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Robinson Helicopter Private Lesson 1

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  • HI, HEATHER . I'VE HAD READING THIS PRESENTATION ABOUT R22 HELICOPTER, IT'S A GOOD JOB AND GOOD HELP FOR HELICOPTER TECHNICIANS AND STUDENTS. I'M FROM MEXICO AND WOULD LIKE IF YOU CAN, AND WANT, SEND THIS PRESENTATION TO MY E-MAL I WOULD APPRECIATE SO MUCH YOUR SUPPORT. MY MAIL IS joellizarraga@hotmail.com. thanks
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  • 1. Lesson 1Lesson 1 Helicopter SystemsHelicopter Systems
  • 2. OverviewOverview  This lesson will introduce the student toThis lesson will introduce the student to the components, systems andthe components, systems and instruments of the R22 helicopter.instruments of the R22 helicopter. ObjectivesObjectives  After completion of this lesson you willAfter completion of this lesson you will know the specifics of:know the specifics of:  Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Flight ControlsFlight Controls  Electrical SystemsElectrical Systems  Fuel and Fuel SystemFuel and Fuel System  Oil and Oil SystemOil and Oil System  InstrumentsInstruments
  • 3. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Two all-metal bladesTwo all-metal blades  Honeycomb construction on the interiorHoneycomb construction on the interior  Stainless Steel leading edgeStainless Steel leading edge  Symmetrical airfoilSymmetrical airfoil  Semi-rigid systemSemi-rigid system  Able to featherAble to feather (pitch change)(pitch change)  Both blades flap as a single unitBoth blades flap as a single unit (rigid in-plane)(rigid in-plane)  Under-slung on Teeter HingeUnder-slung on Teeter Hinge  Coning Hinges at blade attachment to hubConing Hinges at blade attachment to hub  25 ft 2 in diameter, 7.2 in chord, - 8° washout25 ft 2 in diameter, 7.2 in chord, - 8° washout (twist)(twist)  Tip speed 672 fps at 100% rpmTip speed 672 fps at 100% rpm  At 104%, Main Rotor RPM is 530At 104%, Main Rotor RPM is 530  Main Rotor on an R22Main Rotor on an R22
  • 4. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Two all-metal bladesTwo all-metal blades  Tail RotorTail Rotor  HoneycombHoneycomb construction on theconstruction on the interior, Aluminum skininterior, Aluminum skin  Asymmetrical airfoilAsymmetrical airfoil  Semi-rigid systemSemi-rigid system  Able to featherAble to feather (pitch change)(pitch change)  Delta hinge to allow blade flappingDelta hinge to allow blade flapping  Blades flap as a single unitBlades flap as a single unit (rigid in-plane)(rigid in-plane)  Fixed Coning angle of 1Fixed Coning angle of 1oo 11 minutes11 minutes  3 ft 6 inch diameter, 4 inch chord3 ft 6 inch diameter, 4 inch chord  Tip speed 599 fps at 100% rpmTip speed 599 fps at 100% rpm  At 104%, Tail Rotor RPM is 3396At 104%, Tail Rotor RPM is 3396
  • 5. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Lycoming O-360-J2ALycoming O-360-J2A (Beta II)(Beta II)  361 cubic inches displacement361 cubic inches displacement  180 BHP derated to 145 BHP180 BHP derated to 145 BHP  124 BHP124 BHP @@ 2652 rpm2652 rpm (104%rpm)(104%rpm) maximum continuous ratingmaximum continuous rating  131 BHP131 BHP @@ 2652 rpm2652 rpm (104%rpm)(104%rpm) five minute take off ratingfive minute take off rating  4 cylinder4 cylinder  Horizontally-opposedHorizontally-opposed  Direct-driveDirect-drive  Air-cooledAir-cooled  CarburetedCarbureted  Normally-aspiratedNormally-aspirated  EngineEngine  2 Magnetos2 Magnetos  Direct-drive Squirrel Cage Cooling FanDirect-drive Squirrel Cage Cooling Fan  Wet sump oil systemWet sump oil system  StarterStarter  AlternatorAlternator  Shielded IgnitionShielded Ignition  Oil CoolerOil Cooler  Induction Air FilterInduction Air Filter  4-6 quart oil fill range4-6 quart oil fill range  2200 hours between overhauls (TBO)2200 hours between overhauls (TBO)
  • 6. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Consists of a stationary plate and a rotating plate separated byConsists of a stationary plate and a rotating plate separated by high-performance bearings.high-performance bearings.  Swash Plate AssemblySwash Plate Assembly Stationary Plate Pitch Link (2 places) Control Rod (3 places) Rotating Plate Bearing  Three control rods come up from the Collective and Cyclic toThree control rods come up from the Collective and Cyclic to move the Stationary plate.move the Stationary plate.  Two Pitch Links connect the two blades to the rotating plateTwo Pitch Links connect the two blades to the rotating plate
  • 7. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  The Collective moves all three control rods at the same timeThe Collective moves all three control rods at the same time (collectively).(collectively).  Swash Plate AssemblySwash Plate Assembly  This causes equal pitch change to occur on both blades.This causes equal pitch change to occur on both blades. Collective up Collective down
  • 8. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  The Cyclic moves each of the three control rods independently, causingThe Cyclic moves each of the three control rods independently, causing both swash plates to tip at various angles (cycle).both swash plates to tip at various angles (cycle).  This causes each blade to change its pitch back and forthThis causes each blade to change its pitch back and forth independently as the rotor system rotates.independently as the rotor system rotates.  Swash Plate AssemblySwash Plate Assembly  This periodic pitch change is called Cyclic Feathering.This periodic pitch change is called Cyclic Feathering. Cyclic Input  The rotor disc tilts accordingly, causing thrust in the direction of the tilt.The rotor disc tilts accordingly, causing thrust in the direction of the tilt.
  • 9. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Drive SystemDrive System
  • 10. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Drive SystemDrive System Engine 2652 RPM @ 104% Upper Sheave (0.8536:1 Ratio) Drive Belts Lower Sheave Free wheeling unit (Sprague Clutch) Upper Bearing Lower Bearing Flex Plate (3 places) Yoke Flanges (1 pair - 3 places) Tail Rotor Drive Shaft Tail Rotor Gear Box (3:2 Ratio) Tail Rotor Main Rotor Gear Box (11:47 Ratio) Main Rotor Drive Shaft Swash Plate Main Rotor Hub Main Rotor Damper Cooling Fan Delta Hinge Clutch Actuator
  • 11. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  The Main RotorThe Main Rotor  Single-stage spiral-bevel gear setSingle-stage spiral-bevel gear set  11 : 47 speed11 : 47 speed reducingreducing ratioratio  Splash lubricatedSplash lubricated  Air cooledAir cooled  Drive System: Gear BoxesDrive System: Gear Boxes  The Tail RotorThe Tail Rotor  Single-stage spiral-bevel gear setSingle-stage spiral-bevel gear set  3 : 2 speed3 : 2 speed increasingincreasing ratioratio  Splash lubricatedSplash lubricated  Air cooledAir cooled
  • 12. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  The Lower Sheave is bolted directly to Engine output shaft.The Lower Sheave is bolted directly to Engine output shaft.  Twin V-belts transfer power to the Upper Sheave.Twin V-belts transfer power to the Upper Sheave.  The Upper sheave has a larger diameter than the lower, resultingThe Upper sheave has a larger diameter than the lower, resulting in a speed reduction of 0.8536 to 1.in a speed reduction of 0.8536 to 1.  The Upper Sheave has a Freewheeling unit, or Sprague Clutch,The Upper Sheave has a Freewheeling unit, or Sprague Clutch, contained in it’s hub.contained in it’s hub.  The Freewheeling unit allows the main and tail rotors to continueThe Freewheeling unit allows the main and tail rotors to continue rotating (autorotate) if the engine stops.rotating (autorotate) if the engine stops.  Drive TrainDrive Train  A damper placed midway along the length ofA damper placed midway along the length of the tail rotor drive shaft supports the shaft.the tail rotor drive shaft supports the shaft.  Flexible couplings (Yoke flanges and flexFlexible couplings (Yoke flanges and flex plates) along the drive shafts allow for minorplates) along the drive shafts allow for minor misalignments in the drive shafts.misalignments in the drive shafts. Yoke Flange Flex Plate
  • 13. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  When starting the engine, the V-belts have slack between the upperWhen starting the engine, the V-belts have slack between the upper and lower sheaves. The engine is turning, but the belts are not.and lower sheaves. The engine is turning, but the belts are not.  ClutchClutch Engine Upper Sheave Drive Belts Lower Sheave Clutch Actuator  After the clutch is engaged, an electric actuator slowly raises the upper sheave.After the clutch is engaged, an electric actuator slowly raises the upper sheave.  As the actuator extends, the friction from the belts causes theAs the actuator extends, the friction from the belts causes the rotor drive shafts to begin turning.rotor drive shafts to begin turning.  The Clutch light, in the cockpit will go out when belts are fully tensioned.The Clutch light, in the cockpit will go out when belts are fully tensioned.
  • 14. Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Landing GearLanding Gear  Spring and yield skid type landing gear is used.Spring and yield skid type landing gear is used.  It will absorb the impact of most hard landings. In the case of anIt will absorb the impact of most hard landings. In the case of an extremely hard landing, the struts will hinge up and outward and theextremely hard landing, the struts will hinge up and outward and the center cross tube will yield to absorb the impact.center cross tube will yield to absorb the impact.  There are 3 hardened steel wear shoes located on the bottom ofThere are 3 hardened steel wear shoes located on the bottom of each skid.each skid.  When the thinnest point on a shoe is less than 1/16When the thinnest point on a shoe is less than 1/16thth of an inch, theof an inch, the shoe should be replaced.shoe should be replaced.
  • 15. Flight ControlsFlight Controls  CyclicCyclic  CollectiveCollective  ThrottleThrottle  PedalsPedals Cyclic Pedals Collective Throttle
  • 16. Flight ControlsFlight Controls  CyclicCyclic CollectiveCollective ThrottleThrottle PedalsPedals  The function of the cyclic is to tilt the main rotorThe function of the cyclic is to tilt the main rotor disc in the direction of desired horizontal flight.disc in the direction of desired horizontal flight.  While in flight, turns are accomplished by rightWhile in flight, turns are accomplished by right and left movement of the cyclic.and left movement of the cyclic.  The pedals do not turn the helicopter in flight!The pedals do not turn the helicopter in flight! They maintain trim (Coordinated flight), and theThey maintain trim (Coordinated flight), and the cyclic turns the helicopter.cyclic turns the helicopter.  Airspeed is controlled primarily with the cyclic.Airspeed is controlled primarily with the cyclic. Forward movement of the cyclic causes theForward movement of the cyclic causes the helicopter to accelerate, and vice versa.helicopter to accelerate, and vice versa.  There is a separate friction knob associated withThere is a separate friction knob associated with the Cyclic that serves to hold the cyclic in positionthe Cyclic that serves to hold the cyclic in position when not in flight.when not in flight.  Dual Controls. (Left side controls removable)Dual Controls. (Left side controls removable)
  • 17. Flight ControlsFlight Controls CyclicCyclic  CollectiveCollective ThrottleThrottle PedalsPedals  When you pull up on the collective, the helicopterWhen you pull up on the collective, the helicopter climbs and vice versa.climbs and vice versa.  When the collective control is raised, pitch isWhen the collective control is raised, pitch is increased correspondingly on both main rotorincreased correspondingly on both main rotor blades causing them to “bite” more air.blades causing them to “bite” more air.  This increase in pitch tends to slow the main rotorThis increase in pitch tends to slow the main rotor down because of the additional air being pusheddown because of the additional air being pushed downward, so the engine has to increase its outputdownward, so the engine has to increase its output to maintain a constant RPM level.to maintain a constant RPM level.  There is an associated friction knob for theThere is an associated friction knob for the collective that serves to hold the lever in the downcollective that serves to hold the lever in the down position when not in flight.position when not in flight.  The Collective lever is balanced so it holds itsThe Collective lever is balanced so it holds its position in flight allowing the use of the left hand forposition in flight allowing the use of the left hand for other tasks.other tasks. (Friction is off)(Friction is off)  Dual Controls.Dual Controls. (Left side controls removable)(Left side controls removable)
  • 18. Flight ControlsFlight Controls  ThrottleThrottle  The Throttle is the twist-grip at the end of theThe Throttle is the twist-grip at the end of the collective lever.collective lever.  The governor switch is located at the very endThe governor switch is located at the very end of the pilot’s collective lever.of the pilot’s collective lever.  The R22 has an electronic governor thatThe R22 has an electronic governor that restricts the RPM to 101-104% and movesrestricts the RPM to 101-104% and moves automatically on it’s own.automatically on it’s own.  We have a mechanical correlator thatWe have a mechanical correlator that automatically opens and closes the throttle asautomatically opens and closes the throttle as required to maintain RPM. As you raiserequired to maintain RPM. As you raise collective the correlator simultaneously raisescollective the correlator simultaneously raises RPM’s.RPM’s.  Twisting the throttle to theTwisting the throttle to the leftleft (thumb up)(thumb up) causescauses the engine tothe engine to increaseincrease RPM.RPM. More RPM Less RPM  Twisting the throttle to theTwisting the throttle to the rightright (thumb down)(thumb down) causes the engine tocauses the engine to decreasedecrease RPM.RPM.  If the Governor is turned offIf the Governor is turned off (or fails),(or fails), the enginethe engine RPM is controlled manually with the throttle.RPM is controlled manually with the throttle.
  • 19. Flight ControlsFlight Controls CyclicCyclic CollectiveCollective ThrottleThrottle  PedalsPedals  The Pedals control the pitch on the Tail RotorThe Pedals control the pitch on the Tail Rotor thereby adding more or less thrust.thereby adding more or less thrust.  If theIf the leftleft pedal is pressed, the nose of thepedal is pressed, the nose of the helicopter will turn to thehelicopter will turn to the leftleft..  If theIf the rightright pedal is pressed, the nose of thepedal is pressed, the nose of the helicopter will turn to thehelicopter will turn to the rightright..  The pedals behave in a “give-and-take”The pedals behave in a “give-and-take” manner relative to each other. That is, if themanner relative to each other. That is, if the left pedal is pushed towards the floor, the rightleft pedal is pushed towards the floor, the right pedal must be released and allowed to movepedal must be released and allowed to move away from the floor.away from the floor.  Dual Controls.Dual Controls. (Left side controls removable)(Left side controls removable)
  • 20. Electrical SystemElectrical System  BatteryBattery AlternatorAlternator Circuit BreakersCircuit Breakers Ignition SystemIgnition System Aircraft LightsAircraft Lights  12 volt, 25 amp-hour12 volt, 25 amp-hour  Located on left side of engine compartmentLocated on left side of engine compartment  Master Battery Switch on console disconnects the batteryMaster Battery Switch on console disconnects the battery from all circuits except the tachometers and clock.from all circuits except the tachometers and clock.  Primary purpose is to supply power for engine startingPrimary purpose is to supply power for engine starting  Secondary purpose is to supply nominal voltage to alternator.Secondary purpose is to supply nominal voltage to alternator. (Also to run electrical system in case of alternator failure)(Also to run electrical system in case of alternator failure)  If the battery is dead (flat), the alternator will not work.If the battery is dead (flat), the alternator will not work.
  • 21. Electrical SystemElectrical System BatteryBattery  AlternatorAlternator Circuit BreakersCircuit Breakers Ignition SystemIgnition System Aircraft LightsAircraft Lights  14 volt, 60 amp14 volt, 60 amp  Located on rear of engine compartmentLocated on rear of engine compartment  The Alternator is the primary source of power toThe Alternator is the primary source of power to electrical systems during normal operations.electrical systems during normal operations.  Alternator switch, Ammeter, and Alt light on console.Alternator switch, Ammeter, and Alt light on console.  The Voltage Regulator protects the electrical systemThe Voltage Regulator protects the electrical system from overvoltage conditions.from overvoltage conditions.  If Alternator fails, the battery will drain and no longerIf Alternator fails, the battery will drain and no longer supply current to tachometers.supply current to tachometers.
  • 22. Electrical SystemElectrical System BatteryBattery AlternatorAlternator  Circuit BreakersCircuit Breakers Ignition SystemIgnition System Aircraft LightsAircraft Lights  All Circuit Breakers are of the push-to-reset type.All Circuit Breakers are of the push-to-reset type.  If a breaker pops up, wait for a moment for it to coolIf a breaker pops up, wait for a moment for it to cool before resetting.before resetting.  All breakers should be checked and pushed downAll breakers should be checked and pushed down before each flight.before each flight.  If a breaker pops again soon after being reset, itIf a breaker pops again soon after being reset, it shouldn’t be reset a second time.shouldn’t be reset a second time.  The circuit breakers are located on a ledge right inThe circuit breakers are located on a ledge right in front of the passenger seat.front of the passenger seat.
  • 23. Electrical SystemElectrical System BatteryBattery AlternatorAlternator Circuit BreakersCircuit Breakers  Ignition SystemIgnition System Aircraft LightsAircraft Lights  Dual Ignition system with two Magnetos.Dual Ignition system with two Magnetos.  A Magneto is a small AC generator driven byA Magneto is a small AC generator driven by the engine to provide a very high voltage to athe engine to provide a very high voltage to a distributordistributor (one distributor in each magneto)(one distributor in each magneto), which, which directs it to the spark plugs.directs it to the spark plugs.  There are two spark plugs per cylinder forThere are two spark plugs per cylinder for safety and efficiency.safety and efficiency.  The ignition system is totally independent ofThe ignition system is totally independent of the helicopter electrical system. Once thethe helicopter electrical system. Once the engine is running, it will operate regardless ofengine is running, it will operate regardless of the condition of the battery or alternator.the condition of the battery or alternator.  The magnetos are tested with the ignition keyThe magnetos are tested with the ignition key as part of the pre-flight checklist.as part of the pre-flight checklist.  There is a warning light on the console for theThere is a warning light on the console for the starter. It should go out as soon as the key isstarter. It should go out as soon as the key is released after the engine has started.released after the engine has started.
  • 24. Fuel and Fuel SystemFuel and Fuel System  Proper FuelProper Fuel Diagram & OperationsDiagram & Operations Fuel ContaminationFuel Contamination Improper FuelImproper Fuel  Available Fuel GradesAvailable Fuel Grades  80/8780/87 aviation fuelaviation fuel RedRed  100LL100LL aviation fuelaviation fuel BlueBlue  100/130100/130 aviation fuelaviation fuel GreenGreen  Jet A fuelJet A fuel StrawStraw  When any two grades of aviation fuel areWhen any two grades of aviation fuel are combined, the mixture turns clear.combined, the mixture turns clear.  This clear mixture can still be distinguishedThis clear mixture can still be distinguished from Jet A fuel because Jet A isfrom Jet A fuel because Jet A is oilyoily to theto the touch, while aviation fuel has a thin,touch, while aviation fuel has a thin, evaporative feel.evaporative feel.
  • 25. Fuel and Fuel SystemFuel and Fuel System Main Tank Auxiliary Tank Gascolator Drain - Sample PointCarburetor Gascolator Main Tank Drain Filler Caps Aux Tank Drain Sample Point (Left Side Fuselage) Sample Point (Right Panel) Fuel Shut Off Valve Strainer (one on each tank) Firewall Tank Vents Cross-Feed fuel line
  • 26. Fuel and Fuel SystemFuel and Fuel System Proper FuelProper Fuel  Diagram & OperationsDiagram & Operations Fuel ContaminationFuel Contamination Improper FuelImproper Fuel  MAINMAIN TankTank  Total Capacity -Total Capacity - 19.819.8 US galUS gal  Useable Capacity -Useable Capacity - 19.219.2 US galUS gal  AUXAUX TankTank  Total Capacity -Total Capacity - 10.910.9 US galUS gal  Useable Capacity -Useable Capacity - 10.510.5 US galUS gal  Gravity-Flow systemGravity-Flow system  No Fuel PumpsNo Fuel Pumps  Fuel Gages operated by float-typeFuel Gages operated by float-type sensors in each tank.sensors in each tank.  Low Fuel warning light activates withLow Fuel warning light activates with approximately one gallon of fuelapproximately one gallon of fuel remaining or 5 minutes.remaining or 5 minutes.  Both tanks are interconnected allowingBoth tanks are interconnected allowing aux tank to drain into main tank.aux tank to drain into main tank.
  • 27. Fuel and Fuel SystemFuel and Fuel System Proper FuelProper Fuel Diagram & OperationsDiagram & Operations  Fuel ContaminationFuel Contamination Improper FuelImproper Fuel  Types of ContaminationTypes of Contamination  WaterWater  Debris - SolidsDebris - Solids  PreventionPrevention  Fill Tanks at the end of the dayFill Tanks at the end of the day  This helps prevent condensation fromThis helps prevent condensation from forming inside the tanks.forming inside the tanks.  EliminationElimination  Keep draining batches into fuel testerKeep draining batches into fuel tester until contamination is eliminated.until contamination is eliminated.
  • 28. Fuel and Fuel SystemFuel and Fuel System Proper FuelProper Fuel Diagram & OperationsDiagram & Operations Fuel ContaminationFuel Contamination  Improper FuelImproper Fuel Detonation:Detonation: The use of low-grade or an air/ fuel mixture whichThe use of low-grade or an air/ fuel mixture which is too lean may causeis too lean may cause detonationdetonation, which is the, which is the uncontrolled spontaneous explosion of the mixture in theuncontrolled spontaneous explosion of the mixture in the cylinder. Detonation produces extreme heat.cylinder. Detonation produces extreme heat. Pre-ignitionPre-ignition is the premature burning of air/ fuel mixture.is the premature burning of air/ fuel mixture. It causes an incandescent area (such as a carbon orIt causes an incandescent area (such as a carbon or lead deposit heated to a red hot glow) which serves as anlead deposit heated to a red hot glow) which serves as an igniter in advance of normal ignition.igniter in advance of normal ignition.
  • 29. Oil and Oil SystemOil and Oil System  Oil SystemOil System DescriptionDescription Oil Type and QuantityOil Type and Quantity Wet vs. Dry SumpWet vs. Dry Sump  The Oil System lubricates, coolsThe Oil System lubricates, cools and cleans the engine.and cleans the engine.  Oil Temperature and PressureOil Temperature and Pressure monitored by gages on themonitored by gages on the instrument panel.instrument panel.  After checking the oil andAfter checking the oil and replacing the Dipstick, be carefulreplacing the Dipstick, be careful not to over tighten the cap.not to over tighten the cap. (Finger tight only.)(Finger tight only.) Dip Stick
  • 30. Oil and Oil SystemOil and Oil System Oil SystemOil System DescriptionDescription  Oil Type and QuantityOil Type and Quantity Wet vs. Dry SumpWet vs. Dry Sump  TypeType  Ashless Dispersant GradeAshless Dispersant Grade  15W50 for all average ambient15W50 for all average ambient air temperaturesair temperatures  QuantityQuantity  4 to 6 Quarts4 to 6 Quarts  4 minimum for Takeoff4 minimum for Takeoff
  • 31. Oil and Oil SystemOil and Oil System  Oil System DescriptionOil System Description  Oil Type and QuantityOil Type and Quantity  Wet vs. Dry SumpWet vs. Dry Sump In aIn a dry-sump systemdry-sump system, the oil is contained in a separate tank and, the oil is contained in a separate tank and is circulated through the engine by pumps.is circulated through the engine by pumps. In aIn a wet-sump systemwet-sump system, the oil is carried in a sump which is an, the oil is carried in a sump which is an integral part of the engine.integral part of the engine.
  • 32. InstrumentsInstruments  Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor  Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure FlightFlight Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  Rotor Tachometer MarkingsRotor Tachometer Markings  Engine Tachometer MarkingsEngine Tachometer Markings  Upper red arcUpper red arc 104104 toto 110%110%  Green arcGreen arc 101101 toto 104%104%  Lower red arcLower red arc 9090 toto 101%101%  Bottom yellow arcBottom yellow arc 6060 toto 70%70%  Upper red lineUpper red line 110%110%  Upper yellow arcUpper yellow arc 104104 toto 110%110%  Green arcGreen arc 101101 toto 104%104%  Lower yellow arcLower yellow arc 9090 toto 101%101%  Lower red lineLower red line 90%90%  Bottom yellow arcBottom yellow arc 6060 toto 70%70%  The Dual Tachometers display the RPMThe Dual Tachometers display the RPM percentages of the Engine and the Main Rotor.percentages of the Engine and the Main Rotor.  The Tachometers will continue to register evenThe Tachometers will continue to register even if the engine is not running and the masterif the engine is not running and the master battery switch is off.battery switch is off. (Like in an autorotation)(Like in an autorotation)
  • 33. InstrumentsInstruments  Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor  Dual TachometerDual Tachometer  Low RPM SystemLow RPM System  Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight  Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System  Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  A warning light and hornA warning light and horn indicate that rotor RPMindicate that rotor RPM has dropped to or belowhas dropped to or below 97%.97%. This system isThis system is disabled when thedisabled when the collective is in the fullcollective is in the full down position.down position.
  • 34. InstrumentsInstruments  Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System  Manifold PressureManifold Pressure FlightFlight Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  Manifold Pressure MarkingsManifold Pressure Markings  Upper red lineUpper red line 24.124.1 in. Hgin. Hg  Yellow arcYellow arc 19.619.6 toto 24.124.1 in. Hgin. Hg  The Manifold Pressure gage displaysThe Manifold Pressure gage displays the amount of power being producedthe amount of power being produced by the engine to turn the main rotorby the engine to turn the main rotor and tail rotor.and tail rotor.  Changes in the position of the CollectiveChanges in the position of the Collective are directly reflected on the Manifoldare directly reflected on the Manifold Pressure gage.Pressure gage.
  • 35. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight  Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  Pitot-static sourcePitot-static source  The Pitot Tube is located on the front of theThe Pitot Tube is located on the front of the mast faring above the cabin.mast faring above the cabin. PITOT TUBE STATIC SOURCE AIR SPEED INDICATOR VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR ALTIMETER  Alternate Pitot-static sourceAlternate Pitot-static source  The R-22 does not have an alternateThe R-22 does not have an alternate static source.static source.  The Pitot tube supplies pressure only to theThe Pitot tube supplies pressure only to the Air Speed IndicatorAir Speed Indicator  The Static source supplies pressure to theThe Static source supplies pressure to the Altimeter, the Vertical Speed Indicator, ANDAltimeter, the Vertical Speed Indicator, AND the Air Speed Indicatorthe Air Speed Indicator  The Static Source is located inside the aftThe Static Source is located inside the aft cowling.cowling.
  • 36. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight  Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  Air Speed IndicatorAir Speed Indicator  Displays the speed of the helicopter relativeDisplays the speed of the helicopter relative to the air moving through the Pitot tube.to the air moving through the Pitot tube.  Flying into a headwind will show anFlying into a headwind will show an airspeed greater than the ground speedairspeed greater than the ground speed and flying with a tailwind will show less.and flying with a tailwind will show less.  Air Speed Indicator MarkingsAir Speed Indicator Markings  Green arcGreen arc 5050 toto 102102 KIASKIAS  Upper red lineUpper red line 102102 KIASKIAS (V(VNENE)) (up to 3000ft D.A)(up to 3000ft D.A)  Velocity to never exceed (VVelocity to never exceed (VNENE) will) will vary with pressure altitude andvary with pressure altitude and outside air temperature (OAT).outside air temperature (OAT).  The speed displayed here is the IndicatedThe speed displayed here is the Indicated Air Speed. (KIAS)Air Speed. (KIAS)  Airspeed is controlled primarily with theAirspeed is controlled primarily with the Cyclic. Changes in the Collective positionCyclic. Changes in the Collective position will have a secondary effect.will have a secondary effect.
  • 37. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight  Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  AltimeterAltimeter  Displays the indicated altitude of theDisplays the indicated altitude of the helicopter above sea level.helicopter above sea level.  Changing the altimeter setting by 0.1Changing the altimeter setting by 0.1 inch will change the altitude by 100 feet.inch will change the altitude by 100 feet.  The adjustment knob allows you to set theThe adjustment knob allows you to set the local altimeter setting in the smalllocal altimeter setting in the small “Kollsman” window on the right.“Kollsman” window on the right.  Reading the IndicatorReading the Indicator  The long skinny hand is HundredsThe long skinny hand is Hundreds  The short fat hand is ThousandsThe short fat hand is Thousands  The outside triangle is Tens of ThousandsThe outside triangle is Tens of Thousands  The value shown here is:The value shown here is:  14,730 feet14,730 feet  Changes in altitude are determined byChanges in altitude are determined by measuring changes in barometric pressure.measuring changes in barometric pressure.
  • 38. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight  Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  Vertical Speed IndicatorVertical Speed Indicator  Displays the climb or descent rate of theDisplays the climb or descent rate of the helicopter.helicopter.  Vertical speed is determined by measuringVertical speed is determined by measuring the rate of change of barometric pressure.the rate of change of barometric pressure.  Vertical speed is controlled primarily byVertical speed is controlled primarily by changes in the Collective position andchanges in the Collective position and secondarily by changes in the Cyclic.secondarily by changes in the Cyclic.
  • 39. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System  Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  The location ofThe location of Magnetic North movesMagnetic North moves slowly over time.slowly over time.  Magnetic VariationMagnetic Variation is the differenceis the difference between True Northbetween True North and Magnetic Northand Magnetic North
  • 40. InstrumentsInstruments  Isogonic lines connect points of equal variation.Isogonic lines connect points of equal variation. Isogonic line Agonic line  Magnetic Variation must be taken into account in order to follow aMagnetic Variation must be taken into account in order to follow a course relative to true north.course relative to true north.  The Agonic line is where the variation is zero.The Agonic line is where the variation is zero.
  • 41. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System  Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  Each aircraft has various characteristicEach aircraft has various characteristic elements that generate on-board magneticelements that generate on-board magnetic fields that interfere with the compass.fields that interfere with the compass.  Every aircraft has a Compass CorrectionEvery aircraft has a Compass Correction Card mounted near the compass.Card mounted near the compass. FOR 0 30 60 90 120 150 STEER 357 31 60 88 121 152 FOR 180 210 240 270 300 330 STEER 180 209 240 272 301 329  The combined influence creates a compassThe combined influence creates a compass error referred to aserror referred to as  Magnetic Deviation must also beMagnetic Deviation must also be accounted for to navigate a courseaccounted for to navigate a course relative to true north.relative to true north.  Metal componentsMetal components  EngineEngine  RadiosRadios  Electrical accessoriesElectrical accessories Magnetic Deviation.Magnetic Deviation.  The card shows the calibrated values thatThe card shows the calibrated values that correct for the deviations of that aircraft.correct for the deviations of that aircraft.
  • 42. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System  Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  Another series of Compass Errors existAnother series of Compass Errors exist because of a phenomenon calledbecause of a phenomenon called  Any Magnetic objectAny Magnetic object (like the bar in a compass)(like the bar in a compass) when suspended from a pivot above the Earth,when suspended from a pivot above the Earth, will align itself with the magnetic field,will align itself with the magnetic field, AND the north end of the bar will tip downAND the north end of the bar will tip down towards Magnetic north.towards Magnetic north.  This phenomenon is undetectable at theThis phenomenon is undetectable at the equator because the Earth’s magnetic lines areequator because the Earth’s magnetic lines are parallel to the surface…parallel to the surface…  Near the magnetic pole the north end ofNear the magnetic pole the north end of the magnetic bar begins to tipthe magnetic bar begins to tip downward so much that the compassdownward so much that the compass becomes unusable.becomes unusable.Equator N 40° Latitude  ……and the effect increases as theand the effect increases as the magnet moves closer to the polemagnet moves closer to the pole because the Earth’s magnetic lines arebecause the Earth’s magnetic lines are “pulled” down towards the surface.“pulled” down towards the surface. Magnetic Dip.Magnetic Dip.
  • 43. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System  Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass  To compensate for this tilting and to makeTo compensate for this tilting and to make the compass sit levelthe compass sit level (and thus read accurately)(and thus read accurately), a, a small weight is placed on the south arm ofsmall weight is placed on the south arm of the compassthe compass (for aircraft in the northern hemisphere)(for aircraft in the northern hemisphere)..  This new weight keeps the compassThis new weight keeps the compass level, but the unequal mass causes somelevel, but the unequal mass causes some corresponding compass behaviorscorresponding compass behaviors whenever the aircraft accelerates,whenever the aircraft accelerates, decelerates, or turns...decelerates, or turns... Equator N 40° Latitude
  • 44. InstrumentsInstruments Engine & RotorEngine & Rotor Dual TachometerDual Tachometer Low RPM SystemLow RPM System Manifold PressureManifold Pressure  FlightFlight Pitot-static SystemPitot-static System  Magnetic CompassMagnetic Compass Acceleration Error:Acceleration Error:  While flying mostly east or west,While flying mostly east or west,  During deceleration, inertia causes theDuring deceleration, inertia causes the weight to “throw” slightly ahead and turn theweight to “throw” slightly ahead and turn the compass towards the south.compass towards the south. Steady Flight ACCELERATE Decelerate  ANDS - AANDS - Accelerateccelerate NNorthorth DDecelerateecelerate SSouthouth  In both cases, once the acceleration is over andIn both cases, once the acceleration is over and steady flight is resumed, the compass will displaysteady flight is resumed, the compass will display the correct heading.the correct heading. Note that there is no acceleration error when traveling straight north or south.Note that there is no acceleration error when traveling straight north or south. S N W E 150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210 S NW E 150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210 S N W E150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210 if you accelerate, then the inertia of theif you accelerate, then the inertia of the compass weight causes it to “lag” slightlycompass weight causes it to “lag” slightly and turn the compass towards the north.and turn the compass towards the north.
  • 45. InstrumentsInstruments Turning Error:Turning Error:  If you’re headed North and you start a turn,If you’re headed North and you start a turn, the small balancing weight will initially getthe small balancing weight will initially get “thrown” to the outside of the turn, making it“thrown” to the outside of the turn, making it seem like you’re actually turning the otherseem like you’re actually turning the other way.way. N Heading NORTH  As the turn progress, the magnetic forces willAs the turn progress, the magnetic forces will begin to overcome the inertia and thebegin to overcome the inertia and the compass will start to correct itself, allowing thecompass will start to correct itself, allowing the compass to settle in and display the correctcompass to settle in and display the correct heading.heading.  Thus, turns to the left while headed north willThus, turns to the left while headed north will initially show a heading to towards the east...initially show a heading to towards the east...  ……and, turns to the right while headed north willand, turns to the right while headed north will initially show a heading to towards the west.initially show a heading to towards the west.  In both cases, you should intentionallyIn both cases, you should intentionally undershootundershoot your desired heading becauseyour desired heading because as you complete your turn the compass will beas you complete your turn the compass will be coming around more quickly than normal tocoming around more quickly than normal to “catch up” with the turn.“catch up” with the turn. S N W E 150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210 S N W E 150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210 S N W E 150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210
  • 46. InstrumentsInstruments Turning Error:Turning Error: N Heading SOUTH  If you’re headed South and you start a turn,If you’re headed South and you start a turn, the small balancing weight will initially “lag”the small balancing weight will initially “lag” behind to the outside of the turn, making itbehind to the outside of the turn, making it seem like you’ve turned far more, far soonerseem like you’ve turned far more, far sooner than you actually have.than you actually have.  As the turn progress, the magnetic forces willAs the turn progress, the magnetic forces will begin to overcome the inertia and thebegin to overcome the inertia and the compass will start to correct itself, allowing thecompass will start to correct itself, allowing the compass to settle in and display the correctcompass to settle in and display the correct heading.heading. Thus, turns to the left while headed south willThus, turns to the left while headed south will initially show a larger-than-normal heading toinitially show a larger-than-normal heading to towards the east...towards the east...  ……and, turns to the right while headed south willand, turns to the right while headed south will initially show a larger-than-normal heading toinitially show a larger-than-normal heading to towards the west.towards the west.  In both cases, you should intentionallyIn both cases, you should intentionally overshootovershoot your desired heading because asyour desired heading because as you complete your turn the compass will beyou complete your turn the compass will be coming around more slowly than normal as itcoming around more slowly than normal as it waits for the turn to catch up.waits for the turn to catch up.  UNOS - UUNOS - Undershootndershoot NNorthorth OOvershootvershoot SSouthouth S N W E 150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210 S N W E 150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210 S N W E 150 330 60 240 120 300 30 210
  • 47. ConclusionConclusion  In this lesson you have been introducedIn this lesson you have been introduced to the components, systems andto the components, systems and instruments of the R22 helicopter.instruments of the R22 helicopter. ObjectivesObjectives  You now know the specifics of:You now know the specifics of:  Helicopter ComponentsHelicopter Components  Oil and Oil SystemOil and Oil System  Flight ControlsFlight Controls  InstrumentsInstruments  Electrical SystemsElectrical Systems  Fuel and Fuel SystemFuel and Fuel System

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