World war i
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World war i



History 102

History 102



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    World war i World war i Presentation Transcript

    • ALLIANCES • Allied Powers (Allies): Great Britain. France, Russia, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire • Europe was made up of a system of alliances • Triple Entente • Great Britain • France • Russia • Triple Alliance • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Italy
    • TRIPLE ENTENTE • Fear of Germany • When Germany broke with Russia in 1890, France courted Russia instead • Urged investment, supplied weapons to the tsar, arranged for fleet vists • In 1894, France and Russia entered an alliance, ending Bismarck’s isolation of France • Britain Concerned by Germany’s decision to build a great navy • France was then eager to gain Britain as an ally
    • CONTUINE • German attempts to disrupt their new association failed, and French tried to improve relations between its new allies Britain and Russia • Two events convinced Russia to do so: • Humiliating Defeat in Russo-Japanese War of 1905 • Working-Class revolution in 1905 • Europe now broken into two hostile camps: • Triple Entente: France, Russia and Britain • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
    • GERMAN REACTION • Germany denounced the Triple Entente as a Hostile Coalition set on crushing Germany • Felt that Austria-Hungary must no be weakened at all costs • But there Were mistakes being made here: • Germany overstressed hostile nature of the largely defensive Triple Entente • Linking German security to Austria increased the chance of war • In Contrast to Bismarck, the new leadership focused on Strengthening rather than restraining Austria, and even going to war if necessary
    • WEAPONS • Poisson Gas • German military scientist experimented with chlorine and mustard gas as a weapon • Gas in Battle was risky: Soldiers didn’t know how much to use and wind changes could backfire the gas • Then German threw canisters of gas into the Allies’ Trenches • Although some expressed regret about using gas, the British and French used gas too
    • WEAPONS • Airplanes • Both sides used planes too map and to attack trenches from above • Planes first dropped bricks and heavy objects on enemy troops • Soon they mounted guns and bombs on planes • Skilled pilots fought in air battle called dogfights • Tanks • When soldiers began to carry gas masks, they still faced a stalemate • British forces soon developed armored tanks to move into no- man’s-land • These tanks had limited success because many got stuck in mud • Germans soon found ways to destroy the tanks with artillery fire
    • SUBMARINE WARFARE • 1917 Germany announced “ Unlimited submarine Warfare” in the war zone • Why? • Otherwise their blockade would not be successful
    • WHO DECLARE WAR ON WHO • Austria declare war on Serbia • Serbia declare war on Austria • Russia declare war on Austria • German declare war on Austria • German declare war on Russia • German declare war on Belgium • France declare war on German • Great Britian declare war on German • Turkey declare war on Great Britain, France, and Russia
    • POLITICAL LEADERS ALLIES • Untied States: Woodrow Wilson • Great Britain: David Lloyd George • Italy; Vittorio Orlando • France: Georges Clemenceau • Russia: Czar Nicholas II • Would eventually be ousted as Czar during the Russian Revolution • Vladimir I. Lenin would Assume Control
    • GAVRILO PRINCIP • Gavrilo Princip was a member of a Serbiam terrorist organization known as the black hand
    • FRANZ FERDINAND • December 18, 1863 –June 28,1914 • He was killed by Gavrilo Princip • His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated the declaration of war
    • JOSEPH JOFFRE • France-German General • In 1913 he carried out his plan 17 and invaded Lorraine and Aedenned in Germany • He took command of the French Army • Blamed for losses at the Western Front and Verdun he was replaced by Robert Nivelle in 1916
    • ROBERT NIVELLE • Robert Nivelle was an artillery colonel in August 1914 • He was replaced by Henri Phillippe Petain in May 1917 and spent the rest of his career in North Africa
    • PHILIPPE PETAIN • French General
    • GENERAL PAUL VON HINDENBURG • Fought in the battle of Koniggratz and the Franco=Prussian War in the 1800’s4 • Retired from the German Army in 1911, but was called back at the outbreak of World War I • He did not oppose Adolf Hitler and he even appointed Hilter Chancellor
    • GRIGORI RASPUTION • Assassinated Franz Ferdinand • Was an Anarchist and member of Organization Unification or also called the black hand • Leader of Serbia • Provoked the beginning of the War
    • PAVEL MILYUKOV • Liberal • Public business man
    • CZAR NICHOLAS II • Ordered legislature to disband • His order defied • Citizens, government, military refused to obey Czar • Forced to abdicate March 15,1917
    • ALEXANDER KERENSKY • Part of parliament • Was a lawyer for 30 years
    • VLADIMIR LENIN • Bolshevik leader forced to live outside od Russia • Returned in April 1917 • Germany hoped lenin would weaken the Russia war effort • Lenin became a leader • Established radical communist program • Made private ownership of land illegal • Land given to the peasants • Control of factories given to workers
    • ALFRED GRAF VON SCHLIEFFEN • Created the Schlieffen Plan • Was a German Chief • He participated in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 • He was involved in the France- Prussian War of 1870-1817 • Alfred retired as Chief of General Staff of the German Army in 1906, but created the Schlieffen Plan in 1914
    • WOODROW WILSON • President of the United States • Made United States Neutral at the WWI until 1917 • In 1918, he promoted United States to be involve in the Great War • He was president of Princeton University • He received the Nobel Peace Prize because of the 14 point
    • WILHELM II • German Emperor • Last king of Prussia • Died in Berlin on June 4, 1914 • He had a large involvement in WWI decisions
    • MUTUAL DEFENSE PACT • One goes to war, we all go to war • If someone breaks the treaty then the treaty is no longer good • States how the terror will be divide, if they won the war ( The secret treaty)
    • BLACK HAND • Specializes in bombing and assassination • Organize terrorist groups • They had Russia spies • Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by the black hand on June 28,1914
    • ZIMMERMAN NOTEE • U.S. intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico • If Promised Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back in return for an Alliance • Written by Arthur Zimmermann: German Ambassador to Mexico • “If Mexico would join the Germany against the U.S., then Germany promised to restore New Mexico, Texas and Arizona to Mexico.” • Germany then proceeds to target American Merchant ships “Without Warning”
    • STALEMATE • What’s a Stalemate? • Neither side can make a move to win • Machine guns • Trench warfare=“Solution” • Millions die without gaining ground
    • SCHLIEFFEN PLAN • What was the Schlieffen Plan? • Germany had enemies on two side: Russia to the east and France to the west. It looked as though Germany would have to split its powerful army into two. • General Von Schlieffen had worked out a plan as long ago as 1895. He calculated that: • As Russia was a vast country and poorly organized, the Russian army would be slow to get ready • The German left would keep the main French army busy • German right would invade France through Belgium, cross northern France and Capture Paris. France would then turn to deal with Russia.
    • CONTINUE • Purpose: Make Germany the most powerful nation in Europe • Strategy: To attack France (by crossing Belgium) • It failed because of: • Belgium Resistance • 1st bBattle of Marne
    • THE FIRST BATTLE OF MARNE • Date • 5 September- 13 September 1914 • Place • Along the Marne River (France) • Was Fought on the Marne River near Paris, France • The French and Britain fought against the German • This Battle was important because Paris was a big location to take over and it would have been bad if Germany took control
    • THE 2ND BATTLE AT MARNE • Was fought on the Marne River neat Paris, France • Germany was trying again to advance on Paris but the French counterattacked • The French fought off the Germans in the end • This Battle was important because it was the first sign of the ending of World War One
    • BATTLE OF VERDUN (1916) • Verdun was a massive French fortress. The German commander calculated that if he attacked Verdun, the French would defend it to the last man. If, two Frenchmen died for every German, France would be “bled white” and have to surrender. • Was fought in Verdun, France • This battle was between the French and the German Empire • The French won the battle when the French pushed the Germans off Verdun
    • THE BATTLE OF SOMME (1916) • To relieve pressure on Verdun, the French asked the British commander: General Douglas Haig, to attack further along the line, Haig ordered a 5-day artillery barrage then, on 1 July 1916; 100,00 British soldiers went over the top. They had been told they would be able to walk into the German Trenches, • Battle of the Somme-German victory, huge British and French casualties • Was fought along the Somme River in France • France and Britain fought Germany until Germany final withdrew from the battle
    • THE BATTLE OF YPRES (1917) • This battle began in July but the British advance was soon bogged down in deep mud. • By November; 265,000 men had been killed for a gain of about 8 kilometers.
    • THE BATTLE OF TANNENBERG • This battle was fought between the Germany and Russia • This battle tool place in Tannenberg on August 23 through August 30, 1914 • The Russians had ,ore soldiers than the Germans • This battle was one of the first battles to occur during World War on e • For a while, Russia had the upper hand • Russia didn’t know that were falling into the Germans trap of “encirclement” • This battle was eventually won by Germany and proved to be Germans greatest victory during the first world war
    • TIMETABLE • How long something would take to change things into a military area/ base • How fast it would take to move the troops around • They had the times down to the secound
    • TRENCH WARFARE • Lasted 1914-1918 • Trenches became deeper and more complex
    • SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA • May 7,1915 • Lusitania sunk off coast of Ireland by a German U-boat • Was a civilian ship • Sunk within 18 minutes • 1,198 killed: Most were women and children • 128 Americans killed
    • WOMEN’S BATTALION OF DEATH • 1917 Women saw • 1st group of women who to see battle and died
    • CHRISTMAS TRUCE • The Christmas Truce was probably the only thing good that came out of the trench warfare • This truce started on Christmas Eve of 1914 on Western Fro • All you had to do was sit in the trench and keep watch when it was your turn • This truce began when people, both enemies and friends started singing Christmas carols
    • TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK • Pulls Russia out of the war • Russia lost a big chunk of their land to German • Plus, they had to pay German $5 billion for backing out of the war
    • TREATY OF VERSAILLED • Germany was held personally responsible for the war and was force to pay the reparations to the Allies • Germany was forced to cede Alsace-Lorraine, Coal Mines in Saar to France • Most of the West Prussia and Posen was given to Poland • The Rhine was demilitarized • All colonies and possessions were released • All war materials given to allies
    • THE “GREAT WAR” ENDS • By Oct. 1918: the tide of the war been turned and Germany wanted Peace • Wilson offered the 14 point peace plan • To “ Make the world safe for democracy” • #1-5 = International Law Recommendations • # 6-13 = European boundary restructure • #14= League of Nations • November 11,1918 • Armistice signed • The 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month 1918 • 8,000,000 Soldiers killed