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Chapter 17
 

Chapter 17

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    Chapter 17 Chapter 17 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 17: Freedom's Boundaries, at Home and Abroad, 1890–1900 JSRCC HIS 122
    • Andrew Carnegie  Carnegie’s steelworks at Homestead Pennsylvania  Andrew Carnegie, who emigrated with his family from his native Scotland at the age of thirteen and was a teenager worked in a Pennsylvania Textile factor  1873, Carnegie set out to establish a “vertically integrated’ steel Company  1900s; he dominate the stee industry and had accumulated a fortune worth hundreds of millions of dollars  The railroad pioneered modern techniques of business organization  By the 1890s, Carnegie dominated the steel industry  Vertical integration  Carnegie's life reflected his desire to succeed and his desire to give back to society  Industrial giant  Born in Scotland and immigrated to US in 1848
    • Homestead Steel  their steel mills were most profitable and technologically advanced in the world . Workers went on strike because of low pay checks and wages
    • Populists  Populist Party  Populists in western states endorsed woman suffrage
    • Farmer’s Alliance  Farmer’s Alliance had 1.5 Million members Colored Alliance 1 million members by 1890  Origins and spread  Strategies  Initial cooperative approach; "exchanges"  Turn to "sub treasury plan," political engagement
    • Farmer’s Aliance  When   1890 What  Farmer’s Alliance had 1.5 Million members Colored Alliance 1 million members by 1890  Origins and spread  Strategies   Initial cooperative approach; "exchanges" Turn to "sub treasury plan," political engagement
    • Omaha Platform  Adoption of the sub-treasury plan  Free and unlimited coinage of silver  A graduated income tax  Establishment of postal saving banks for safe deposit of earnings  Government ownership and operation of railroads, telephone telegraph and postal system  Tariff reduction  Electoral; reforms including: direct popular election senators, direct primaries the initiative, the referendum, the secret ballot, and limiting the office of the president and vice president each to one term  Omaha Platform of 1892  Increase money supply: gold and silver money  Income tax  Secret ballots  `8 hours’ workday
    • Omaha Platform  When   What   1892 Electoral; reforms including: direct popular election senators, direct primaries the initiative, the referendum, the secret ballot, and limiting the office of the president and vice president each to one term Impact  Adoption of the sub-treasury plan  Free and unlimited coinage of silver  A graduated income tax  Establishment of postal saving banks for safe deposit of earnings  Government ownership and operation of railroads, telephone telegraph and postal system  8 hour work day
    • Colored Farmer’s Alliance  1891  Tired to organize a strike if cotton pickers on plantations in South Carolina, Arkansas, and Texas ’actions was violently suppressed by local authorities and landowners, some of them sympathetic to the white Alliance but unwilling to pay higher wages to their own laborers
    • Colored Farmer’s Alliance  When   Where   1891 South Carolina, Arkansas, and Texas What  Tired to organize a strike if cotton pickers on plantations in South Carolina, Arkansas, and Texas ’actions was violently suppressed by local authorities and landowners, some of them sympathetic to the white Alliance but unwilling to pay higher wages to their own laborers
    • Pullman  Pullman Strike-1894  Involved the Pullman Palace Car Company and the American Railway Wnion  Injunction issued using the Sherman Antitrust Act
    • American Railway Union  150,000 members included both skilled and unskilled railroad laborers, announced that its member would refuse to handle trains with Pullman cars  Boycott crippled national rail services  President Grover Cleveland’s attorney general, Richard Oliney , obtained a federal court injunction ordering the strikers back to work
    • Eugene V. Debs  Were jailed for contempt of court for violating the judicial order  The case of In Re Debs, the Supreme Court unanimously confirmed the sentences and approved the use of injunction against striking labor unions  Debs charged that concentrated economic power, now aligned with state and national governments, was attempting to “wrest from the weak” their birthright of freedom
    • Coxey’s Army  1894  Band of several hundred unemployed men led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey demanding economic relief
    • William Jennings Bryan  Democrats nominate William Jennings Bryan  Platform called for “Free Silver”  Populists nominated him too
    • William McKinley  Republican  Gold Standard  Using only gold to back all money (worth more)  McKinley wins election
    • Kansas Exodus  1879-1880  Migration by some 40,000-60,00o blacks to Kansas to escape the oppressive environment of the New South  Name participants gave to this migration- the Exodus, derived from the biblical account of the Jews escaping slavery in Egypt  including former slave Benjamin “Pap” Singleton, the organizer of a real estate company, distributed flyers and lithographs picturing Kansas as an idyllic land if rural plenty  Most black migrants ended up as unskilled laborers in towns and cities
    • Kansas Exodus  When   Where   1879-1880 Kansas What    African-Americans Migrated to Kansas, seeking political equality, freedom from violence, access to education, and economic opportunity Migration by some 40,000-60,00o blacks to Kansas to escape the oppressive environment of the New South Impact  Name participants gave to this migration- the Exodus, derived from the biblical account of the Jews escaping slavery in Egypt  including former slave Benjamin “Pap” Singleton, the organizer of a real estate company, distributed flyers and lithographs picturing Kansas as an idyllic land if rural plenty  Most African- Americans had little alternative but to stay in the region  Most northern employers refused to offer jobs to black
    • National Association of Colored Women  1896  Brought together local and regional women’s club to press for both women’s rights and racial uplift  Most female activists emerged from the small urban black middle class  Preached necessity of “respectable” behavior as part and parcel of the struggle for equal rights
    • National Association of Colored Women  When   1896 Impact  U.S. Supreme court decision supporting the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted or required separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites  “Separate but equal" doctrine  Justice Harlan dissent
    • Plessy v. Ferguson  1896  U.S. Supreme court decision supporting the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted or required separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites  “Separate but equal" doctrine  Justice Harlan dissent
    • Immigration Restriction League  A group that called for the reduction of immigration by barring the illiterate from entering the United States
    • Chinese Exclusion Act  1882  By the mid 1800’s a seething anti-Chinese sentiment among the working class is was developing  Chinese immigrants became scapegoat for economic hardships because of their lower wages and unwillingness to unionize with non-Chinese  Anti-Chinese agitation eventually convinced Congress to pass a national Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882  Preamble whereas in the opinion of the Government of the United states the coming of Chinese laborers to this country endangers the good order of certain localities within the territory thereof:  Be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives of the united states of American in congress assembled  That from and after the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act and until the expiration of ten years next after the passage of this act.
    • Booker T. Washington  Booker T. Washington’s widely praised speech at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition that urged blacks to adjust to segregation and abandon agitation for civil and political right  Background on Washington  1895 Atlanta address  Washington approach  Repudiation of claim to full equality  Acceptance of segregation  Emphasis on material self-help, individual advancement, alliance with white employers
    • American Federation of Labor  Rise of the AFL, Samuel Gompers  AFL-Gompers approach  Repudiation of broad reform vision, political engagement, direct confrontation with capital  Emphasis on bargaining with employers over wages and conditions; "business unionism"  Narrower ideal of labor solidarity  Concentration on skilled labor sectors  Exclusion of blacks, women, new immigrants
    • Women’s Christian Temperance Union  Largest female reform society of the late nineteenth century it moved from opposing sale of liquor to demanding the right to vote for women
    • Spanish-American War  1898  Known as the “splendid little war”  Who   Where   Spain vs. America Philippines, Cuba Why  Help give freedom to Spain’s colonies
    • USS Maine  Battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898, resulting in 266 deaths; the American public, assuming that the Spanish had mined the ship, clamored for war, and the Spanish-American War was declared two months later
    • Platt Amendment  Amendment to Cuban constitution that reserved the United States� right to intervene in Cuban affairs and forced newly independent Cuba to host American naval bases on the island
    • Insular Cases  1901-1904  The supreme court held that the Constitution did not fully apply to the territories recently acquired by the united states—a significant limitation of scope of American freedom  Court declared, must recognize the “fundamental” personal rights of residents of the Philippines and Puerto Rico
    • Ida B. Wells  Born slave in Mississippi of 1862. Became a school teacher and an editor of the newspaper Memphis Free Press.She moved to the North because of the white people against her opinions
    • Hawaii  Was closely tied to the United States. It was wanted as a naval base. It had American sugar-plantations. It was annexed to the U.S. In 1898
    • Carrie Chapman Catt  President of the National American Women Suffrage Association (1890). She suggested voting as well.
    • L. Frank Baum  published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in 1900. It represented the aftermath of the reconstruction