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Chapter 25: Sixties 1960-1968
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Chapter 25: Sixties 1960-1968

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Sixties 1960-1968

Sixties 1960-1968

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  • 1. Chapter 25: Sixties 1960-1968 JSRCC HIS 122 01PR
  • 2. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) • Founded in 1960 to coordinate civil rights sit-ins and other forms of grassroots protest
  • 3. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) • is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, CORE was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP.
  • 4. Freedom Rides • Bus journeys challenging radical segregation in the south in 1961 • Goal was to end segregation on facilities serving interstate bus passengers • May 1961-white mob torched a bus in Alabama • Attorney General Bobby Kennedy’s personal representative was beaten unconscious • Federal marshals were sent to protect the freedom Riders
  • 5. “ Letters From Birmingham Jail” • “Letter from Birmingham Jail” (1963) A letter that Martin Luther King, Jr., addressed to his fellow clergymen while he was in jail in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, after a nonviolent protest against racial segregation (see also sit-ins).
  • 6. March on Washington • On August 28, 1963, 250,000 black and white Americans converged on the nation’s capital for the March on Washington, often considered the high point of the nonviolent civil rights movement. • :I have a Dream Speech” • CR Leaders planned the March to get support for Kennedy’s Bill
  • 7. Alliance for Progress • Offered economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries- a Marshall Plan for Latin American
  • 8. John F. Kennedy • Youngest cabinet – Robert ”Bobby” Kennedy as Attorney General – Reform the FBI: focus more on organized crime and civil rights violation instead of all on internal security – Sec of Defense-Robert S. McNamara • “New Frontier”- domestic policy • Peace crops-bring American skills to underdeveloped countries • Nov 22, 1963-JFK was assassinated in Dallas – Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested then shot – Jack Ruby assassinated Oswald
  • 9. Cuban Missile Crisis • Caused when the United States discovered Soviet offensive missile sites in Cuba in October 1962; the U.S.-Soviet confrontation was the Cold War’s closest brush with • October 1962- U-s spy plane discovered that the soviets were installing nuclear tipped missiles in Cuba • October 22_ JFK ordered a naval; “quarantine” of Cuba and demanded immediate removal of the weapons – Warned USSR that an attack on the U.S> would lead to an attack on the USSR – Soviet ships approached the patrol line • October 28- Khrushchev agreed to a partially compromise and agreed to remove the missiles – U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba and would remove U.S. missiles in Turkey aimed at the USSR
  • 10. Fidel Castro • Jan 1,1959- Fidel Castro sized power in Cuba
  • 11. Bay of Pigs • Hoping to inspire a revolt against Fidel Castro, the CIA sent 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade their homeland on April 17, 1961, but the mission was a spectacular failure.
  • 12. Lyndon B. Johnson • Lyndon B. Johnson became president – Followed most of JFK’s policies • LBJ treatment – Not content unless he could wholly dominate friend as well as foe, Lyndon Johnson used his body as well as his vice to bend others to his will and gain his objective • LBJ’s Domestic Policies – LNJ was successful in passing JFK’s tax bill with added proposals for his “war on Poverty” – Converned avout Appalachia
  • 13. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment • Prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender • Gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters, and all public places • Gave government more power to desegregate and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • 14. Barry Goldwater • Election 1964 – Republican nominated Barry Goldwater of Arizona – Conservative – Attacked social; security and TVA – Suggested use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam and Cuba
  • 15. Selma – Selma Campaign – 1965 SNCC organized a voting campaign in Selma,Alabama – 2m00 African-Americans had been arrested – March 7, 1965, 600 protestors began the march from Selma to Montgomery,AL – Police swung whips, clubs and used tearpgas – On March 21, 3,00 members led by MLK with Federal Protection marched – The numbers grew to 25,000 marchers
  • 16. Voting Rights Act • Passed in the wake of Martin Luther King Jr’s, Selma to Montgomery March, it authorized federal protection of the right to vote and permitted federal enforcement of minority voting rights in individual counties, mostly in the South. • 1965 • That summer LBJ signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 • The act eliminated literacy test allowed federal officials to register voters • Thee 24th Amendment to the constitution eliminated pool taxes
  • 17. Great Society • Term coined by President Lyndon B. Johnson in his 1965 State of the Union address, in which he proposed legislation to address problems of voting rights, poverty, diseases, education, immigration, and the environment. • Set of New dealish economic and welfare measure aimed at transofming American Life • Michael Harrington’s The Other America (1962) – 20% of population in poverty – 40% of blacks in poverty
  • 18. Malcom X • Nation of Islam • Black Separatism • Malcolm Little joined the Nations of Islam when he was in prison and changed his name to Malcolm X • Malcolm X returned and preached an extremely moderate message, found a new tolerant Muslim organization and proposed working with Dr. MLK • On Feb 21,1965 Malcolm X Was assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam
  • 19. Watts • On Aug. 11, 1965 the worst riot erupted in Watts, Los Angeles • Watts-34- deaths, $200 million in damages
  • 20. Black Panther Party • Black Panther Party was a progressive political organization that stood in the vanguard of the most powerful movement for social change in America since the Revolution of 1776 and the Civil War: that dynamic episode generally referred to as The Sixties
  • 21. Student for a Democratic Society (SDS) • Students for a Democratic Society, once against war, later spawned an underground terrorist group called the weathermen • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main representations of the New Left. The organization developed and expanded rapidly in the mid-1960s before dissolving at its last convention in 1969
  • 22. National Organization for Women (NOW) • A major feminist organization, founded in the middle 1960s, when the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission failed to enforce a clause in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender. One of its founders was Betty Friedan.
  • 23. National Indian Youth Council (NIYC) • was founded in 1961 in Gallup, New Mexico, it is the second oldest national Indian organization and is Indian • The National Indian Youth Council or "NIYC" is considered the nation's second oldest American Indian organization and currently has a membership of more than 15,000 nationwide
  • 24. Loving V. Virginia • was a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage • decided on June 12, 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously struck down Virginia's law prohibiting interracial marriages as a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment • case came after nearly 300 years of legislation in Virginia regulating interracial marriage and carefully defining which citizens could legally claim to be white.
  • 25. 1968 Democratic Convention • 1968 Democratic National Convention. The 1968 Democratic National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968