CHAPTER 1: THE
SCIENCE OF
PSYCHOLOGY
PSY 200 15PR
JSRCC
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
• What is Psychology?
• The study of our inner feelings and behaviors
• Scientific study of behavior a...
WHAT IT PSCHOLOGY?
• Empirical (Scientific) Method
• Gaining knowledge through the observation of events the collection of...
HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
• Wilhelm Wundt
• Founded the first psychology laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipizing in ...
HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
• James’ Functionalism
• William James the first American psychologist, felt that structuralism was ...
CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO
PSYCHOLOGY
CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO
PSYCHOLOGY
• Nature/ Nurture debate
• Biological Approach
• Approach to psychology emphasizing ...
NATURE VS NURTURE
• Nature
• Intistintic
• Genetics
• Heredity
• Biological
• Factors
• innate
• Nurture
• Learned
• How y...
CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO
PSYCHOLOGY
• Behavioral approach
• Approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of o...
CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO
PSYCHOLOGY
• Sociocultural Approach
• Approach psychology that examines the influences of socia...
TYPES OF RESEARCH
TYPES OF RESEARCH
• Descriptive Research
• Naturalistic Observation
• Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurr...
SOCIAL DESIRABILITY
RESPONSE
SOCIAL DESIRABILITY RESPONSE
• Case Studies
• An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of ...
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
• Correlational Research
• Tells whether the values of two variables are related
• 1. Correlational...
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
• Experimental Research
• Purpose is to identify cause and effect through the manipulation of variab...
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
• 4. Experimental v. Control Groups
• In proper experiments, you will always have a control group by...
CAUTIONS ABOUT EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH
• Experimenter Bias
• Predisposed beliefs of the experimenter can confound the resear...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter 1 psychology (psy 200)

701

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Spiritual
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
701
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Chapter 1 psychology (psy 200)"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1: THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY PSY 200 15PR JSRCC
  2. 2. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
  3. 3. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? • What is Psychology? • The study of our inner feelings and behaviors • Scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Critical Thinking • The process of thinking deeply and actively; asking questions. And evaluating the evidence • Critical thinkers question ant test what some people say are facts • Also, comes into play when scientist consider the conclusions they draw from research • Asses claims on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence – not on emotional or anecdotal reasoning
  4. 4. WHAT IT PSCHOLOGY? • Empirical (Scientific) Method • Gaining knowledge through the observation of events the collection of data and logical reasoning • Scientist would say, that empirical question means that hard evidence is required to answer the question
  5. 5. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
  6. 6. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • Wilhelm Wundt • Founded the first psychology laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipizing in Germany • Discover the basic elements or structures of the mental process • Structuralism • The basic elements of the mind • Structuralism- analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how the are related • Neurospepection • Introspection • Introspection means to look in the inside oneself • Also a technique used in which subjects report a response to stimuli • Introspection- self-observation of one’s conscious experiences
  7. 7. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • James’ Functionalism • William James the first American psychologist, felt that structuralism was too limited • James founded functionalism, which studied how complex the mid processed evolve because of life preserving functions • Functionalism- investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure • Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection • Reparations of common ancestry among animals • Use of rats and other animals for psychological experiments • Position of humans within the animal kingdom, rather than above it
  8. 8. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY
  9. 9. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Nature/ Nurture debate • Biological Approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants • Focuses on organism’s visible interactions with the environment that is, behavior not thoughts or feelings • Neuroscience • Neural aspects of basic processes • Growing field or psychopharmacology • Neuroscience: the scientific study of the structure, function development, genetics and biochemistry of the nervous system
  10. 10. NATURE VS NURTURE • Nature • Intistintic • Genetics • Heredity • Biological • Factors • innate • Nurture • Learned • How you were raised • Where you were raised • Environment • Experiences
  11. 11. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Behavioral approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants’ • Focuses on organism’s visible interactions with the environment-that is, behavior not thought or feeling • Psychodynamic approach • Emphasis on unconscious interapsychic dynamics • Belief in the importance of early childhood • Belief that development occurs in fixed stages • Focus on fantasies and symbolic meanings of events • Psychodynamic approach: emphasizes unconscious thoughts the conflict between biological drive • Freud • Sigmund Freud’s Psychodynamic perspective focused on unconscious determinant of behavior • Freud also developed a treatment approach known as psychoanaylysis
  12. 12. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Sociocultural Approach • Approach psychology that examines the influences of social and cultural environments on behavior • Cognitive Approach • Approach to psychology emplacing the mental processes involded in knowing; how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems • Humanistic Approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing a persons' positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth • Maslow/Rogers’ • Abraham Maslow: personality gradually develops towards self- actualization • Carl Rogers: our inner experience of ourselves may different from what we show others
  13. 13. TYPES OF RESEARCH
  14. 14. TYPES OF RESEARCH • Descriptive Research • Naturalistic Observation • Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation • • Surveys and Interviews • The survey • A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them • Best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases • Pros: • Data can often be collected and analyzed fairly quickly • The results from the sample can be generalized to the entire population • Surveys can provide reliable information for planning programs and messages • Surveys can be anonymous, which is useful for sensitive topics • Cons; • They can only provide correlation, not cause and effect • They can be very costly
  15. 15. SOCIAL DESIRABILITY RESPONSE
  16. 16. SOCIAL DESIRABILITY RESPONSE • Case Studies • An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles • Case Studies—four use • A source of insights and ideas • To describe particularly rare phenomena • Psycho-biographies with psychological concepts applied to understand famous people • Provides illustrative anecdotes to demonstrate principles for teachers and researchers • Pros: • Provides a wealth of information • Relatively easy and inexpensive • Writes up as a narrative • Cons: • Useless in proving a theory • Tend to rely on the observations of a single investigator
  17. 17. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
  18. 18. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH • Correlational Research • Tells whether the values of two variables are related • 1. Correlational Coefficient • A measure of the relationship between two variables • Found from case studies, surveys and naturalistic observations • 2. Positive v. Negative Correlations • Positive correlation • Means that two sets of scores, such as height and weight, tend to rise or fall together • Negative Correlation • Means that two things relate inversely. If one things goes up, the other goes down • • • 3. Third Variable Problem • 4. Longitudinal Designs • Longitudinal studies- periodic tests on the same participants over a number of years
  19. 19. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Experimental Research • Purpose is to identify cause and effect through the manipulation of variables • 1. Random Assignment • `2. Independent and Dependent Variables • Independent Variable • A factor that can be selected and manipulated by the experimenter • Dependent Variable • A measurable behavior exhibited by the participant in the experiment. It will change because of the IV’s • 3. Confederates
  20. 20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • 4. Experimental v. Control Groups • In proper experiments, you will always have a control group by which you anchor the rest of the experiment • Experimental groups will experience the independent variables as determined by the researchers • Experimental controls- control group, experimental group, avoid extraneous varibles • • Quasi-Experimental Designs • Not considered true experiments because of the inability to randomly assign participants to the experimental and control groups
  21. 21. CAUTIONS ABOUT EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Experimenter Bias • Predisposed beliefs of the experimenter can confound the research findings • Creates a self-fulfilling prophesy • Demand Characteristics • D. Participant Bias • When participants try to present themselves in a good light or deliberately attempt to mislead the researcher • Offer confidentiality double blind studies don’t tell them what they are really being tested for • Placebo Effect • The phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior • Subject’s expectations lead them to believe some change has occurred • Double-Blind Experiments • A study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group • Research Samples • A sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×