Chapter 46:Reproduction
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Chapter 46:Reproduction

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 Chapter 46:Reproduction Chapter 46:Reproduction Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 46: Reproduction
  • Key Term • sexual reproduction • the reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete • egg • animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes • sperm • male reproductive cell • asexual reproduction • reproduction without the fusion of gametes • budding • reproduction of some unicellular organisms by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent
  • • Ovulation • expulsion of an ovum from the ovary • hermaphroditism • showing characteristic of both sex • fertilization • process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell • External fertilization • process in which eggs are fertilized inside the female body • Internal fertilization • process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside the female • gonads • reproductive gland-male, testes; female-ovaries • spermathecae • sacs in which sperm may be stored for expanded periods • cloaca
  • • Ovulation • expulsion of an ovum from the ovary • hermaphroditism • showing characteristic of both sex • fertilization • process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell • External fertilization • process in which eggs are fertilized inside the female body • Internal fertilization • process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside the female • gonads • reproductive gland-male, testes; female-ovaries • spermathecae • sacs in which sperm may be stored for expanded periods • cloaca • common opening for the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems in non-mammilian vertebrates • follicles • clusters of cells surrounding a single egg
  • • hymen • thin piece of tissue partially covering the vaginal opening • clitoris • organ in the female that engorges with blood and becomes erect during sexual arousal • prepuce • fold of skin covering the head of the clitoris and penics • mammary glands • Exocrine glands that secrete milk to nourish the young. theses glands are characteristic of mammals
  • • seminiferons tubules • highly coiled tubes in the testes in which sperm are produced • leydig cells • located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes, these cells produce testosterone and other androgens • scrotum • pouch of skin outside the abdomen that houses a testis; functions in cooling sperm, thereby keeping them viable • epididymis • coiled tubule located adjacent to the testes where sperm are stored • ejaculation • propelling of sperm from each epidermis through the an deferens
  • • vas deferens • tube is the male reproductive system in which sperm travel from the spididymis to the urethra • ejaculators duct • short section of the ejaculatory route in mammals formed by the convergence of the cas deferens and a duct from the seminal vesicle. • transports sperm from the vas deferens to the urethra • semen • fluid that is ejaculated by the male during organs; contains sperm and secretions from several gland of the male reproductive tract • seminal vesicles • gland in males that secretes a fluid component of semen that lubricates and nourishes sperm • prostate gland • gland in human males that secretes an acid neutralizing component of semen • Penis • copulatory structure of male mammals
  • • gametpgemesis • production of gametes • spermatogenesis • formation and development of sperm • menstrual cycle • type of reproductive cycle in higher female primates, in which the non-pregnant endometrium is shed as a bloody discharge through the cervix into the vagina
  • • Oogenesis • process in the ovary that results in the production of female gametes. • ovarian cycle • cyclic recurrence of the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase in the mammalian ovary, regulated by hormones • follicular phase • portion of the ovarian cycle during which several follicles in the ovary begin to grow • luteal phase • portion of the ovarian cycle during which endocrine cells of the corpus luteum secrete female hormones • proliferative phase • portion of the menstrual cycle when the endometrium regenerates and thickens • secretory phase • portion og the menstrual cycle when the endometrium continues to thickens, becomes more vascularized, and develops glands that secrete a fluid rich in glycogen • menstrual flow phase • portion of the menstrual cycle when menstrual bleeding occurs • vasocongestion • filling of a tissue with blood caused by increased blood flow through the arteries of that tissue
  • • Orgasm • characterized by thythmic, involuntary contractions of the reproductive structure in both sex • conception • fertilization of a penis into a vagina, also called sexual intercourse • human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) • thin membrane that partly covers the vaginal opening in the human female’ raptured by sexual intercourse or other vigorous activity • Pregnancy( gestation) • condition of carrying one or more embryos in the uterus • trimester • human development. one of three 3- month long period of pregnancy • placenta • structure in the pregnant uterus for nourishing a viviparous fetus with the mother’s blood supply; formed from the uterine lining and embryonic membranes
  • • fetus • developing human from the ninth week of gestation until birth; has all the major structures of an atult • labor • series of strong, rhythmic contractions of the uterus and vagina during child birth • lactation • continued production of milk • contraception • prevention of pregnancy • rhythm method • refraining from intercourse when conceptions is most likely in the few days before and after ovulstion • natural family planning • form of contraception that relies upon refraining from sexual intercourse when conception is most likely to occur; also called the rhythm method
  • • Tubal ligation • sterilization in which a woman’s two oviducts are tied closed to prevent eggs from reaching the uterus; a segment if each oviduct is removed • Vasectomy • cutting of each vas deferens to prevent sperm from entering the urethra • assisted reproductive technologies • methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. It is reproductive technology used primarily for infertility treatments, and is also known as fertility treatment. • in vitro fertilization (IVF) • fertilixation of ova in laboratory containers followed by artificial implantation of the early embryo in the mother’s uterus • intrpcyoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) • test-tube fertilization procedure in which a sperm is injected directly into an egg to achieve fertilization. ICSI is done for male infertility
  • Sexual and Asexual Reproduction • Sexual Reproduction • Animal reproductive takes many forms • Aspects of animal form and function can be viewed broadly used as adapations contributing to reproductive success • Sexual reproduction is the creation of an offspring by fussion of a male gamete and female gamete to form a zygote • Asexual Reproduction • Needs one individual • Is creation of offspring without the fusion of the egg and sperm
  • Budding • New individual arise from outgrowths of existing one
  • External and internal fertilization • External Fertilization • Eggs shed by the female are fertilized by sperm in the external environment • Internal Fertilization • Sperm are deposited in or near the female reproductive tract and fertilization occurs within the tract takes place within the female reproductive system. Provides protection and parental care.
  • Trimesters • First trimester • Is the time of most radical changes for both mother and the embryo • All major organs are form • All the major structure are present by week 8 and the embryo is now call a fetus • Second trimester • Fetus grows and is very active • Mother may feel the fetus • Uterus grows enough for the pregnancy to become obvious • Third trimester • The fetus grows and fills the space within the embryonic membranes • Complex interplay of local regulation and hormones induces, and regulates labor, the process in which birth occurs
  • Contraception • Delibrate prevention of pregnancy can be achieved in a number of ways • Contraception methods falls into 3 categories • Preventing the release of egg and sperm • Keep egg and sperm apart • Preventing the implantation of the embryo