27:GLOBALIZATION AND ITS
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AID TO FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT
• More commonly known as “welfare.”
• Grants of money to the states, with strict limits on how long recipients
could receive payments
• was a federal assistance program in effect from 1935 to 1996 created
by the Social Security Act and administered by the United States
Department of Health and Human Services that provided financial
assistance to children whose families had low or no income.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
• December 1999, delegates from around the world gathered in Seattle for a
meeting of the World Trade Organization
• A 135 nation group created five years earlier to reduce barriers to
international commerce and settle trade disputes
• is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade
between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and
signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their
PERSIAN GULF WAR
• a war fought between Iraq and a coalition led by the United States that
freed Kuwait from Iraqi invaders; 1990-1991
• Internal Look, a U.S. war game, shows Saudi Arabia could be
defended against Iraqi invaders, but at terrible cost.
• Secret Israeli delegation flies to Washington to stress likelihood of
Iraqi attack on Israel if war begins
• United Nation deadline for Iraqi withdrawal. Schwarzkopf accuses Air Force
of ignoring orders by not including Republican Guard in initial bombing
• Navy attacks Iraqi oil tanker, triggering Schwarzkopf's threat of court-martial.
British high command, alarmed at aircraft losses, abandons low-altitude
attacks against airfields
• Schwarzkopf explodes at slow pace of VII Corps. 101st Airborne Division
cuts Highway 8 in Euphrates Valley. Iraqis counterattack 1st Marine Division.
Scud destroys barracks in Al Khobar, killing twenty- eight Americans and
CLINTON IN OFFICE
• First two year in office, Clinton turned away from some of the social
and economic policies of the Regan and Bush years
• Appointed several blacks and women in his cabinet
• Modified the military’s strict ban on gay soldiers
EARNED INCOME TAX CREDIT
• Cash payment for low income workers begun during the Ford
• Most effective antipoverty policy since the Great Society
• First female attorney general
• Served as the Attorney General of the United States, from 1993 to
2001. She was nominated by President Bill Clinton on February 11,
1993, and confirmed on March 11, 1993
NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE
• an international trade agreement between the United States, Canada,
NATIVE AMERICAN RIGHTS FUND
• Native American Rights Fund (NARF) is the oldest and largest
nonprofit law firm dedicated to asserting and defending the
rights of Indian tribes, organizations and individuals nationwide.
BUSH VS. GORE
• The U.S. Supreme Court decision in which the Court held that
Florida's scheme for recounting presidential election ballots was
• The oddest in Supreme Court history
• 1990s, the court had reasserted the powers of the states within the
federal system, reinforcing their immunity from lawsuits by individuals
who claimed to be victims of discrimination and denying the power of
Congress to force state to carry federal policies
• most complex foreign policy crisis of the Clinton years arose from the
disintegration of Yugoslavia, a multi-ethnic state in southeastern
Europe. Within a few years, the country’s six provinces dissolved into
five new states. Ethnic conflict plagued several of these new nations.
• 1998, it became known that Clinton had carried on an affair with
Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern. After a report was published,
a vote was taken in December 1998 by the Republican-controlled
House of Representatives voted to impeach Clinton for perjury and
obstruction of justice.
CASEY V. PLANNED PARENTHOOD OF
• Reaffirmed women’s rights to obtain abortion
• Decision allowed states to enact mandatory waiting periods and anti-
abortion counselling, but it was overturned a requirement that the husband
be given notification before the procedure was undertaken
• was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in which the
constitutionality of several Pennsylvania state regulations regarding abortion
PATTERSON V. MCLEAN CREDIT UNION
• The Court barred a black employee who suffered racial harassment
while working from suing for damages under the Civil Rights Act of
• Law, the justices maintained, only prohibited discrimination at the
moment of signing a contract, not on job
DEFENSE OF MARRIAGE ACT OF 1996
• barred gay couples from spousal benefits provided by federal law.
NEW WORLD ORDER
• he sudden shift from a bipolar world to one of unquestioned American
predominance promised to redefine the country’s global role.
President George H. W. Bush spoke of the coming of a new world
• Military action in 1991 in which an international coalition led by the
United States drove Iraq from Kuwait, which it had occupied the
NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE
• Approved in 1993, the North American Free Trade Agreement with
Canada and Mexico allowed goods to travel across their borders free
of tariffs; critics argued that American workers would lose their jobs to
cheaper Mexican labor.
• example of a Republican policy embraced by Bill Clinton to neutralize
Republican claims about Democrats.
• Agreements that seemed to set out a road to Mideast peace between
Israel and Palestine, though neither side proved willing to fully
• A terrible new term meaning the forcible expulsion from an area of a
particular ethnic group
PATTERSON V. MCLEAN CREDIT UNION
• A decision wherein the Supreme Court barred a black employee who
suffered racial harassment while working from suing for damages
under the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
• Newt Gingrich's platform which promised to curtail the scope of
government, cut back on taxes and economic and environmental
regulations, overhaul the welfare system, and end affirmative action.
• A third candidate in the 1992 election, the eccentric Texas billionaire Ross
Perot, also entered the fray. He attacked George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton
as lacking the economic know-how to deal with the recession and the ever-
increasing national debt. That millions of Americans considered Perot a
credible candidate at one point, polls showed him leading both Clinton and
Bush testified to widespread dissatisfaction with the major parties. Perot’s
support faded as election day approached, but he still received 19 percent of
the popular vote, the best result for a third-party candidate since Theodore
Roosevelt in 1912.
TOUGH ON CRIME MOVEMENT
• During the 1960s, the nation’s prison population had declined. But in
the 1970s, with urban crime rates rising, politicians of both parties
sought to convey the image of being tough on crime.''
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT
• 1990, newly organized disabled Americans won passage of the
Americans with Disabilities Act. This far-reaching measure prohibited
discrimination in hiring and promotion against persons with disabilities
and required that entrances to public buildings be redesigned so as to
ensure access for the disabled.
• The term for a new awareness of the diversity of American society,
past and present, and for vocal demands that jobs, education, and
politics reflect that diversity.