By Heba Essawy
Aggression refers to behavior between
members that is :
Can be phycical or emotional.
Intended to cause pain or harm.
People can avoid such treatment or
may fight back.
Violence and Excitement
Violence : Aggression by force.
- Formed of destructive behavior that can
endanger life or produce adverse effects
on victims .
Excitement : ↑ psychomotor activity in
Forms Of Aggression
Aggresion has a defensive behavior is not
normally considered "aggression.“
Forms of aggression:
1- Psychoanalytic Theory
2- Humanistic theory.
3-Social Learning Theory.
Aggression as an instinctive behavior
* Human behavior stemmed from
interplay between two basic Instincts:
►Eros ( life , sex, reproduction).
► Thanatos( Death ,
Aggression developed during :
_ Oral Phase : pleasure of bitting .
_ Fixation Of Instincts (enforce toilet
_ Impaired superego.
Lorenz s view
- Fighting Instincts during evolution
to Protect Human territory.
- Direct Behavior Creativity &→
- Love & friendship can block
♣optimistic, can be rechallenged to
non injurious acts as love, friendship
Addller s View:
- Striving for Superiority.
Mc Dougall s View :( instinct)
- replace physical aggression to
sarcastic smiles, Polished insulting
* If fails , individual regerss to primitive
way of behavior.
1-A Product Of Frustration
2- resulting of blocking goal in life .
SO, Frustration → arousal of drive →
Harming persons or objects.
Basic Concepts ( Drive theory )
- Is elicited drive depends on external factors as
loss of faith
2- Frustration – Aggression theory
**Arise from deprivation from basic human
- To Control : Accepting environment.
Fulfill basic needs.
→→ AGGRESSION is evitable
through satisfaction of basic needs.
Social learning Theory
Albert Bandura s View:
- Learned behavior .
- Reinforced by rewards.
- Not born with repertoire of aggression
- Acquired through past experience .
Determinants of aggression
Arousal of Aggressive feeling.
Encouragement Of Risk Taking.
↑ exposure to violent material will ↑violent
Relies on :
1. Role Modeling .
3. Human Interaction.
Learned By :
*Exposure to noxious odors .
* Chemical plants.
Has a short – term stimulation effect on
Portrays the world as a more hostile place.
Cues aggressive ideas in children.
How aggression begins ?
Conditions producing aggressive
Person have violent thoughts or fantasies.
If loose control, thoughts become acts.
- Obtaining , organizing and using
intellectual knowledge .
- Mental operation & store bits in memory
to be retrived.
- relies on understanding.
- Understanding the connection between
cause and effect.
* Depend on the erotic material .
* Erotica are mild → Aggression is low.
* If Explicit ----------→ Aggression is
*Arouse agg. Drive.
* Aggression to any target.
♣ Forms of Aggression :
∂. Tendency to be physically
assaultive : violence & force.
∂. Indirect expressed hostility.
∂. Verbally expressed anger.