Chapter 41: Animal Cells and Tissue


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Chapter 41: Animal Cells and Tissue

  1. 1. Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition
  2. 2. Vocabulary  Herbivores  Mainly eat plants  Carnivores  Mainly eat meat  Omnivores  Eats both plant and meat  Essential nutrients
  3. 3.  Essential amino acids  Animals require 20 amino acids, but can synthesize approximately half of theses, as long as diet includes nitrogen  Human adults need 8 amino acids in their diet  Deficient in essential amino acids is called a protein deficiency  Essential fatty acids  Animals cannot make certain unsaturated fatty acids, and must obtain them through diet  Deficiencies are rare  Vitamins  Organic molecules required in the diet in amounts that are smaller compared with the relatively large quantities required of essential amino acid and essential fatty acids  Divide in fat-soluble and water-soluble  Minerals  nutrition, a chemical element other than hydrogen, oxygen or nitrogen that an organism requires for proper body functioning  Ingestion  Heterotrophic mode of nutrition in which other organisms or detritus are eaten whole or in pieces
  4. 4.  Digestion  Process of breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb  Absorption  Ingested dietary substance must cross cell membranes to be used by the body  large surface area in the gut directly facilitates  Elimination  Passin of undigested material out of the digestive compartment  Gastrovascular Cavity  Extensive pouch that serves as the site of extracellular digestion and a passage watto disperse materials throughout most of an animal’s body  Alimentary Canal  Complete digestive tract, consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus
  5. 5.  Peristalsis  Rhythmic waves of contraction of smooth muscle that push food along the digestive tract  Sphincters  Ringlike valve consisting of modified muscles in a muscular tube, such as digestive tract; closes off the tube like a drawstring  Oral cavity  Mouth f an animal  Salivary glands  Exocrine glands associated with the oral cavity. The secretions of this contain substances to lubricate food, adhere together chewed pieces into a bolus, and deign the process of chemical digestion  Bulk feeders  Animals that eat relatively large pieces of food, adaptations include diverse utensils  An animal that eats relatively large pieces of food
  6. 6.  Bolus  Lubricated ball of chew food  Pharynx  Area in the vertebrate throst where air and food passages cross; in flatworms, the muscular tube that protrudes from the ventral side of the worm and ends in the mouth  Esophagus  Channel that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach  Stomach  Digestive secretions with a pH of 2 are characteristic  Gastric juice  Digestive fluid secreted by the stomach  Chyme  Mixture of partially digested food and digestive juices formed in the stomach  Pepsin  Enzyme with high activity in an acidic environment
  7. 7.  Pepsinogen  Inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized cells located on gastric pits f the stomach  Small intestine  Longest section of the alimentary canal; the principal site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients  Bile  Mixture of substances that is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder; enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption fats  Duodenum  First section of the small intestine, where acid chime from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and gland cells of the intestinal wall  Liver  Large internal organ in vertebrates that performs diverse functions  Gallbladder  Organ that stores bile and release it as needed into the small intestine
  8. 8.  Villi  Fingerlike projection of the inner surface of the small intestine  Microvilli  Oner of many fine, fingerlike projections of the epithelial cells in the lumen of the small intestine that increase its surface area  Hepatic portal vein  Large circulatory channel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood’s nutrient content  Chylomirons  Lipid transport globule composed of fats mixed with cholesterol and coated with proteins  Lacteal  Tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons  Colon  Large section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and formation of feces  Cecum  Blind pouch forming one branch of the large intesne
  9. 9.  Fluid Feeder  Animal that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluids from another living organism  Fats  Animals that migrate great distances would obtain the greatest energetic benefit of storing chemical energy  Leptin  Hormone produced by adipose (fat) cells that acts as a satiety factor in regulating appetite
  10. 10. Explain the basic body of organization of animals:  Most animals have 4 types of tissues organized organs & organ system  Exctracellular fluid serves as the body’s internal environment  Animal development produces cells of many types  Cell of different types with extracellular matrix from tissues  Cell junctions connected the cells of a fissure hold cells in place & allow them to cooperate in a specific tasks
  11. 11. Define what tissue is and 4 main types of tisses in vertebrates  Tissues is community of cells and intercellular substances that interact n one or more tasks  4 main tissue types in vertebrates are epithelium connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.  Epithelium tissue line the body’s surface cavities ducts and tubes, Its job is to exposed to a body fluid or the environment.  Connective tissue are cells that have a considerable amount of intercellular material between them. Their function is to organize, strengthen, support and insulate. Located below the epithelium tissue.
  12. 12.  Muscle tissue helps the movement of the body or a specific part of the body, Does this by contract in response to a stimulus; relax passively; and works in pairs. Located in muscles attached to the bones. Muscle tissue function is to maintain posture.  Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system. The tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Responsible for coordinating and controlling many body activist.
  13. 13. Different types of cell junction and their purpose:  There are 3 times of cell junction. They are tight junction, adhering junction. And gap junction.  Tight junction job is to prevent leaking.  Gap junction helps pass information along.  Adhering junction locks cells together.
  14. 14. What is cartilage and where is itfoundin vertebrates:  Cartilage is cells and elastic/collogen fibers inside a pliable, solid ground substance.  It is found in ears, nose, protects joints, and bones.  He function of he cartilage is to support, flexion, and joint movement.
  15. 15. Adipose tissue  Cells with many stored fat droplets  Connective tissue specializing in fat storage  Little extracellular matrix but lots of blood vessels  Is located under the skin, around the heart and kidneys  Energy storage, insulation padding
  16. 16. Two types of blood & marrow  The two types of blood is compact bone and spongy bone  Compact bine : resist mechanical stock  Spongy bone: gives strength without weight  The two types of bone marrow is yellow marrow and red marrow.  Yellow marrow: fat found in the central cavity  Red marrow: site of blood cell information
  17. 17. Difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton  Axial Skeleton  Skull bones  Rib cage  Vertebral column  Appendicular Skeleton  Prectoral girdle and upper limb  Pelvic girdle and lower limb bone
  18. 18. Define blood and what it is made of  Derived from stern cells and marrow in boned , a connective tissue  Blood is made of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
  19. 19. Define what neuron is and function  Neurons: nervous system communication lines  Function: relay information from sense organs
  20. 20. 3 different types of neurons and function  3 different types of neurons are sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons  Sensory neurons are excited by specific stimuli, such as light or pressure  Motor neurons relay commands from the brain and spinal cord to glands and muscle cells
  21. 21. Endothermic and Ectoherm  Endothermic: Maintains an internal temperature due to a high metabolic rate  Ectotherm: Maintains body Temperature based on the external enviroment