Digital History and Text MiningFor HIST 511, Topics in Public History: Digital History                October 13, 2011    ...
Overview of Talk•       Some complexities of text:    –     Tagging    –     Multiple versions of a work    –     Some fre...
Humans use text in many ways …           Top: My photo of wall decorative pattern in the Miracle Mile Shops, Las Vegas, NV...
Online visitors can add tags.                                                                                             ...
Unfortunately, access to tag data seems limited.
Using visitor feedback to improve tags …                                User gets to choose                               ...
Folksonomy: Study of tags• There’s tension between “controlled vocabulary” approach of library  science and individualism ...
It takes several steps to obtainan electronic version of a text.                                                          ...
This image is from an 1845 editionscanned by Google and availablefrom: http://books.google.com/books
Pick an edition and then       convert to electronic text.“Many of our most popular eBooks started out with huge errorleve...
Gutenberg.org EBook #46,which includes scans of John Leech’s illustrations.
Raw TextMarley was dead: to begin with. There is no doubt whatever about that. The register of hisburial was signed by the...
A Christmas Carol is relatively simple …• It’s a novella• Written in only six weeks   – Dickens wanted to publish in time ...
A Christmas Carol:         1868 reading version vs. 1843 original versionMARLEY was dead, to begin with. There is no doubt...
For contrast consider Chaucer’s            “The Wife of Bath” from The Canterbury Tales,                 which has no orig...
Many applications exist for analyzing text …• Google lab’s “Books Ngram Viewer”• Trendistic’s analysis of tweets• Many Eye...
Google labs’ “Books Ngram Viewer”                 http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/
Free tool: http://Trendistic.indextank.com/Michelle Bachmann’s Gardasil claim occurred on 9/12/2011.
IBM’s “Many Eyes” athttp://www-958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/
Four visualization tools available as of 10-2011                                 There are already over                   ...
Example of “Phrase Net”
Visualization of Jane Austin’s Sense and Sensibility                            by Matthew Hurst, posted on his blog,     ...
A Taste of Text Mining:         Analyzing Text with Computers•  Extracting information from the Web  – Power of regular ex...
Extracting Information from the Web• This is done continuously by spiders written by  companies like Google to update thei...
Turkel harvests the online   Dictionary of Canadian Biography (DCB).This Web site allowssearches using a form.Their terms ...
A Browser TrickForm submission can beautomated because:(1) the queries areshown in the URL box(2) These queries havepatter...
Below are the URLs for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th         requests for 20 Canadian records.•   http://www.biographi.ca/009...
Only eight lines of Perl code downloads     all 592 DCB URLs for Canadians flourishing prior to 1700.use LWP::Simple;open ...
A Small Sample of the Downloaded DCB Links<td><a href="009004-110.01-e.php?&q10=I&sk=1&s=3&PHPSESSID=s7drhd5m5ac4dem8vgqq2...
Now we download the biographies themselves and     print them to canadian_bios.txt.use LWP::Simple;open (IN, "canadian_bio...
The results are still in HTML,            but another program can remove the HTML tags.                                   ...
Now extract dates with a concordancing program.Key is constructing regularexpressions (regexes) to find text atext pattern...
Complication: Dates have more than one use.Dates have many uses andconventions, which complicatestheir analysis:• Although...
Years Appearing in Volume 1 of the DCB:           My Results (top) v. Turkel’s (bottom)Turkel points out that many ofthe d...
Term-Document Matrix For The DCB• Here documents are the biographies and terms  are years.• Each person’s biography is sea...
Part of the DCB Name-Year Matrix
Angles between Canadians in the DCB           This output is from the programming language Mathematica.
Which Canadians are the most alike       with respect to years noted in DCB?• Louis Gaudais-Dupont and Mézy de Saffray  – ...
Wordle.net word cloud using the DCB                  Easier to do, but less informative.
References•   Language and Computers: A Practical Introduction to the Computer Analysis of Language     – Geoff Barnbrook•...
Learning to Program• From teaching STAT 527, students vary in their like of  programming. However, it’s powerful so worth ...
eXtensible Markup Language (XML)                              and the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)<text> <body><div0><he...
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Hist 511 digital history and text mining 2011

  1. 1. Digital History and Text MiningFor HIST 511, Topics in Public History: Digital History October 13, 2011 By Roger Bilisoly, Ph.D. Department of Mathematical Sciences, CCSU
  2. 2. Overview of Talk• Some complexities of text: – Tagging – Multiple versions of a work – Some free visualization tools• An extended example analyzing the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. This example was inspired by Associate Professor William Turkel’s discussion posted in his (now inactive) blog “Digital History Hacks.”
  3. 3. Humans use text in many ways … Top: My photo of wall decorative pattern in the Miracle Mile Shops, Las Vegas, NV http://www.flickr.com/photos/66082566@N00/4281884117/ Right: an English Hieroglyphic Bible published by Isaiah Thomas in 1788. This is from the “Early American Imprints” database. Left: King Ashur-nasir-pal at Brooklyn Museum, photo by wallyg http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/2440285854/sizes/m/
  4. 4. Online visitors can add tags. Anyone can join the “Posse” and contribute.http://www.guerrillagirls.com/ Tags are given by users and vetted by staff. More on tagging: http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/community/blogosphere/2008/07/15/collection-preview-and-re-thinking-tagging/ http://www.steve.museum/
  5. 5. Unfortunately, access to tag data seems limited.
  6. 6. Using visitor feedback to improve tags … User gets to choose one of the following: keep it (green), trash it (red), not sure (yellow).
  7. 7. Folksonomy: Study of tags• There’s tension between “controlled vocabulary” approach of library science and individualism of tagging.• Analysis of tags is still young: tag listing and clouds are still common at Flickr.com, Delicious.com, etc. Possible future analyses: • Collocations popular in linguistics, which would be more informative. • Short phrases instead of single words.
  8. 8. It takes several steps to obtainan electronic version of a text. Original manuscript is at the Morgan Library and Museum in New York City, and this facsimile is available online at the NYTimes.com. http://documents.nytimes.com/looking-over-the-shoulder-of-charles-dickens-the-man-who-wrote-of-a-christmas-carol http://www.themorgan.org/home.asp
  9. 9. This image is from an 1845 editionscanned by Google and availablefrom: http://books.google.com/books
  10. 10. Pick an edition and then convert to electronic text.“Many of our most popular eBooks started out with huge errorlevels--only later did they come to the more polished levelsseen today. In fact, many of our eBooks were done totallywithout any supervision--by people who had never heard ofProject Gutenberg--and only sent to us after the fact.”This quote by Michael Hart is from:http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gutenberg:Project_Gutenberg_Mission_Statement_by_Michael_Hart
  11. 11. Gutenberg.org EBook #46,which includes scans of John Leech’s illustrations.
  12. 12. Raw TextMarley was dead: to begin with. There is no doubt whatever about that. The register of hisburial was signed by the clergyman, the clerk, the undertaker, and the chief mourner. Scroogesigned it: and Scrooge’s name was good upon ’Change, for anything he chose to put his handto. Old Marley was as dead as a door-nail.Mind! I don’t mean to say that I know, of my own knowledge, what there is particularly deadabout a door-nail. I might have been inclined, myself, to regard a coffin-nail as the deadestpiece of ironmongery in the trade. But the wisdom of our ancestors is in the simile; and myunhallowed hands shall not disturb it, or the Country’s done for. You will therefore permit meto repeat, emphatically, that Marley was as dead as a door-nail.Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he did. How could it be otherwise? Scrooge and hewere partners for I don’t know how many years. Scrooge was his sole executor, his soleadministrator, his sole assign, his sole residuary legatee, his sole friend, and sole mourner.And even Scrooge was not so dreadfully cut up by the sad event, but that he was anexcellent man of business on the very day of the funeral, and solemnised it with anundoubted bargain.
  13. 13. A Christmas Carol is relatively simple …• It’s a novella• Written in only six weeks – Dickens wanted to publish in time for the Christmas of 1843.• Modifications were made later: – Dickens modified text for his readings, which started in 1858 (See example next slide.) – However, there have been many adaptations. The first was for the theater in 1844 (not by Dickens, though.) – See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_A_Christmas_Carol_adaptations
  14. 14. A Christmas Carol: 1868 reading version vs. 1843 original versionMARLEY was dead, to begin with. There is no doubt whatever about Marley was dead: to begin with. There is no doubt whatever aboutthat. The register of his burial was signed by the clergyman, the that. The register of his burial was signed by the clergyman, theclerk, the undertaker, and the chief mourner. Scrooge signed it. And clerk, the undertaker, and the chief mourner. Scrooge signed it: andScrooges name was good upon Change for anything he chose to Scrooge’s name was good upon ’Change, for anything he chose toput his hand to. put his hand to. Old Marley was as dead as a door-nail.Old Marley was as dead as a door-nail. Mind! I don’t mean to say that I know, of my own knowledge, what there is particularly dead about a door-nail. I might have been inclined, myself, to regard a coffin-nail as the deadest piece of ironmongery in the trade. But the wisdom of our ancestors is in the simile; and my unhallowed hands shall not disturb it, or the Country’s done for. You will therefore permit me to repeat, emphatically, that Marley was as dead as a door-nail.Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he did. How could it be Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he did. How could it beotherwise? Scrooge and he were partners for I dont know how many otherwise? Scrooge and he were partners for I don’t know how manyyears. Scrooge was his sole executor, his sole administrator, his years. Scrooge was his sole executor, his sole administrator, hissole assign, his sole residuary legatee, his sole friend, his sole sole assign, his sole residuary legatee, his sole friend, and solemourner. mourner. And even Scrooge was not so dreadfully cut up by the sad event, but that he was an excellent man of business on the very day of the funeral, and solemnised it with an undoubted bargain.1868 version condensed by Dickens for The 1845 version seen earlier.his readings. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/46/46-h/46-h.htmhttp://gaslight.mtroyal.ca/carol.htm
  15. 15. For contrast consider Chaucer’s “The Wife of Bath” from The Canterbury Tales, which has no original manuscripts.Ellesmere ms. Lansdowne ms.Experience / though noon Auctoritee Experiment þouhe none auctoriteWere in this world / were right ynogh to me Where in þis werlde is riht y-nouhe for meTo speke of wo / that is in mariage To speke of woo þat is in mariageffor lordynges / sith I .xij. yeer was of Age For lordeinges sen .I. twelue ȝere was of AgeHengwrt ms. Harleian ms.Experience / thogh noon Auctoritee Experiens þough noon auctoriteWere in this world / is right ynogh for me were in þis world. it were ynough for meTo speke of wo / that is in mariage To speke of wo þat is in mariageffor lordynges / sith þat I twelf yeer was of age For lordyngs syns I twelf ȝer was of ageCambridge ms. Petworth ms.Experyment / þough none auctoryte Experience thouȝe noon autoriteWere in þis worlde is riȝt/ ynouȝe for me were in þis world riȝt ynouȝe for meTo speke of woo þat ys in mariage To speke of woo þat is in mariageffor lordynges siþen I twelfe yere was of age ffor lordingges siþ I twelue ȝere was of ageCorpus ms. The Cambridge ms. completed by Egerton ms.Experiment þough non auctorite. Experience / though noon auctoriteeWere in þis world is right ynough for me Were in this world / is right I-now for meTo speke of wo þat is in mariage To speken of woo / that is in mariageffor lordynges syn I twelue ȝeer was of age / ffor lordynges / syn I twelue ȝer was of age Manuscripts available at http://www.kankedort.net/ECT_manuscripts.htm
  16. 16. Many applications exist for analyzing text …• Google lab’s “Books Ngram Viewer”• Trendistic’s analysis of tweets• Many Eyes project by IBM
  17. 17. Google labs’ “Books Ngram Viewer” http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/
  18. 18. Free tool: http://Trendistic.indextank.com/Michelle Bachmann’s Gardasil claim occurred on 9/12/2011.
  19. 19. IBM’s “Many Eyes” athttp://www-958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/
  20. 20. Four visualization tools available as of 10-2011 There are already over 230,000 data sets available, and you can upload yours. This Jane Austen data set was already uploaded.
  21. 21. Example of “Phrase Net”
  22. 22. Visualization of Jane Austin’s Sense and Sensibility by Matthew Hurst, posted on his blog, Text Mining, Visualization and Social Media on 9-24-2011.Lucy (Steele) is highlighted on the left.Common keywords are on the right.Each line represents one chapter. From http://datamining.typepad.com/
  23. 23. A Taste of Text Mining: Analyzing Text with Computers• Extracting information from the Web – Power of regular expressions – Example used here inspired by William Turkel (Associate Professor of History at the University of Western Ontario)• Concordancing – A powerful technique from corpus linguistics – Example here uses corpus obtained by Turkel’s approach – Introduction of some information retrieval (IR) ideas
  24. 24. Extracting Information from the Web• This is done continuously by spiders written by companies like Google to update their search engines.• Crawling the Web requires sophisticated programming, but scraping info from a particular site is not so hard.• Following example based on ideas given in 6 blog posts at “Digital History Hacks” by William Turkel: – http://digitalhistoryhacks.blogspot.com/2006/01/text-mining-dcb-part-1.html – http://digitalhistoryhacks.blogspot.com/2006/01/text-mining-dcb-part-2.html – http://digitalhistoryhacks.blogspot.com/2006/02/text-mining-dcb-part-3.html – http://digitalhistoryhacks.blogspot.com/2006/02/text-mining-dcb-part-4.html – http://digitalhistoryhacks.blogspot.com/2006/02/text-mining-dcb-part-5.html – http://digitalhistoryhacks.blogspot.com/2006/03/text-mining-dcb-part-6.html
  25. 25. Turkel harvests the online Dictionary of Canadian Biography (DCB).This Web site allowssearches using a form.Their terms of use,however, does notforbid downloading alltheir records.What is not forbiddenmust be done!
  26. 26. A Browser TrickForm submission can beautomated because:(1) the queries areshown in the URL box(2) These queries havepatternsTwo stages:(1) Obtain all the 592 links to Canadians.(2) For each link, access it via a program and grab its HTML.
  27. 27. Below are the URLs for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th requests for 20 Canadian records.• http://www.biographi.ca/009004-110.01- e.php?PHPSESSID=06378al70rmt2mu4ho8mf7c952&q2=&q3=&q10=I&q7 =&q5=&q1=&interval=20• http://www.biographi.ca/009004-110.01- e.php?q2=&q3=&q10=I&q7=&q5=&q1=&interval=20&sk=21&&PHPSESSID =06378al70rmt2mu4ho8mf7c952• http://www.biographi.ca/009004-110.01- e.php?q2=&q3=&q10=I&q7=&q5=&q1=&interval=20&sk=41&&&PHPSESSI D=06378al70rmt2mu4ho8mf7c952• http://www.biographi.ca/009004-110.01- e.php?q2=&q3=&q10=I&q7=&q5=&q1=&interval=20&sk=61&&&&PHPSES SID=06378al70rmt2mu4ho8mf7c952 # Records Starting Point
  28. 28. Only eight lines of Perl code downloads all 592 DCB URLs for Canadians flourishing prior to 1700.use LWP::Simple;open (OUT, ">canadian_bio.txt");$url_part1 = http://www.biographi.ca/009004-110.01-e.php?q2=&q3=&q10=I&q7=&q5=&q1=&interval=100&sk=;$url_part2 = &&PHPSESSID=s7drhd5m5ac4dem8vgqq2ppgh7;for ($i = 1; $i < 601; $i += 100) { $doc = get "$url_part1$i$url_part2"; print OUT "$docnnn";}close(OUT); The reason this is so short is that there is a module LWP that has commands to work with the Web. $doc = get "$url_part1$i$url_part2"; This line of code queries the DCB Web page, and the returned HTML is stored in the variable $doc.
  29. 29. A Small Sample of the Downloaded DCB Links<td><a href="009004-110.01-e.php?&q10=I&sk=1&s=3&PHPSESSID=s7drhd5m5ac4dem8vgqq2ppgh7">Descending</a></td </tr> <tr> <td class="td_data">1.</td> <td class="td_data"><a href="009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=1&interval=100&&PHPSESSID=s7drhd5m5ac4dem8vgqq2ppgh7">ABRAHAM, JOHN</a></td> <td class="td_data">1000-1700 (Volume I)</td></tr> <tr> <td class="td_data">2.</td> <td class="td_data"><a href="009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=2&interval=100&&PHPSESSID=s7drhd5m5ac4dem8vgqq2ppgh7">AERNOUTSZ, JURRIAEN</a></td> <td class="td_data">1000-1700 (Volume I)</td></tr> <tr> <td class="td_data">3.</td> <td class="td_data"><a href="009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=3&interval=100&&PHPSESSID=s7drhd5m5ac4dem8vgqq2ppgh7">AGARIATA</a></td> <td class="td_data">1000-1700 (Volume I)</td></tr> <tr> <td class="td_data">4.</td> <td class="td_data"><a href="009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=4&interval=100&&PHPSESSID=s7drhd5m5ac4dem8vgqq2ppgh7">AGRAMONTE, JUAN DE</a></td> <td class="td_data">1000-1700 (Volume I)</td></tr> We want the URLs to each individual Canadian, which is contained in the <a href=“…”> lines above (the URLs are bolded and in red.) These are extracted ( with Perl) and then used to download each biography (again with Perl).
  30. 30. Now we download the biographies themselves and print them to canadian_bios.txt.use LWP::Simple;open (IN, "canadian_biography_urls.txt");open (OUT, ">canadian_bios.txt");while (<IN>) { chomp; sleep(1); # Be a polite spider $doc = get "$_"; # Download biographies @lines = split(/n/, $doc); $flag = 0; foreach $x (@lines) { if ($x =~ /</BODY>/) { $flag = 0 } if ($flag) { print OUT "$xn" } # Print out biography if ($x =~ /<BODY>/) { $flag = 1 } }}
  31. 31. The results are still in HTML, but another program can remove the HTML tags. <P CLASS="ParagraphFormat"><B>ABRAHAM</B>, <B>JOHN</B>, governor of Port Nelson; fl.1672–89.</P> <P CLASS="ParagraphFormat"> He joined the HBC about 1672 and served in James Bay 1672–75and 1676–78 under Governor Charles B<SPAN CLASS="SmallCaps">ayly</SPAN>,against whom he brought charges of mismanagement. In 1679 Abraham was appointedsecond to John N<SPAN CLASS="SmallCaps">ixon</SPAN>, Bayly’ssuccessor and although he absconded with an advance of salary at sailing time,he was engaged in 1681 as mate of the <I>Diligence</I>(Capt. N<SPAN CLASS="SmallCaps">ehemiah </SPAN>W<SPAN CLASS="SmallCaps">alker</SPAN>) and wintered in James Bay.</SPAN></P> All the HTML tags are in <>, which can be removed by a program: ABRAHAM, JOHN, governor of Port Nelson; fl. 1672–89. He joined the HBC about 1672 and served in James Bay 1672–75 and 1676–78 under Governor Charles Bayly, against whom he brought charges of mismanagement. In 1679 Abraham was appointed second to John Nixon, Bayly’s successor and although he absconded with an advance of salary at sailing time, he was engaged in 1681 as mate of the Diligence (Capt. Nehemiah Walker) and wintered in James Bay. Note that the top version is still valid HTML:
  32. 32. Now extract dates with a concordancing program.Key is constructing regularexpressions (regexes) to find text atext pattern of interest, which is a 4digit number starting with 1 in thiscase.$target = (D1dddD);D stands for non-digitd stands for digitAt right, all the matches of the regexabove are shown after sorting. Bylooking at this concordance, a varietyof patterns emerge. The concordancing program is from Chapter 6 of Bilisoly’s PTMP.
  33. 33. Complication: Dates have more than one use.Dates have many uses andconventions, which complicatestheir analysis:• Although volume 1 of the DCBcovers 1000-1700, there arereferences to modern texts,hence dates in the 20th centuryappear.• There are range of dates (e.g.,1495-1521)• Dates followed by questionmarks (e.g., 1522?)• Dates in square brackets (noneshown here).• And so forth …
  34. 34. Years Appearing in Volume 1 of the DCB: My Results (top) v. Turkel’s (bottom)Turkel points out that many ofthe date-peaks do correspondto notable events in earlyCanadian history. Forexample, 1498 was Cabot’ssecond voyage, and 1666 wasthe first census of New France. Top produced by me using SAS. Bottom from http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/4745/1988/1600/dcbo-vol1-dates.jpg
  35. 35. Term-Document Matrix For The DCB• Here documents are the biographies and terms are years.• Each person’s biography is searched for years.• Remember that there are complications. – Range of years: 1495-1521 – Years in doubt use a question mark: 1522? – Years of publication for references: (London, 1962)
  36. 36. Part of the DCB Name-Year Matrix
  37. 37. Angles between Canadians in the DCB This output is from the programming language Mathematica.
  38. 38. Which Canadians are the most alike with respect to years noted in DCB?• Louis Gaudais-Dupont and Mézy de Saffray – 1661,1662,1663 (6 times), 1664 – 1663 (8 times), 1664 (3 times), 1665 (twice) – Angle between them is 21.5°• Thalour du Perron and Sieur de Monts – 1662 (twice), 1663 (twice), 1668 – 1662 (3 times), 1663 (twice) – Angle between them is 22.4°
  39. 39. Wordle.net word cloud using the DCB Easier to do, but less informative.
  40. 40. References• Language and Computers: A Practical Introduction to the Computer Analysis of Language – Geoff Barnbrook• Practical Text Mining with Perl (PTMP) – Roger Bilisoly• Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use – Biber, Conrad and Reppen• Concept Data Analysis: Theory and Applications – Claudio Corpineto and Giovanni Romano (a more technical book)• Programming for Linguists: Perl for Language Researchers – Michael Hammond• Corpora in Applied Linguistics – Susan Hunston• Beginning Regular Expressions – Andrew Watt• Text Mining: Predictive Methods for Analyzing Unstructured Information – Shalom Weiss, Nitin Indurkhya, Tong Zhang and Fred Damerau (a more technical book)• Geometry and Meaning – Dominic Widdows
  41. 41. Learning to Program• From teaching STAT 527, students vary in their like of programming. However, it’s powerful so worth trying if it sounds interesting to you.• Try “The Programming Historian” – Teaches Python – By William J. Turkel, Adam Crymble and Alan MacEachern – http://niche-canada.org/programming-historian/ • NICHE = Network in Canadian History & Environment • NICHE = Nouvelle initiative canadienne en histoire de l’environnement Also see William Turkel’s home page: http://history.uwo.ca/faculty/turkel/, which links to his now defunct blog, “Digital History Hacks.”
  42. 42. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)<text> <body><div0><head>The following is a Copy of a LETTER sent by the The DCB used HTML uses tags to inform aAuthors Master to the Publisher. No year tags! </head><div1> Web browser how to display its biographies. It would be useful to have additional tags<p n="1"> <name reg="Wheatley, Phillis" type="personal">PHILLIS</name> that encode information for humanwas brought from <name rend="italic" type="geographical">Africa</name> to<name type="geographical" key="italic">America</name>, in the Year 1761, consumption. A protocol called XML (a formbetween Seven and Eight Years of Age. Without any Assistance from School Education, of SGML) was created to do just this. Theand by only what she was taught in the Family, she, in sixteen Months Time from her Arrival, XML tags are red at left.attained the English Language, to which she was an utter Stranger before, to such a Degree,as to read any, the most difficult Parts of the Sacred Writings, to the great Astonishment of allwho heard her. </p> The TEI Consortium organization (http://www.tei-c.org/index.xml) produces<p n="2">As to her WRITING, her own Curiosity led her to it;and this she learnt in so short a Time, that in the Year 1765, she wrote a Letter to the standards and encourages the encoding of<name reg="Occum, Samson" type="personal">Rev. Mr. OCCOM</name> information in literary and linguistic texts.<note resp="editor" type="biographical">Samson Occum (1723-1792) was a convertedMohegan Indian who became a Christian minister. He was a friend of Susanna Wheatley,Phillis Wheatleys mistress, and a friend and correspondent of Phillis Wheatley.</note>, Unfortunately, this kind of tagging is done bythe <name type="ethnological" rend="italic">Indian</name> Minister, while in humans at present (see example at left),<name type="geographical" rend="italic">England</name>. </p> which is labor intensive.<p n="3">She has a great Inclination to learn the Latin Tongue, and has made someProgress in it. This Relation is given by her Master who bought her, and with whomshe now lives. </p><signed><name reg="Wheatley, John" type="personal">JOHN WHEATLEY</name>.</signed><dateline rend="italic"><name rend="italic" type="geographical">Boston</name>,<date><distinct rend="italic">Nov.</distinct> 14, 1772</date>.</dateline> </div1></div0></body></text> </TEI.2> Letter from John Wheatley to the Publisher sent Nov. 14, 1772. From the Early Americas Digital Archive (http://www.mith2.umd.edu/eada/) Supported by Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH) http://www.mith2.umd.edu/eada/html/display.php?docs=wheatley_letter.xml&action=show

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