Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Chapter 1 psychology (psy 200)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 1 psychology (psy 200)



Published in Education , Technology , Spiritual
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 3. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? • What is Psychology? • The study of our inner feelings and behaviors • Scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Critical Thinking • The process of thinking deeply and actively; asking questions. And evaluating the evidence • Critical thinkers question ant test what some people say are facts • Also, comes into play when scientist consider the conclusions they draw from research • Asses claims on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence – not on emotional or anecdotal reasoning
  • 4. WHAT IT PSCHOLOGY? • Empirical (Scientific) Method • Gaining knowledge through the observation of events the collection of data and logical reasoning • Scientist would say, that empirical question means that hard evidence is required to answer the question
  • 6. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • Wilhelm Wundt • Founded the first psychology laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipizing in Germany • Discover the basic elements or structures of the mental process • Structuralism • The basic elements of the mind • Structuralism- analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how the are related • Neurospepection • Introspection • Introspection means to look in the inside oneself • Also a technique used in which subjects report a response to stimuli • Introspection- self-observation of one’s conscious experiences
  • 7. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • James’ Functionalism • William James the first American psychologist, felt that structuralism was too limited • James founded functionalism, which studied how complex the mid processed evolve because of life preserving functions • Functionalism- investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure • Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection • Reparations of common ancestry among animals • Use of rats and other animals for psychological experiments • Position of humans within the animal kingdom, rather than above it
  • 9. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Nature/ Nurture debate • Biological Approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants • Focuses on organism’s visible interactions with the environment that is, behavior not thoughts or feelings • Neuroscience • Neural aspects of basic processes • Growing field or psychopharmacology • Neuroscience: the scientific study of the structure, function development, genetics and biochemistry of the nervous system
  • 10. NATURE VS NURTURE • Nature • Intistintic • Genetics • Heredity • Biological • Factors • innate • Nurture • Learned • How you were raised • Where you were raised • Environment • Experiences
  • 11. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Behavioral approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants’ • Focuses on organism’s visible interactions with the environment-that is, behavior not thought or feeling • Psychodynamic approach • Emphasis on unconscious interapsychic dynamics • Belief in the importance of early childhood • Belief that development occurs in fixed stages • Focus on fantasies and symbolic meanings of events • Psychodynamic approach: emphasizes unconscious thoughts the conflict between biological drive • Freud • Sigmund Freud’s Psychodynamic perspective focused on unconscious determinant of behavior • Freud also developed a treatment approach known as psychoanaylysis
  • 12. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Sociocultural Approach • Approach psychology that examines the influences of social and cultural environments on behavior • Cognitive Approach • Approach to psychology emplacing the mental processes involded in knowing; how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems • Humanistic Approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing a persons' positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth • Maslow/Rogers’ • Abraham Maslow: personality gradually develops towards self- actualization • Carl Rogers: our inner experience of ourselves may different from what we show others
  • 14. TYPES OF RESEARCH • Descriptive Research • Naturalistic Observation • Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation • • Surveys and Interviews • The survey • A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them • Best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases • Pros: • Data can often be collected and analyzed fairly quickly • The results from the sample can be generalized to the entire population • Surveys can provide reliable information for planning programs and messages • Surveys can be anonymous, which is useful for sensitive topics • Cons; • They can only provide correlation, not cause and effect • They can be very costly
  • 16. SOCIAL DESIRABILITY RESPONSE • Case Studies • An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles • Case Studies—four use • A source of insights and ideas • To describe particularly rare phenomena • Psycho-biographies with psychological concepts applied to understand famous people • Provides illustrative anecdotes to demonstrate principles for teachers and researchers • Pros: • Provides a wealth of information • Relatively easy and inexpensive • Writes up as a narrative • Cons: • Useless in proving a theory • Tend to rely on the observations of a single investigator
  • 18. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH • Correlational Research • Tells whether the values of two variables are related • 1. Correlational Coefficient • A measure of the relationship between two variables • Found from case studies, surveys and naturalistic observations • 2. Positive v. Negative Correlations • Positive correlation • Means that two sets of scores, such as height and weight, tend to rise or fall together • Negative Correlation • Means that two things relate inversely. If one things goes up, the other goes down • • • 3. Third Variable Problem • 4. Longitudinal Designs • Longitudinal studies- periodic tests on the same participants over a number of years
  • 19. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Experimental Research • Purpose is to identify cause and effect through the manipulation of variables • 1. Random Assignment • `2. Independent and Dependent Variables • Independent Variable • A factor that can be selected and manipulated by the experimenter • Dependent Variable • A measurable behavior exhibited by the participant in the experiment. It will change because of the IV’s • 3. Confederates
  • 20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • 4. Experimental v. Control Groups • In proper experiments, you will always have a control group by which you anchor the rest of the experiment • Experimental groups will experience the independent variables as determined by the researchers • Experimental controls- control group, experimental group, avoid extraneous varibles • • Quasi-Experimental Designs • Not considered true experiments because of the inability to randomly assign participants to the experimental and control groups
  • 21. CAUTIONS ABOUT EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Experimenter Bias • Predisposed beliefs of the experimenter can confound the research findings • Creates a self-fulfilling prophesy • Demand Characteristics • D. Participant Bias • When participants try to present themselves in a good light or deliberately attempt to mislead the researcher • Offer confidentiality double blind studies don’t tell them what they are really being tested for • Placebo Effect • The phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior • Subject’s expectations lead them to believe some change has occurred • Double-Blind Experiments • A study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group • Research Samples • A sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included