Psychology Of Aggression

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Defenition of aggression, Freud ,psychoanalysis , humanistic approach Adler , biology of aggression , predictor , prevention of aggression

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Psychology Of Aggression

  1. 1. Aggression And Violence By Heba Essawy Prof. Psychiatry
  2. 2. Definition Aggression refers to behavior between members that is :  Can be phycical or emotional.  Intended to cause pain or harm.  People can avoid such treatment or may fight back.
  3. 3. Violence and Excitement  - Violence : Aggression by force. Formed of destructive behavior that can endanger life or produce adverse effects on victims .  Excitement : ↑ psychomotor activity in psychiatric problem.
  4. 4. Forms Of Aggression  Aggresion has a defensive behavior is not normally considered "aggression.“  Forms of aggression: ** Physical. **Mental. **Verbal.
  5. 5. Situation Producing Aggression  Toxic and organic state (Substance abuse ).  Developmental Disability.  Florid Psychosis.  Conduct Disorder.  Psychological Stress.
  6. 6. Predictors Of Aggression  Enjoy in watching or inflicting harm.  Self View as Victim.  Childhood Deprivation.  Early Loss of parents.  Prior Violent Act.  Fire Setting , cruelty to animals.
  7. 7. MODELS OF AGGRESSION  Biological Basis of Aggression Anatomical. Biological. chromosomal  Psychological Psychoanalytical Humanistic Social Learning theory
  8. 8. Biological Basis of Aggression A) Anatomical Basis ( Neural Substrates): - Limbic System. - Amygdala. - Temporal Lobe. - Hypothalamus. - RAS. - Cerebral Cortex( modulate agg. Behavior).
  9. 9. LIMBIC SYSTEM MODEL CORTEX ↓ RAS ↓↓ Hippocampus Amygdala for For relaxation fight ▼ ▼ Hypothalamus
  10. 10. Neurotransmitters ♦ 5HT → Impulsive Bebavior. ♦NE → Arousal ♦DA→ Psychomotor agitation. ♦GABA → Disinhibition
  11. 11. Neuroendocrinal ♦Estrogen → ↓aggression in Receptive period. ♦Progesterone → Increase aggression. ♦Prolactin → Increase aggression( birds). ♦ ACTH → Modulate aggression. ♦Testosterone → Increase aggressive. ♦Thyroid Hormones→ Increase aggression
  12. 12. Psychological Model  1- Psychoanalytic Theory  2- Humanistic theory.  3-Social Learning Theory.
  13. 13. Psychoanalytic Theories  Aggression as an instinctive behavior ♦ Freudian: * Human behavior stemmed from interplay between two basic Instincts: ►Eros ( life , sex, reproduction). ► Thanatos( Death , aggression).
  14. 14. Psychoanalytic Theories  Aggression developed during : _ Oral Phase : pleasure of bitting . _ Fixation Of Instincts(enforce toilet training) : _ Impaired superego.
  15. 15. Psychoanalytic Theories  Impaired mother child relationship: _ punitive Parents. _ Sex Difference. _ Socio – economic Factors. Comments: * Catharsis: discharge of Thanatos. * Aggression is inevitable, Innate .
  16. 16. Psychoanalytic Theories  Lorenz s view - Fighting Instincts during evolution to Protect Human territory. - Direct Behavior → Creativity & mastering. - Love & friendship can block aggression. ♣optimistic, can be rechallenged to non injurious acts as love, friendship
  17. 17. Psychoanalytic Theories  Addller s View: - Striving for Superiority. - perfection.  Mc Dougall s View :( instinct) - replace physical aggression to sarcastic smiles, Polished insulting words. * If fails , individual regerss to primitive way of behavior.
  18. 18. Humanistic Theory  Aggression is 1-A Product Of Frustration 2- resulting of blocking goal in life . SO, Frustration → arousal of drive → Harming persons or objects.
  19. 19. Humanistic Theory Basic Concepts ( Drive theory ) - Is elicited drive depends on external factors as pain humiliation loss of faith
  20. 20. Humanistic Theory 2- Frustration – Aggression theory **Arise from deprivation from basic human needs (Maslow). - To Control : Accepting environment. Fulfill basic needs. NO humiliation. →→ AGGRESSION is evitable through satisfaction of basic needs.
  21. 21. Social learning Theory  Albert Bandura s View: - Learned behavior . - Reinforced by rewards. - Not born with repertoire of aggression - Acquired through past experience .
  22. 22. Determinants of aggression  SOCIAL DETERMINANTS Frustration Direct Provocation Media Violence  Environmental Determinants.  Situational Determinants.
  23. 23. Social determinants Media Violence:  Disinhibition .  Desensitization.  Arousal of Aggressive feeling.  Encouragement Of Risk Taking.  ↑ exposure to violent material will ↑violent fantasies.
  24. 24. Television Violence  Has a short – term stimulation effect on aggressive behavior.  Portrays the world as a more hostile place.  Justified Violence.  Cues aggressive ideas in children.
  25. 25. Social Determinants  1. 2. 3.  Relies on : Role Modeling . Identification. Human Interaction. Learned By : * Imitation. * Reinforced
  26. 26. Enviromental Determinants  Air    Pollution: *Exposure to noxious odors . * Chemical plants. Noise. Crowding . Heat.
  27. 27. Situational Determinants  Heightened Physiological Arousal: - Stress. - Anxiety. - Participation in Competitive Activities. - Vigorous Exercise. - Exposure to Pain .
  28. 28. Prevention & Control Of Aggression     1. 2. 3. Punishment. Catharsis. Social Skill Training. Induction Of Incompatible Behavior: Empathy. Humor. Cognitive Task
  29. 29. Pharmacotherapy - Drugs promote Serotonin.  - Drugs block dopamine (↓drive & motivation for aggression).  - Antiepileptic (↓Kindling).  - Mood stabilizer( Lithium ).  - Hormonal treatment.  - Psychosurgery 
  30. 30. THANK S 
  31. 31. CONTROL OF AGGRESSION  1- OPTIMISTIC VIEW: * Behavioral Therapy * Behavioral Cognetive Therapy.  2- Pessimistic view: * Observational. * Disinhibition . * Desensitization.
  32. 32. How aggression begins ? Conditions producing aggressive impulses.  Person have violent thoughts or fantasies.  If loose control, thoughts become acts. 
  33. 33. COGNITIVE THEORY - Obtaining , organizing and using intellectual knowledge . - Mental operation & store bits in memory to be retrived. - relies on understanding. - Understanding the connection between cause and effect.
  34. 34. Situational Factors  Sexual Arousal: * Depend on the erotic material . * Erotica are mild → Aggression is low. * If Explicit ----------→ Aggression is high.  Pain: *Arouse agg. Drive. * Aggression to any target.
  35. 35. DEFINITION ♣ Forms of Aggression : ∂. Tendency to be physically assaultive : violence & force. ∂. Indirect expressed hostility. ∂. Verbally expressed anger. ∂. Humors. ∂. Rumors.
  36. 36. THANK s
  37. 37. Chromosomal Abnormalities  Twin Studies  Chromosomal  In influence. inborn error in metabolism.  Genetically determined diseases.
  38. 38. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS  Frustration: Aggression Always stems from frustration.  Direct Provocation: - Physical or Verbal Abuse. once begins Unsetting pattern of Escalation.
  39. 39. Defensive  Projection .  Narcissism.  Repression.  Introjection .  Displacement. mechanism.
  40. 40. Can We Predict Aggression ? Personal Factor :  Frequent Threats.  Access to instrument Of Violence.  Chronic Anger and Hostility .

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