Chapter 10: Personality


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Chapter 10: Personality

  1. 1. CHAPTER 10: PERSONALITY PSY 200 Jsrcc
  2. 2. PERSONALITY • Is a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world. • Is “an individual’ unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits
  3. 3. PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE • Personality emphasize that personality is primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness).
  4. 4. ICEBERG ANALOGY • The conscious mind is the part of the iceberg above water; the unconscious mind, the part below water. Notice that the id is totally unconscious, whereas the ego and the superego can operate at either the conscious or the unconscious level • structures the id, the ego, and the superego
  5. 5. DIVISIONS OF THE PERSONALITY • Id • Consists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of sexual energy. This “it” is a pool of amoral and often vile urges pressing for expression • The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle • Ego • Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality • The decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle • Superego • is the harsh internal judge of our behavior • The moral component of personality that incorporates social standards avout what represents right and wrong • The superego is reflected in what we often call conscience and evaluates the morality of our behavior
  6. 6. DEFENSE MECHANISMS • Defense Mechanisms • are tactics the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. • Examples • Displacement means directing unacceptable impulses at a less threatening target • Sublimation is a special form of displacement in which the person expresses an unconscious wish in a socially valued way, such as a boxer who sublimates his aggressive drive in the ring. • projection, in which we see in others those impulses that we most fear or despise in ourselves • Repression is the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism
  7. 7. ORAL STAGE • The infant's pleasure centers on the mouth. Chewing, sucking, and biting are the chief sources of pleasure that reduce tension in the infant
  8. 8. ANAL STAGE • During a time when most children are experiencing toilet training, the child's greatest pleasure involves the anus and urethra and their functions. Freud recognized that there is pleasure in “going” and “holding it” as well as in the experience of control over one's parents in deciding when to do either.
  9. 9. PHALLIC STAGE • Phallic stage • The name of Freud's third stage comes from the Latin word phallus, which means “penis.” Pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers that selfstimulation is enjoyable. • the phallic stage has a special importance in personality development because it triggers the Oedipus complex • Oedipus complex/Identification • is the boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother • Penis Envy • the intense desire to obtain a penis by eventually marrying and bearing a son.
  10. 10. LATENCY STAGE • This phase is not a developmental stage but rather a kind of psychic timeout. After the drama of the phallic stage, the child sets aside all interest in sexuality. Although we now consider these years extremely important to development, Freud felt that this was a time in which no psychosexual development occurred • Sexual urges repressed, play with same sex peers
  11. 11. GENITAL STAGE • The genital stage is the time of sexual reawakening, a point when the source of sexual pleasure shifts to someone outside the family. Freud believed that in adulthood the individual becomes capable of the two hallmarks of maturity: love and work. However, Freud felt that human beings are inevitably subject to intense conflict, reasoning that everyone, no matter how healthy or well adjusted, still has an id pressing for expression. Adulthood, even in the best of circumstances, still involves reliving the unconscious conflicts of childhood • leads to adult sexuality
  12. 12. HORNEY • Horney developed the first feminist criticism of Freud's theory. Horney's view emphasizes women's positive qualities and self-evaluation. • believed that the need for security, not for sex, is the prime motive in human existence • Reasoned that an individual whose needs for security are met should be able to develop his or her capacities to the fullest extent.
  13. 13. JUNG’S COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS • Carl Jung (shared Freud's interest in the unconscious, but he believed that Freud underplayed the unconscious mind's role in personality. In fact, • believed that the roots of personality go back to the dawn of human existence • The collective unconscious is Jung's name for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared • Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types • Introvert- shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward • Extrovert- Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward
  14. 14. ADLER’S INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY • individual psychology, people are motivated by purposes and goals— thus, perfection, not pleasure, is their key motivator • Argued that people have the ability to take their genetic inheritance and their environmental experiences and act upon them creatively to become the person they want to be. • believed that birth order could influence how successfully a person would strive for superiority • Compensation is Adler's term for the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities • Adler believed that compensation is normal,
  15. 15. ROGERS’ SUNFLOWER ANALOGY • Rogers was a pioneer in the development of the humanistic perspective. • Rogers's theory includes the idea that we develop a self-concept, our conscious representation of who we are and who we wish to become, during childhood • First, Rogers said that regardless of what they do, people need unconditional positive regard. Although an individual might lack unconditional positive regard in childhood, he or she can experience this unconditional acceptance from others later, in friendships and/or romantic relationships or during sessions with a therapist. • Second, Rogers said that individuals can become more fulfilled by interacting with people who are empathic toward them • Genuineness is a third requirement in the individual's path to becoming fully functioning
  16. 16. UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD • Unconditional Positive Regard • is Rogers's term for being accepted, valued, and treated positively regardless of one's behavior. • Conditions of Worth • are the standards we must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others • Self-Concept • Who we are, and who we wanted to be • Our conscious representation of who we are and who we wanted to be • Three Key Ingredients to Psychological Well-Being • Unconditional positive regard • Empathy • Genuineness
  17. 17. CONTRIBUTIONS AND CRITICISMS • Humanistic psychologists also stress that we need to consider the whole person and the positive bent of human nature • Emphasis on conscious experience has given us the view that personality contains a well of potential that can be developed to its fullest. • Some critics believe that humanistic psychologists are too optimistic about human nature and that they overestimate people's freedom and rationality • May promote excessive self-love and narcissism by encouraging people to think so positively about themselves
  18. 18. TRAIT THEORIES • Trait Theories • Theoretical views stressing that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses • Trait • A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling • Shy, outgoing, ambitious, lazy, easy-going, anal, high-strung, confident grumpy, happy, friendly, etc.
  19. 19. ALLPORT • Gordon Allport is the father of American personality psychology • Rejected the notion that the unconscious was central to an understanding of personality • Believed that to understand healthy people, we must focus on their lives in the present and not on their childhood experiences
  20. 20. THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL: OCEAN • The Five-Factor Model: OCEAN • Big five factors of personality- the broad traits that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality are neuroticism • Openness • To experience is related to liberal values open-mindedness, tolerance and creativity • Also associated with superior cognitive function and IQ across the life span • Conscientiousness • is a key factor in a variety of life domains • is also linked to better-quality friendships. higher levels of religious, and a forgiving attitude • Low levels of conscientiousness are linked to higher levels of criminal behavior • Extraversion • Are more likely than others to engage in social activities, experience gratitude, and shoe a strong sense of meaning in life • Extraverts are mire forgiving • People rate extraverts as smiling and standing energetically and as dressing stylishly • Agreeableness • Is related to generosity and altruism, to reports of religious faith, and to more satisfying romantic relationships • Neuroticism • Related to feeling negative emotion more often than positive emotion in one’s daily life and to experiencing more lingering negative states • Been shown as we to relate to more health complaints and is linked to coronary heart disease risk
  21. 21. PERSONALITY AND SUBJECTIVE WELLBEING • Subjective well-being is a person’s assessment of his or her own level of positive affect relative to negative affect and the individual’s evaluation of his or her life in general
  22. 22. PERSONOLOGICAL AND LIFE STORY PERSPECTIVES • stress that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story—aspects that distinguish the individual from everyone else
  23. 23. MURRY • The director of the Psychological Clinic at Harvard • Murray coined the word personology to refer to the study of the whole person • Murray's research that has had the most impact on contemporary personality psychology is his approach to motivation • believed that our motives are largely unknown to us, so that measures of motivation must be developed that do not just ask people to say what it is they want
  24. 24. MCADAMS • Dan McAdams developed the life story approach to identity • Found that the life story is a constantly changing narrative that provides our lives with a sense of coherence. • also introduced the concept of intimacy motivation • intimacy motive is an enduring concern for warm interpersonal encounters for their own sake. • Intimacy motive has been shown to relate to positive outcomes
  25. 25. BANDURA’S RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM • Bandura • Self-Efficacy • Take his ideas of observational learning and add cognition • Knowing we can actually perform behaviors successfully, in the way we wish to behave, leads to self-praise • Observational Learning • Bandura's belief that observational learning is a key aspect of how we learn • observational learning, we form ideas about the behavior of others and then possibly adopt this behavior ourselves
  26. 26. PERSONAL CONTROL • Locus of Control • External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. • Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate. • Self-efficacy • is the belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task • Bandura and others have shown that self-efficacy is related to a number of positive developments in people's lives, including solving problems, becoming more sociable, initiating and maintaining a diet or an exercise program, and quitting smoking