Plants

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Plants

  1. 1. Plants
  2. 2. Are Plants Heterotrophic or Autotrophic?  Plants are autotrophs  Autotrophs- they create their own food
  3. 3. Aboveground parts of the plant and their Function:  Aboveground: Shoots  Leaves stems: produce food by photosynthesis  Flowers: reproduction  Aboveground: steam and leaf  Major stem  Secondary stems branch off  Terminal bud: shoot tip  Auxiliary bud: location of secondary stem growth  Petiole: stalk attaching leaf to stem  Node :location on stem of left attachment
  4. 4. Belowground portions of the plant and their functions  Belowground: roots  Absorb water and minerals  Store food
  5. 5. Apical meristem  located on the top of the plant and on the bottom of the root. It is where cell division is taking place and the plant is growing vertically.  Contain unspecialized cells  Lengthen shoots and roots  Located at the tip of the shoot and the bottom of the root
  6. 6. Lateral Meristem  located around the plant. It is where cell division is taking place and the plant is growing hora  Increases girth of older roots and stem  Cylindrical arrays of cells zontally.
  7. 7. Eudicots and Monocots  Eudicots  Have two cotyledons  Vascular tissue is arranged n a ring  Monocots  Have one cotyledons  Vascular tissue arranged in random
  8. 8. Vascular Tissue  Vascular tissue: transport water and nutrients  Xylem  transports water  Conducts water  2 cells: vessel member and tracheid's  dead at maturity  Interconnected for vertical and lateral water movement  Phloem  Transport nutrition (food)  Conducts sugar  One cell: sieve member  Alive at maturity  Connect end to end  Helper cell: companion cells  Loads of surgar
  9. 9. Leaf Tissues  Mesophy II  Photosynthetic tissue between the epidermis  2 rows, columnar shaped  Contain 80% of chloroplasts  Spongy: attached to lower epidermis  Epiderams  Single layer of cells  Upper and lower epidermis secrete waves into the outer surface forming the caticle  Helps conserve water and protects
  10. 10. Stomata and Guard cells  Guard cells  Regulate the gas exchange and water loss  Control stomata opening and closing  Contain chloroplast  Expand and contract with water gain and loss  Stomata  Pores in the lower epidermis  Allow water and gas diffusion  Help cool the leaf  Are simply the holes in the leaf where gas exchange and water loss take place
  11. 11. Root Structure  Primary root: main root  Tip is the apical meristem  Contains the root cap  Protects the root with slime  Sense gravity  Secondary roots (lateral): branch off from main root  Root hair: small extensions
  12. 12. Flower Structure  Receptacle: swelling at tip off peduncle  Attachment for other flower parts  Petals: inside of sepals  Brightly colored to attract pollinators  Collectively called the corolla  Sepals: outermost flower part  A small and green  Protects  Collectively called the calyx
  13. 13. Male Structure of the flower  Stamen  Located next to the petals  2 parts  Anther: sac at top  Produces pollen  Male gamete  Filament  Semi-rigid stalk
  14. 14. Female Structures of the Flowers  Carpel: sprats  Style: slender stalk  Stigma: enlargement at top  Gathers pollen during fertilization  Ovary: swollen bases  Holds ovules  Female gamete  Become seeds when fertilized  Ovary becomes fruit
  15. 15. Pollination and fertilization  Pollination: pollen grains released from an anther land on a stigma  Pollination is the delivery of pollen to the female structure of the plant  Fertilization: fusion of egg and sperm  actual coming together of the sperm and the egg.
  16. 16. Adaptation of life of land  Resistance to desiccation (drying Out)  Caticle: waxy coating to keep water in  Stomata: allow gases to pass in and out  Division of labor: leaves, stems, roots  Symbiotic relationship with fungi aid in nutrient acquisition  Vascularization: transport water to tissues  Changes in life cycle  Pollen, seeds, flowers: eliminate need for water to transport sperm
  17. 17. Angiosperms and Gymnosperms  Gymnosperm  have “naked seeds  Seeds don’t form inside an ovary  4groups  Conifers  Cycade  Ginlrgas  gnetophytes  Angiosperms  Flowering plant  Ovules and(after fertilization) seeds are enclosed in an ovary  3 major groups:  Magnolids: 9,200 species, suchas pepper plants  Eudicats: 170,000 species, including daisies  Monocats- 20 species, including grass
  18. 18. Seed Dispersal  Fruit structure is adapted seeds  Wind currents  Water current  Wax coats or air sacs to float  Animals  Have hooks or are sticky  Attach to fur and feathers  Eat fruits and excrete seeds  Explosions: self dispersal
  19. 19. Leaching and Erosin  Leaching: removal of nutrients in soil by water percolating through it  Erosin: washing away of soil by wind flowing water and ice
  20. 20. Purpose of Roots  Anchor the aboveground plat parts  Absorb nutrients and water  Storage and reduce endrosin
  21. 21. Root structures  Root cap: protects as it lengthens  Region of cell division: apical meristem  Region of Elongation: cells lengthen and widen  Region of maturation:maturecells differentiate into different types
  22. 22. Cohesion-tension theory of water  Water moves from high to low concentration due to osmosis  Transportation occurs at all plant surface exposed to air  Parts of xylem cells in tension  Extends from leaves to steam to roots
  23. 23. Phototropism  When plant adjust the rate and direction of growth in response to light  Results in more efficient photosynthesis
  24. 24. Photoperiodiism  A biological response to change in length of daylight relative to darkness
  25. 25. Thigmotroposm  A shift in growth due to an object  Guided by auxin and ethylene

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