Chapter 12 and 13

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Psy 200
Jsrcc
Mental disorders and treeatment

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Chapter 12 and 13

  1. 1. CHAPTER 12 AND 13: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND TREATMENT JSRCC PSY 200 15 pr
  2. 2. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY • What is Abnormal? • Deviating from the normal or average • The study of behavior patterns that diverge widely from generally accepted norms • Abnormal behavior is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time • Deviant, Maladaptive, Distressful • Deviant • Abnormal behavior is certainly atypical or statistically unusual • Deviant behavior in one culture may be considered normal, while in others it may lead to arrest • Unusual and not expectable in culture • Maladaptive • interferes with one's ability to function effectively in the world • not helpful at all and keeps people from forming normal functions • Distressful • person engaging in the behavior finds it troubling • happens over a long period of time
  3. 3. ETIOLOGY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS • The Biological Approach • attributes psychological disorders to organic, internal causes • disorders with biological origins • Psychopharmacology • The science of determining which drugs alleviate which mental disorders and why they do so • The use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders • Psychiatrist v. Psychologist • Psychiatrist • Can prescript medicine • Mn.D. • Psychologist • Ph.D.
  4. 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH • emphasizes the contributions of experiences, thoughts, emotions, and personality characteristics in explaining psychological disorders • experiences, thoughts, emotions, personality
  5. 5. Insight v. Action Therapies • Insight therapies • Psychotherapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings • Action therapies • Psychotherapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly
  6. 6. PSYCHOANALYSIS • Freud’s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual’s unconscious thoughts • An insight therapy bade on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts
  7. 7. SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH • Social context • Emphasizes the social contexts in which a person lives, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family relationships, and culture. • Group Therapy, Support Groups, Family Therapy, Community Mental Health • Group therapy • Group people with same problem together • Family therapy • More dynamic issue • Community Mental Health • Cost less • Easy to access
  8. 8. • Biopsychosocial Model • Interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors • Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders • Integrative Therapy/Eclectic Approach • Eclectic approach • Need to change behavior in or to prove one self • Integrative therapy • Prove understanding of one’s self to prove
  9. 9. CLASSIFYING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR (PROS AND CONS) • DSM-5 • The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder, fifth edition; the major of psychological disorders in the United States
  10. 10. AXIS I V. AXIS II • Axis 1 • Primary diagnosis including patients primary clinical symptoms present at the time • Panic disorder • Axis 2 • Reflect longstanding personality disorders or retardation • Dependent personality disorder
  11. 11. Other Axes • Axis 3 • Notes any medical conditions that might be relevant (ex: high blood pressure, concussion..) • high blood pressure, hypertension • Axis 4 • Rates intensity of psychosocial or environmental problems of patient’s life • Severe stressors; divorce, job loss • Axis 5 • Patient’s coping resources/adaptive functioning • Serious symptoms; fair overall functioning
  12. 12. CRITIQUES OF THE DSM • Criticisms • It relies too much on social norms and subjective judgments. • Too many new categories of disorders have been added, some of which do not yet have consistent research support and whose inclusion will lead to a significant increase in the number of people being labeled as having a mental disorder. • Loosened standards for some existing diagnoses will add to the already very high rates of these.
  13. 13. ANXIETY DISORDERS • Anxiety Disorders • Involve fears that are uncontrollable, disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in, and disruptive of ordinary life. • Generalized Anxiety Disorder • is different from such everyday feelings of anxiety in that sufferers experience persistent anxiety for at least 6 months and are unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety • Treatment • • • • cognitive behavioral therapy exposure therapy medication buspar
  14. 14. PANIC DISORDER/AGORAPHOBIA • Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia • Anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense apprehension or terror, often without warning an with no specific cause • Panic attacks can produce severe palpitations, extreme shortness of breath, chest pains, trembling, sweating, dizziness, and a feeling of helplessness • Treatment • Benzodiazepines • xanax
  15. 15. PHOBIC DISORDER • Phobia • Irrational, involuntary, and inappropriate fears of ordinary situations or things • Systematic Desensitization • Behavior therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety producing situations • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and/or urges to perform repetitive,, ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation • Is an anxiety disorder and is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thought and/or repetitive behaviors
  16. 16. • PTSD • Post-traumatic stress disorder • Anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event. A severely oppressive situation, cruel abuse, or a natural or unnatural disaster • An anxiety disorder that can occur after someone experiences a traumatic event that caused intense fear, helplessness, or horror
  17. 17. MOOD DISORDERS • Mood Disorders • According to the National Mental Health Information Center, each year some 44 million Americans experience a mental disorder. • One of the most prevalent, Depression, will greatly impact many college students. • Causes: • Biological Factors • Psychological Factors • Social Factors • Symptoms Include: • Lack of Interest & Trouble Concentrating • Overwhelming Sadness • Feelings of Guilt or Worthlessness
  18. 18. BIPOLAR DISORDER • is a disorder characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state • Mood cycles of mania and/or depression and normalcy and other symptoms
  19. 19. EATING DISORDERS • Anorexia nervosa • is an eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation. • Bulimia nervosa • is an eating disorder in which an individual (typically female) consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern • Binge-eating disorder (BED) • is characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating
  20. 20. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS • Dissociative Disorders • are psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity • Dissociative disorders occur in which an aspect of the person’s personality is separate from the rest, like dissociative Amnesia • Dissociative Amnesia • is a type of amnesia characterized by extreme memory loss that stems from extensive psychological stress. • Characterized by a loss of memory with no organic cause
  21. 21. SCHIZOPHRENIA • Schizophrenia • is a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes • usually diagnosed in early adulthood, around age 18 for men and 25 for women • Psychosis • refers to a state in which a person's perceptions and thoughts are fundamentally removed from reality • Positive Symptoms • Positive symptoms are the abnormal behaviors that are present in people with schizophrenia • Hallucinations, Delusions, Disorganized Speech, Disorganized Behaviors, Inappropriate Affect
  22. 22. EATING DISORDERS • Anorexia nervosa • is an eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation. • Bulimia nervosa • is an eating disorder in which an individual (typically female) consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern • Binge-eating disorder (BED) • is characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating
  23. 23. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS • are psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity • Dissociative disorders occur in which an aspect of the person’s personality is separate from the rest, like dissociative Amnesia
  24. 24. DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA • is a type of amnesia characterized by extreme memory loss that stems from extensive psychological stress. • Characterized by a loss of memory with no organic cause • Dissociative amnesia entails memory loss caused by extensive psychological stress.
  25. 25. • Dissociative Fugue • Dissociative fugue also involves memory loss, but individuals with this disorder unexpectedly travel away from home or work, sometimes assume a new identity, and do not remember the old one • Dissociative Identity Disorder • formerly called multiple personality disorder, is the most dramatic, least common, and most controversial dissociative disorder • dissociative identity disorder, formerly called multiple personality disorder, two or more distinct personalities are present in the same individual.
  26. 26. SCHIZOPHRENIA • Schizophrenia • is a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes • usually diagnosed in early adulthood, around age 18 for men and 25 for women • Psychosis • refers to a state in which a person's perceptions and thoughts are fundamentally removed from reality • Positive Symptoms • Positive symptoms are the abnormal behaviors that are present in people with schizophrenia
  27. 27. • Hallucinations • are sensory experiences that occur in the absence of real stimuli • are usually auditory—the person might complain of hearing voices—or visual, and much less commonly they can be experienced as smells or tastes • sensory perception in the absence of any external sensory stimulus; an imaginary sensation • sensory experiences without sensory stimulation • Delusions • are false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual's culture. • False belief, not generally shared by others in the culture, that cannot be changed despite strong evidence to contrary • False beliefs, often or persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
  28. 28. • Personality Disorders • are chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into an individual's personality. Personality disorders are relatively common • Antisocial • Disorder characterized by guiltlessness, law-breaking, exploitation of others, irresponsibility, and deceit • Psychopaths • is sometimes used to refer to a subgroup of individuals with ASPD • Psychopaths tend to show less prefrontal activation than normal individuals and to have structural abnormalities in the amygdala, as well as the hippocampus, the brain structure most closely associated with memory
  29. 29. BORDERLINE • Disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contests
  30. 30. QUESTION AND ANSWER • Anorexia nervosa is to starvation, whereas, bulimia nervosa is to purging. • Cultural norms provide guidance about how people should behave and what behavior is healthy. • The biopsychosocial perspective involves factors such as interactions between other perspectives. • Bulimia nervosa sufferers binge-purge, and in some cases, employ the use of laxatives. • Abnormal behavior can be defined in many ways, some of which are: • Behavior that is distressful • Behavior that is deviant • Behavior that is maladaptive
  31. 31. • Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent patterns of eating large amounts of food during which a person feels a lack of control. • Culture establishes the norms by which people evaluate their own behaviors. • Thinking about suicide is not necessarily abnormal, however, attempting or completing the act of suicide is abnormal. • People with generalized anxiety disorder worry about work, health and relationships, but also about little things such as whether their clothes fit just right. • Social anxiety disorder or social phobia is an intense fear of being humiliated in a social situations.
  32. 32. • The acronym ECT stands for electroconvulsive therapy. • Neuroleptics are drugs that block the action of the: • Dopamine system • The concept of self-efficacy can be useful in therapy when people needed: • To boister their confidence • In group therapy several unrelated people meet with a therapist to discuss some aspect of their psychological function. • Family therapists meet with the members so that they can speak freely for the therapist to see how they interact.
  33. 33. • Neuroleptics are the most widely used class antipsychotic drugs. • Antidepressant drugs are a class of medication used to treat depression and improve the moods of the patients.

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