psychoanalytic theory , humanistic theory, social learning , prevention , treatment , control of aggression , media violence

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Transcript of "Psychology of Aggression"

  1. 1. Aggression And Violence By Heba Essawy Prof. Psychiatry
  2. 2. Definition Aggression refers to behavior between members that is :  Can be phycical or emotional.  Intended to cause pain or harm.  People can avoid such treatment or may fight back.
  3. 3. Violence and Excitement  Violence : Aggression by force. - Formed of destructive behavior that can endanger life or produce adverse effects on victims .  Excitement : ↑ psychomotor activity in psychiatric problem.
  4. 4. Forms Of Aggression  Aggresion has a defensive behavior is not normally considered "aggression.“  Forms of aggression: ** Physical. **Mental. **Verbal.
  5. 5. Situation Producing Aggression  Toxic and organic state (Substance abuse ).  Developmental Disability.  Florid Psychosis.  Conduct Disorder.  Psychological Stress.
  6. 6. Predictors Of Aggression  Enjoy in watching or inflicting harm.  Self View as Victim.  Childhood Deprivation.  Early Loss of parents.  Prior Violent Act.  Fire Setting , cruelty to animals.
  7. 7. MODELS OF AGGRESSION  Biological Basis of Aggression Anatomical. Biological. chromosomal  Psychological Psychoanalytical Humanistic Social Learning theory
  8. 8. Biological Basis of Aggression A) Anatomical Basis ( Neural Substrates): - Limbic System. - Amygdala. - Temporal Lobe. - Hypothalamus. - RAS. - Cerebral Cortex( modulate agg. Behavior).
  9. 9. LIMBIC SYSTEM MODEL CORTEX ↓ RAS ↓↓ Hippocampus Amygdala for For relaxation fight ▼ ▼ Hypothalamus
  10. 10. Neurotransmitters ♦ 5HT → Impulsive Bebavior. ♦NE → Arousal ♦DA→ Psychomotor agitation. ♦GABA → Disinhibition
  11. 11. Neuroendocrinal ♦Estrogen → ↓aggression in Receptive period. ♦Progesterone → Increase aggression. ♦Prolactin → Increase aggression( birds). ♦ ACTH → Modulate aggression. ♦Testosterone → Increase aggressive. ♦Thyroid Hormones→ Increase aggression
  12. 12. Psychological Model  1- Psychoanalytic Theory  2- Humanistic theory.  3-Social Learning Theory.
  13. 13. Psychoanalytic Theories  Aggression as an instinctive behavior ♦ Freudian: * Human behavior stemmed from interplay between two basic Instincts: ►Eros ( life , sex, reproduction). ► Thanatos( Death , aggression).
  14. 14. Psychoanalytic Theories  Aggression developed during : _ Oral Phase : pleasure of bitting . _ Fixation Of Instincts (enforce toilet training) : _ Impaired superego.
  15. 15. Psychoanalytic Theories  Impaired mother child relationship: _ punitive Parents. _ Sex Difference. _ Socio – economic Factors. Comments: * Catharsis: discharge of Thanatos. * Aggression is inevitable, Innate .
  16. 16. Psychoanalytic Theories  Lorenz s view - Fighting Instincts during evolution to Protect Human territory. - Direct Behavior Creativity &→ mastering. - Love & friendship can block aggression. ♣optimistic, can be rechallenged to non injurious acts as love, friendship
  17. 17. Psychoanalytic Theories  Addller s View: - Striving for Superiority. - perfection.  Mc Dougall s View :( instinct) - replace physical aggression to sarcastic smiles, Polished insulting words. * If fails , individual regerss to primitive way of behavior.
  18. 18. Humanistic Theory  Aggression is 1-A Product Of Frustration 2- resulting of blocking goal in life . SO, Frustration → arousal of drive → Harming persons or objects.
  19. 19. Humanistic Theory Basic Concepts ( Drive theory ) - Is elicited drive depends on external factors as pain humiliation loss of faith
  20. 20. Humanistic Theory 2- Frustration – Aggression theory **Arise from deprivation from basic human needs (Maslow). - To Control : Accepting environment. Fulfill basic needs. NO humiliation. →→ AGGRESSION is evitable through satisfaction of basic needs.
  21. 21. Social learning Theory  Albert Bandura s View: - Learned behavior . - Reinforced by rewards. - Not born with repertoire of aggression - Acquired through past experience .
  22. 22. Determinants of aggression  SOCIAL DETERMINANTS Frustration Direct Provocation Media Violence  Environmental Determinants.  Situational Determinants.
  23. 23. Social determinants Media Violence:  Disinhibition .  Desensitization.  Arousal of Aggressive feeling.  Encouragement Of Risk Taking.  ↑ exposure to violent material will ↑violent fantasies.
  24. 24. Social Determinants  Relies on : 1. Role Modeling . 2. Identification. 3. Human Interaction.  Learned By : * Imitation. * Reinforced
  25. 25. Enviromental Determinants  Air Pollution: *Exposure to noxious odors . * Chemical plants.  Noise.  Crowding .  Heat.
  26. 26. Situational Determinants  Heightened Physiological Arousal: - Stress. - Anxiety. - Participation in Competitive Activities. - Vigorous Exercise. - Exposure to Pain .
  27. 27. Prevention & Control Of Aggression  Punishment.  Catharsis.  Social Skill Training.  Induction Of Incompatible Behavior: 1. Empathy. 2. Humor. 3. Cognitive Task
  28. 28. Pharmacotherapy  - Drugs promote Serotonin.  - Drugs block dopamine (↓drive & motivation for aggression).  - Antiepileptic (↓Kindling).  - Mood stabilizer( Lithium ).  - Hormonal treatment.  - Psychosurgery
  29. 29. THANK S
  30. 30. CONTROL OF AGGRESSION  1- OPTIMISTIC VIEW: * Behavioral Therapy * Behavioral Cognetive Therapy.  2- Pessimistic view: * Observational. * Disinhibition . * Desensitization.
  31. 31. Television Violence  Has a short – term stimulation effect on aggressive behavior.  Portrays the world as a more hostile place.  Justified Violence.  Cues aggressive ideas in children.
  32. 32. How aggression begins ?  Conditions producing aggressive impulses.  Person have violent thoughts or fantasies.  If loose control, thoughts become acts.
  33. 33. COGNITIVE THEORY - Obtaining , organizing and using intellectual knowledge . - Mental operation & store bits in memory to be retrived. - relies on understanding. - Understanding the connection between cause and effect.
  34. 34. Situational Factors  Sexual Arousal: * Depend on the erotic material . * Erotica are mild → Aggression is low. * If Explicit ----------→ Aggression is high.  Pain: *Arouse agg. Drive. * Aggression to any target.
  35. 35. DEFINITION ♣ Forms of Aggression : ∂. Tendency to be physically assaultive : violence & force. ∂. Indirect expressed hostility. ∂. Verbally expressed anger. ∂. Humors. ∂. Rumors.
  36. 36. THANK s
  37. 37. Chromosomal Abnormalities  Twin Studies  Chromosomal influence.  In inborn error in metabolism.  Genetically determined diseases.
  38. 38. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS  Frustration: Aggression Always stems from frustration.  Direct Provocation: - Physical or Verbal Abuse. once begins Unsetting pattern of Escalation.
  39. 39. Defensive mechanism.  Projection .  Narcissism.  Repression.  Introjection .  Displacement.
  40. 40. Can We Predict Aggression ? Personal Factor :  Frequent Threats.  Access to instrument Of Violence.  Chronic Anger and Hostility .
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