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Phil 101 intro sp13

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  • 1. Philosophy 101 Finding meaning in Life
  • 2. Philosophy is:A search for meaning and truthThe general beliefs and attitudes of an individual or group
  • 3. Philosophy is:A search for meaning and truthThe general beliefs and attitudes of an individual or group
  • 4. Philosophy is: A search for meaning and truth “If there is a meaning in life at all, then there must be a meaning in suffering. Suffering is an ineradicable part of life, even as fate and death. Without suffering and death, Human life cannot be complete.” - Frankel
  • 5. Philosophy is: A search for meaning and truth The body of principles underlying a branch of learning or major discipline The why or motivation behind the things we think, say, and do
  • 6. Philosophy is: Original Definition “Love of Wisdom” Definition was developed by Socrates Knowledge of what is true or right coupled with just judgment as to action
  • 7. Philosophy is: Original Definition The asking of questions about the meaning of our most basic concepts. Need good definitions of concepts How do we obtain our philosophical beliefs? Can our philosophical beliefs be rationally justified?
  • 8. Philosophy is: The Study of Everything…doesn’t think about different things… Thinks about things differently• Logic – How we ought to think• Epistemology – the nature and source of knowledge• Metaphysics – is physical reality all there is?• Religion – questions about God, evil, and faith
  • 9. Philosophy is: The Study of Everything…doesn’t think about different things… Thinks about things differently• Ethics – How do we decide what is right and wrong• Political – is a government legitimate…just, and whatare its limits? How about freedom?• Others – education, history, language
  • 10. Philosophy is: The Value of Learning to present an argument or defense for beliefs you hold• Motivation – why you hold them• Goals – what you want from them• Coming up with creative answers to old questions• Causes growth and maturity
  • 11. Philosophy is: Socrates The Philosopher is a person liberated by wisdom • Had a higher calling • Most important thing was not success and wealth, but the health of the soul. • Pointed out the frailty (or depravity) of man • Virtue was the source of success
  • 12. Philosophy is: Socrates The Philosopher is a person liberated by wisdom • What would make an idea dangerous? • What ideas are uncomfortable, troubling, or dangerous? Why? • What ideas are worth living or dying for? • How important is having a sense of mission?
  • 13. Philosophy is: Socrates The Philosopher is a person liberated by wisdom • The real danger in life is not death, but living and evil life • We should not be willing to say or do anything to avoid death, thinking that by corrupting our souls we have gained any advantage.
  • 14. Philosophy is: Socrates The Socratic Method • Find the issue • Isolate a key philosophical term • Profess ignorance and request help • Gain a definition • Ask questions to expose a weakness • Produces second definition • Face ignorance..ready to begin search for wisdom…or find excuse to change subject
  • 15. Philosophy 101 Finding meaning in Life
  • 16. Philosophy is: Plato’s Allegory of the Cave • Video • Who are the Prisoners? • What are the Shadows? • Reality vs. Our assumptions • What is enlightenment? • Why don’t the chained prisoners understand their freed friend?
  • 17. Philosophy is: Justice vs. Righteousness• What is the difference between Justice and Righteousness
  • 18. Philosophy is: Justice vs. Righteousness • Righteousness • characterized by uprightness or morality: a righteous observance of the law • morally right or justifiable: righteous indignation • acting in an upright, moral way; virtuous: a righteous and godly person.
  • 19. Philosophy is: Justice vs. Righteousness • Justice • rightfulness or lawfulness, as of a claim or title; justness of ground or reason: to complain with justice. • the moral principle determining just conduct. • the principle that punishment should be proportionate to the offence
  • 20. Philosophy is: Justice vs. Righteousness • Justice • to bring order to reality • external • Righteousness • conformity to an absolute standard • internal
  • 21. Philosophy 101 Finding meaning in Life
  • 22. Philosophy is: Descartes• First Meditations: • Method of Doubt • Will not accept as true anything of which he cannot be absolutely certain • Practically everything seems open to doubt, even the existence of the external world • Malicious Demon – creating a virtual world
  • 23. Philosophy is: Descartes• Second Meditations: • “I think, therefore I am.” • This “I” that exists is a thing that thinks • Cannot be deceived if I do not exist • If there is are material things (external world), its essential nature would be an extension, grasped by the mind and not the senses.
  • 24. Philosophy is: According to Descartes, we can know that various propositions are true via pure reason.• The Wax Argument has two stages: Stage 1: The Argument from Change. Stage 2: The Argument from Intellection. • The Wax Argument stated: Consider a piece of wax—call it ‘Bob’—sitting on the mantle at some time t. 1. At t, Bob is cold, solid, orb-shaped, etc., whereas at t+1, Bob is warm, liquid, non-orb-shaped, etc. (Call these qualities sensory qualities.)
  • 25. Philosophy is:• The Wax Argument : 2. If an object O loses a property F and continues to exist, then F is not part of O’s essence. It follows that: 3. None of Bob’s sensory qualities are part of Bob’s essence. So, 4. I do not know Bob’s essential properties via my sense perceptual faculties (i.e., a posteriori). 5. I do know Bob’s essential properties—it is extended, changeable, and flexible.
  • 26. Philosophy is:• The Wax Argument : 6. Now either I know Bob’s essential properties via my faculty of imagination or via the intellect (i.e., it is known a priori). Yet, 7. The wax can be extended, changed and flexed in ways that I cannot accurately grasp via my faculty of imagination. Accordingly, 8. I cannot know Bob’s essential properties via my faculty of imagination. Therefore, 9. I know Bob’s essential properties via the intellect (i.e., a priori).
  • 27. Philosophy is: Descartes• Third Meditations: • “Whatever I perceive very clearly and distinctly is true.” • The mind contains an idea of a infinite being • Being merely finite, it could not have invented such an idea • The idea of an infinite being must have been placed in the mind by the infinite being itself. Therefore this infinite being (God) exists.
  • 28. Philosophy is: Locke• Essay Concerning Human Understanding: • Tabula Rasa – a blank slate - rejects endowed innate principles • Ideas are imprinted through experience • All ideas arise through sensation or reflection • Quality – the power by which an object can produce an idea in our mind Primary – resembles the object and really exist in it, i.e. figure, extension, motion and rest Secondary – don’t resemble or exist in it, i.e. color, sound, or taste.
  • 29. Philosophy is: Quiz• Epistemology • Deals with questions concerning knowledge • Considers various theories of Knowledge• Questions • Is it possible to have knowledge at all? • Does reason provide us with knowledge of the world independently of experience? • Does our knowledge represent reality as reality is?
  • 30. Philosophy is: Mid-Term Paper• Descarte and Nietzsche • What were their philosophical views • What impact do they have on the way we think• Paper • 4-5 pages – double spaced • Bibliography – 3-4 sources other then the text book
  • 31. Philosophy 101 Finding meaning in Life
  • 32. Philosophy is: Nietzsche • Video • What does he believe? • Does it affect how you think today? • Truth and Absolutes • According to Nietzsche what is the root cause of truth? • How about the “Will to Power”? The Madman
  • 33. Philosophy 101 Finding meaning in Life Finding God
  • 34. Philosophy is: St Thomas Aquinas • Video • What is the First Cause Argument? • 5 ways • What About Experience? • Video • Where does reason fit in?
  • 35. Philosophy 101C.S. Lewis
  • 36. Philosophy 101 Finding meaning in Life Finding God
  • 37. Philosophy is: Final Paper• Morals and Ethics impact how we relate to each otherand operate within society • Show how the existence (or absence) of God, the presence of evil, as well as Kantian Ethics influence our individual and cultural ethics and morals• Paper • 4-5 pages – double spaced • Bibliography – 3-4 sources other then the text book
  • 38. Kantian Philosophy is: “The obligation to do our duty is unconditional. Thatis, we must do it for the sake of duty, because it is the right thing to do, not because it will profit us psychologically, or economically, not because if we don’t do it and get caught we’ll be punished. The categorical imperative was Kant’s name for this inbred, self-imposed restraint, for the command of conscience within that tells us that the only true moral act is done from a pure sense of duty.” -- Admiral James Stockdale
  • 39. Kantian Philosophy is: WILL and the GOOD WILL: - A power of self-determination via rational deliberation - Not the same as desire or inclination (animals can not will) - The only thing conceivable that can be taken as good without qualification - It’s virtue is completely separate from any end MAXIM (intention) - A personal rule on which we make our decisions - The principle on which the actor sees himself or herself acting
  • 40. Kantian Philosophy is: DUTY - Inbred, Self Imposed - The obligation required of us as rational beings - In order for an act to be morally praiseworthy, it must be done for the sake of duty -Shopkeeper - It is all about MAXIMS
  • 41. Kantian Philosophy is:Categorical Imperative• Supreme Principle of Morality - Motives are more important than consequences1. Universalization2. The Formula of the End in Itself3. Using Persons as Mere Means4. Treating Person as End in Themselves5. Intentions and Results

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