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Chapter 1 psychology (psy 200)

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  • 1. CHAPTER 1: THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY PSY 200 15PR JSRCC
  • 2. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
  • 3. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? • What is Psychology? • The study of our inner feelings and behaviors • Scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Critical Thinking • The process of thinking deeply and actively; asking questions. And evaluating the evidence • Critical thinkers question ant test what some people say are facts • Also, comes into play when scientist consider the conclusions they draw from research • Asses claims on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence – not on emotional or anecdotal reasoning
  • 4. WHAT IT PSCHOLOGY? • Empirical (Scientific) Method • Gaining knowledge through the observation of events the collection of data and logical reasoning • Scientist would say, that empirical question means that hard evidence is required to answer the question
  • 5. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
  • 6. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • Wilhelm Wundt • Founded the first psychology laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipizing in Germany • Discover the basic elements or structures of the mental process • Structuralism • The basic elements of the mind • Structuralism- analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how the are related • Neurospepection • Introspection • Introspection means to look in the inside oneself • Also a technique used in which subjects report a response to stimuli • Introspection- self-observation of one’s conscious experiences
  • 7. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • James’ Functionalism • William James the first American psychologist, felt that structuralism was too limited • James founded functionalism, which studied how complex the mid processed evolve because of life preserving functions • Functionalism- investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure • Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection • Reparations of common ancestry among animals • Use of rats and other animals for psychological experiments • Position of humans within the animal kingdom, rather than above it
  • 8. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY
  • 9. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Nature/ Nurture debate • Biological Approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants • Focuses on organism’s visible interactions with the environment that is, behavior not thoughts or feelings • Neuroscience • Neural aspects of basic processes • Growing field or psychopharmacology • Neuroscience: the scientific study of the structure, function development, genetics and biochemistry of the nervous system
  • 10. NATURE VS NURTURE • Nature • Intistintic • Genetics • Heredity • Biological • Factors • innate • Nurture • Learned • How you were raised • Where you were raised • Environment • Experiences
  • 11. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Behavioral approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants’ • Focuses on organism’s visible interactions with the environment-that is, behavior not thought or feeling • Psychodynamic approach • Emphasis on unconscious interapsychic dynamics • Belief in the importance of early childhood • Belief that development occurs in fixed stages • Focus on fantasies and symbolic meanings of events • Psychodynamic approach: emphasizes unconscious thoughts the conflict between biological drive • Freud • Sigmund Freud’s Psychodynamic perspective focused on unconscious determinant of behavior • Freud also developed a treatment approach known as psychoanaylysis
  • 12. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY • Sociocultural Approach • Approach psychology that examines the influences of social and cultural environments on behavior • Cognitive Approach • Approach to psychology emplacing the mental processes involded in knowing; how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems • Humanistic Approach • Approach to psychology emphasizing a persons' positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth • Maslow/Rogers’ • Abraham Maslow: personality gradually develops towards self- actualization • Carl Rogers: our inner experience of ourselves may different from what we show others
  • 13. TYPES OF RESEARCH
  • 14. TYPES OF RESEARCH • Descriptive Research • Naturalistic Observation • Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation • • Surveys and Interviews • The survey • A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them • Best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases • Pros: • Data can often be collected and analyzed fairly quickly • The results from the sample can be generalized to the entire population • Surveys can provide reliable information for planning programs and messages • Surveys can be anonymous, which is useful for sensitive topics • Cons; • They can only provide correlation, not cause and effect • They can be very costly
  • 15. SOCIAL DESIRABILITY RESPONSE
  • 16. SOCIAL DESIRABILITY RESPONSE • Case Studies • An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles • Case Studies—four use • A source of insights and ideas • To describe particularly rare phenomena • Psycho-biographies with psychological concepts applied to understand famous people • Provides illustrative anecdotes to demonstrate principles for teachers and researchers • Pros: • Provides a wealth of information • Relatively easy and inexpensive • Writes up as a narrative • Cons: • Useless in proving a theory • Tend to rely on the observations of a single investigator
  • 17. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
  • 18. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH • Correlational Research • Tells whether the values of two variables are related • 1. Correlational Coefficient • A measure of the relationship between two variables • Found from case studies, surveys and naturalistic observations • 2. Positive v. Negative Correlations • Positive correlation • Means that two sets of scores, such as height and weight, tend to rise or fall together • Negative Correlation • Means that two things relate inversely. If one things goes up, the other goes down • • • 3. Third Variable Problem • 4. Longitudinal Designs • Longitudinal studies- periodic tests on the same participants over a number of years
  • 19. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Experimental Research • Purpose is to identify cause and effect through the manipulation of variables • 1. Random Assignment • `2. Independent and Dependent Variables • Independent Variable • A factor that can be selected and manipulated by the experimenter • Dependent Variable • A measurable behavior exhibited by the participant in the experiment. It will change because of the IV’s • 3. Confederates
  • 20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • 4. Experimental v. Control Groups • In proper experiments, you will always have a control group by which you anchor the rest of the experiment • Experimental groups will experience the independent variables as determined by the researchers • Experimental controls- control group, experimental group, avoid extraneous varibles • • Quasi-Experimental Designs • Not considered true experiments because of the inability to randomly assign participants to the experimental and control groups
  • 21. CAUTIONS ABOUT EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Experimenter Bias • Predisposed beliefs of the experimenter can confound the research findings • Creates a self-fulfilling prophesy • Demand Characteristics • D. Participant Bias • When participants try to present themselves in a good light or deliberately attempt to mislead the researcher • Offer confidentiality double blind studies don’t tell them what they are really being tested for • Placebo Effect • The phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior • Subject’s expectations lead them to believe some change has occurred • Double-Blind Experiments • A study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group • Research Samples • A sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included