Brw Memo & Letter Lect[1]. 3


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  • Brw Memo & Letter Lect[1]. 3

    1. 1. Business English <ul><li>English used in offices is not quite the same as everyday English. It is somewhat formal in style because it is usually used between two persons who are more concerned about business rather than the maintenance of their personal relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>To do business, it is most important that the other party understands clearly what you want to say. To be a writer in clear business English, you can resort to the following to skills: detail and format. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Business Letters
    3. 3. <ul><li>Overview of Business Letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of Letter Parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dateline and Letter Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salutation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter Parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Letter Format </li></ul><ul><li>Letter Placement </li></ul>
    4. 4. Overview of Letter Parts <ul><li>Letterhead </li></ul><ul><li>Dateline </li></ul><ul><li>Letter Address </li></ul><ul><li>Salutation </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Complimentary Closing </li></ul><ul><li>Writer’s Name and Title </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Initials </li></ul>
    5. 5. Dateline and Letter Address <ul><li>Dateline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date letter is mailed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QS below dateline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Letter address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person who receives the letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include personal title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One space before Zip Code </li></ul></ul>One space before Zip Code Include personal title
    6. 6. Salutation <ul><li>Salutation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salutation is the greeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open punctuation requires no mark following the salutation </li></ul></ul>No punctuation following the salutation
    7. 7. Proper Salutations <ul><li>Ladies and Gentlemen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate when the letter is addressed to a company </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dear title and surname </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard letter address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use professional titles (Dr., Rev.) or personal titles (generally Mr. or Ms.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Dear Mr. McDonald </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Letter Parts <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body is the message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complimentary closing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The complimentary closing is the farewell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writer’s name and title </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QS below complimentary close </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reference initials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initials of the typists in lowercase </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Block Letter Style <ul><li>All lines begin at left margin </li></ul><ul><li>Default side margins </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical position: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center the page vertically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position dateline 2.3” to 3” from the top of the page, depending on length of the letter </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Length Margins Position on Page </li></ul><ul><li>Short (1-2¶) Default Center page </li></ul><ul><li>Average (3-4¶) Default Center page or </li></ul><ul><li>Dateline 2.7” from top </li></ul><ul><li>Long (4 or more¶) Default Center page or </li></ul><ul><li>Dateline 2.3” from top </li></ul>Letter Placement Table
    11. 11. Centering Letter on Page File Page setup Layout tab Vertical alignment Center
    12. 12. Print Preview <ul><li>Shows how a document will look when it is printed. </li></ul><ul><li>Use it to check the placement and format of the letter before printing. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Steps to Creating a Letter <ul><li>Key the letter </li></ul><ul><li>Use correct spacing between parts </li></ul><ul><li>Correct errors </li></ul><ul><li>Check the spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Delete extra hard returns (¶) above date or below initials </li></ul><ul><li>Center letter on page </li></ul><ul><li>Use Print Preview to check placement </li></ul><ul><li>Position date manually if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Print, proofread, edit if necessary </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>LETTER RUBRIC </li></ul><ul><li>Trait 5 3 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose included in first paragraphComplete and accurate detailsInformation conciseAudience and information matchPurpose not as clear nor in first paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Some information missingNot as conciseAudience and information don’t match as wellPurpose unclearIncomplete, inaccurateNot conciseAudience and information do not match Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Information is pertinentLetter concludes with what is expected of writer or readerLimited to one page if possibleKey information easy to spotStraight forward mannerLetter indicates what is expected of writer or readerLimited to one page if possibleKey information can be located with a little workReader confusedNo indication of what is expected of writer or readerLetter length is not appropriate Key information difficult to locate Style and Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Language clearCourteous voiceTechnical terms and vocabulary used only when necessaryLanguage occasionally unclearCongenial voiceTechnical terms sometimes used when not neededLanguage unclearUncongenial VoiceTechnical terms clutter text or unnecessary Format, Layout and Conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Layout attractive and balanced; block styleLetter addressed to a specific personStandard business letter format, which includes—date, inside address, salutation, closing, a return address either in the letterhead or with the dateKey ideas standout (bold, italics, numbered list)Free from error (mailable document)Appropriate layoutLetter addressed to a specific personStandard business letter format missing some piecesKey ideas emphasized inefficientlyMailable with reservation; no spelling errors Layout clutteredLetter not addressed to a specific personStandard business letter format incorrectKey ideas not emphasizedNot mailable; spelling errors </li></ul>
    15. 15. Detail <ul><li>People believe a good businessman is a person who pays sufficient attention to details. Similarly, your attention to the details of what you want to write can ensure the quality of your writing. Compare the following two sentences from business letters. </li></ul><ul><li>(1)   It is my pleasure to inform you that your application has been approved … . </li></ul><ul><li>(2)    I am happy to inform you that your application for our MA program has been approved … . </li></ul><ul><li>The mention of the detail of the application has at least two implications: the writer is considerate in that he supplies sufficient information so that there will be no mistake in the purpose of the correspondence, and the writer is professional because of his miss-nothing manner. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Format <ul><li>Format in business communications saves people time and increase efficiency. People in practice found that certain forms served most of the purposes and hence the appearance of format in business writing. </li></ul><ul><li>We are all familiar with the forms of business letter, which consists of head, logo, sender ’ s address, date, receiver ’ s address, reference, salutation, body, closing, signature, and enclosure. The body of a letter also follows some format. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Format <ul><li>Paragraph 1: purpose of the letter. You should tell the addressee what this letter is for. Some detailed information about the cause of this letter should also be mentioned, but should not be too much. The paragraph should not be long; most people write the paragraph in just one sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph 2: detail of the letter. Here you should provide detailed information about the issue of the letter: its possible causes, present condition, facts you discover, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph 3: measures to be taken or suggestions made. This part is about something in the future. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Sample: Business letter <ul><li>Dear Mr. Fan, </li></ul><ul><li>According to the report of our credit department, your balance of $9023.00 for household electrical appliances supplied to you on December 6 last year and January 6 this year is overdue on February 6. </li></ul><ul><li>We sent you detailed statements of account on December 28 last year and January 28 this year, but as these may not have reached you, you are taking this opportunity of sending you a further copy of this statement. If you have settled this account since receiving our most recent statement, please ignore this reminder and accept my apologies for troubling you further in this matter. If, however, you have not yet settled this account, we greatly appreciate your prompt payment of this sum. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for your attention to this matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Yours sincerely, </li></ul><ul><li>(signed) </li></ul><ul><li>Zhang San </li></ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul>
    19. 19. Letters and Memos <ul><li>Orient the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Stick to the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Make points quickly with good news </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually build up to bad news </li></ul><ul><li>Provide necessary background for your explanation but avoid excessive details </li></ul><ul><li>Put yourself in the readers position when reviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Make the document professional looking </li></ul>
    20. 20. Business Memo
    21. 21. Memo <ul><li>Memo is the shorthand for memorandum, a note that can be formal or informal circulating usually within the organization. It can be used to keep a written record, to instruct to take actions, to inform of decisions, to explain policies, to answer a request, to remind of events, etc. </li></ul>
    22. 22. What is a memo? <ul><li>“ Memos solve problems” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform reader of new information (i.e., policy changes, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuade reader to take action (i.e., attend meeting, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-house business letter </li></ul>
    23. 23. Memo versus Letter <ul><li>Reader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating within your organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Except if several levels above your or formal situation (i.e., Human Resources) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signature/Closing </li></ul><ul><li>Wordiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memos make it easier for reader to get right at the info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters tend to be more dense </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Memo: Audience and Purpose <ul><li>Memos have a twofold purpose: they bring attention to problems and they solve problems. They accomplish their goals by informing the reader about new information like policy changes, price increases, or by persuading the reader to take an action, such as attend a meeting, or change a current production procedure. Regardless of the specific goal, memos are most effective when they connect the purpose of the writer with the interests and needs of the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the audience of the memo wisely. Ensure that all of the people that the memo is addressed to need to read the memo. If it is an issue involving only one person, do not send the memo to the entire office. Also, be certain that material is not too sensitive to put in a memo; sometimes the best forms of communication are face-to-face interaction or a phone call. Memos are most effectively used when sent to a small to moderate amount of people to communicate company or job objectives. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Format <ul><li>Header </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TO: (readers’ names and job titles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: (your name and job title) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DATE: (complete and current date) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBJECT: (what the memo is about) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be formal with names and titles </li></ul><ul><li>Be concise with subject line </li></ul>
    26. 26. Format, con’t <ul><li>Purpose of memo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context and problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background info </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Format, con’t <ul><li>Details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide problem </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Format, con’t <ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongest --> weakest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use lists when possible </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Format, con’t <ul><li>Closing remark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courteous ending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider how action will benefit the reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No signature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I look forward to hearing from you…” etc </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Format, con’t <ul><li>Attachments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include list of attachments in header or bottom of memo </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Styles notes <ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps reader skim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numbered and bulleted lists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes information readily accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formatting (bold, italics, etc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps important information stand out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paragraphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep them short and to the point </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Keep in mind <ul><li>Keep it short </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence structure </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Strong, active verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Conciseness </li></ul>
    33. 33. Memo assignment/Presentation <ul><li>1-2 page(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Follow guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Assign readings </li></ul><ul><li>Give discussion questions </li></ul>
    34. 34. Memo: Parts of a Memo <ul><li>Heading Segment </li></ul><ul><li>Opening Segment </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Task Segment </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Segment </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Segments </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Segment </li></ul>
    35. 35. Parts of a Memo <ul><li>The heading segment follows this general format: </li></ul><ul><li>MEMO TO: (readers' names and job titles) FROM: (your name and job title) DATE: (complete and current date) SUBJECT: (what the memo is about) </li></ul>Heading
    36. 36. In the heading, be Sure to… <ul><li>Address the reader by correct name and job title. </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific and concise in your subject line. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, &quot;Rats&quot; as a subject line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could refer to production problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or personal frustration. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead, &quot;Curtailing Rat Extremity Parts in our Product.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Heading Segment <ul><li>The heading segment follows this general format: </li></ul><ul><li>TO: (readers' names and job titles) </li></ul><ul><li>FROM: (your name and job title) </li></ul><ul><li>DATE: (complete and current date) </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT: (what the memo is about, highlighted in some way) </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you address the reader by his or her correct name and job title. You might call the company president &quot;Maxi&quot; on the golf course or in an informal note, but &quot;Rita Maxwell, President&quot; would be more appropriate for a formal memo. Be specific and concise in your subject line. For example, &quot;Clothes&quot; as a subject line could mean anything from a dress code update to a production issue. Instead use something like, &quot;Fall Clothes Line Promotion.&quot; </li></ul>
    38. 38. Memo Heading <ul><li>To: Dr. …., Curriculum Director </li></ul><ul><li>From: Lee, Head Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Date: March 7, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Re: Proposal for New Oral Presentation Component </li></ul>
    39. 39. Business Memo <ul><li>Memos solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective when they connect </li></ul>purpose of writer needs of reader <ul><li>Provide Information </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretend you are the recipient and ask: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. How is this relevant to me? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. What, specifically, do you want me to do? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. What's in it for me? </li></ul></ul></ul>Or Both
    40. 40. Opening Segment <ul><li>The purpose of a memo is usually found in the opening paragraph and includes: the purpose of the memo, the context and problem, and the specific assignment or task. Before indulging the reader with details and the context, give the reader a brief overview of what the memo will be about. Choosing how specific your introduction will be depends on your memo plan style. The more direct the memo plan, the more explicit the introduction should be. Including the purpose of the memo will help clarify the reason the audience should read this document. The introduction should be brief, and should be approximately the length of a short paragraph. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Opening <ul><li>Context !!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>event, circumstance, or background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph or a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;In our effort to reduce rat parts in our product....&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only what your reader needs, but comprehensive and clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>you should describe what you are doing to address the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;You asked that I look at....&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;To determine the best way of controlling rat extremities, I will....&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YOUR reason for writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT is in the rest of the memo. kind of information included. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;This memo presents a description of the current situation, some proposed alternatives, and my recommendations.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Context <ul><li>The context is the event, circumstance, or background of the problem you are solving. You may use a paragraph or a few sentences to establish the background and state the problem. Oftentimes it is sufficient to use the opening of a sentence to completely explain the context, such as, </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Through market research and analysis...“ </li></ul><ul><li>Include only what your reader needs, but be sure it is clear. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Task Segment <ul><li>One essential portion of a memo is the task statement where you should describe what you are doing to help solve the problem. If the action was requested, your task may be indicated by a sentence opening like, </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;You asked that I look at....“ </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to explain your intentions, you might say, </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;To determine the best method of promoting the new fall line, I will....&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Include only as much information as is needed by the decision-makers in the context, but be convincing that a real problem exists. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Summary Segment <ul><li>If your memo is longer than a page, you may want to include a separate summary segment. However, this section not necessary for short memos and should not take up a significant amount of space. This segment provides a brief statement of the key recommendations you have reached. These will help your reader understand the key points of the memo immediately. This segment may also include references to methods and sources you have used in your research. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Summary (for longer than 1 page) <ul><li>Brief statement of the key recommendations you have reached. </li></ul><ul><li>Include references to methods and sources you have used in your research, but remember to keep it brief. </li></ul><ul><li>You can help your reader by using headings for the summary and the discussion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., instead of &quot;Summary&quot; try &quot;New Rat-Part Elimination System,&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The headings you choose here should appear in your purpose-statement forecast. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Discussion Segments <ul><li>The discussion segments are the longest portions of the memo, and are the parts in which you include all the details that support your ideas. Begin with the information that is most important. This may mean that you will start with key findings or recommendations. Start with your most general information and move to your specific or supporting facts. (Be sure to use the same format when including details: strongest to weakest.) The discussion segments include the supporting ideas, facts, and research that back up your argument in the memo. Include strong points and evidence to persuade the reader to follow your recommended actions. If this section is inadequate, the memo will not be as effective as it could be. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Discussion <ul><li>Details: Keep these two things in mind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with most important information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key findings or recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inverted pyramid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with your most general information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to your specific or supporting facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or Details: strongest weakest </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Closing Segment <ul><li>After the reader has absorbed all of your information, you want to close with a courteous ending that states what action you want your reader to take. Make sure you consider how the reader will benefit from the desired actions and how you can make those actions easier. For example, you might say, </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I will be glad to discuss this recommendation with you during our Tuesday trip to the spa and follow through on any decisions you make.&quot; </li></ul>
    49. 49. Closing <ul><li>Courteous ending that states what action you want the reader to take. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How the reader will benefit from the actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you can make those actions easier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually no signature on memo </li></ul>
    50. 50. Attachments <ul><li>Refer to attached documents, lists, graphs, tables, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. “Attached: Several Complaints about Product, January - June 1997” </li></ul>
    51. 51. Dear Sophia: It was great talking to you on the phone the other day, and I want to confirm the arrangements we made for the fashion shoot. As we briefly discussed, the shoot will feature all of your upcoming Spring Kuku Designs collection, and we will be using the Central Park Zoo for our location. We are supplying all models, props and equipment, and we will be picking up all clothing from you on September 25 -- a list of which you will be sending me this week (as we arranged). I will call you as soon as I receive your clothing list. At that time, I would love for us to have lunch together. Looking forward to hearing from you. Yours truly, Pat Klodowsky <or insert signature> cc: Max Photo Inc. Encl: Detailed location site for shooting TO: FROM: DATE: SUBJECT: Sophia Hawkins, Fashion Director, Kuku Designs Pat Klodowsky, Editor, BeeBop Magazine September 10, 1994 Fashion shoot on October 3, 1994
    52. 52. To: Robert Smith,Manager From: Dina Hu, Secretary Subject: Reply to Our Inquiry for Jinhua Hams Date: June 25, 2007 There was a call for you from Chen Shengde, Assistant Manager of Jinhua Ham Company. He says they have received our inquiry about supply and price of Jinhua hams. He quotes as follows: 1. They can supply to us superior hams,packed in in standard export cardboard cartons. The quantity is five thousand metric tons. 2. The price is US $ xxx per metric ton, free alongside ship, Ningbo. 3. Two weeks after they received the letter of credit, they will send them by the first available ship to our country direct. 4. 100% by irrevocable and confirmed letter of credit to be opened in their favor through one A1 bank in Singapore and to be drawn at sight. Please call me (ext. 8970) if you have any questions.