“ Helping Students Use Textual Sources Persuasively” Margaret Kantz
Are you an Alice or a Shirley? <ul><li>Describe an experience you’ve had writing a research paper. Were you an Alice or a ...
Analyzing Kantz <ul><li>Audience? </li></ul><ul><li>How is she entering the “conversation”? </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose (exi...
Facts, Opinions, Claims <ul><li>What is the difference? (Alice knows.) </li></ul>
Facts as claims: an example <ul><li>http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-march-17-2010/don-t-mess-with-textbooks  (@1:12)...
Conflicting ideas <ul><li>What do you do if sources disagree? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Shirley do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Rhetorical Analysis <ul><li>Encoder= writer/speaker/ rhetor </li></ul><ul><li>Decoder=reader/listener/ audience </li></ul>...
The Battle of Agincourt <ul><li>We won! And it was really hard, too. </li></ul><ul><li>We lost. But we were outnumbered! <...
The Battle of Agincourt <ul><li>10,000 British soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Churchill, “A Histo...
What would Alice/Shirley do? <ul><li>5 teams </li></ul><ul><li>First to buzz in and answer correctly gets a point </li></u...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>If Alice/Shirley had to write a paper about Microsoft’s default font change that we discussed ye...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Definition of a fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: thinks sources transmit facts </li></ul></ul...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>How do they read sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: narrative/story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Why do they write? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: to find the truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of themselves as writers; what is their goal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: to be credible...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of their task (task representation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: summary </li></ul></ul><...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>How do they organize their writing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: in the order she found it, or...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Who is more likely to plagiarize? Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley </li></ul></ul>
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Who writes more drafts? Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice; summary, rhetorical analysis, argument...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley:  Research is not creative, but a static task des...
Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>What “tool” does Alice have in her toolbox that Shirley does not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetoric...
More questions <ul><li>It seems like everything worth saying has already been said—how do you create an original argument?...
What did the instructor do wrong, and how could she fix it? <ul><li>Minimal notes on draft, and those notes had to do with...
Practice using textual sources persuasively: Charlie Sheen, wasted, or misunderstood? <ul><li>“ What does this say about H...
An experiment: how do you read? <ul><li>Read an excerpt from an article out of context </li></ul><ul><li>At frequent inter...
<ul><li>Like the modern world, modern scientific psychology is extremely technical and complex. The application of any par...
<ul><li>Not many such double specialists exist. The relationship of a child’s current behavior to his early home life, for...
<ul><li>Many variables must be understood and integrated: special (“critical”) periods of brain sensitivity, nutrition, ge...
<ul><li>The professional application of these principles--in, say, a day-care center--is also a full-time occupation, and ...
<ul><li>What is needed is a coming together of real-world and laboratory specialists that will require both better communi...
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Kantz

  1. 1. “ Helping Students Use Textual Sources Persuasively” Margaret Kantz
  2. 2. Are you an Alice or a Shirley? <ul><li>Describe an experience you’ve had writing a research paper. Were you an Alice or a Shirley? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Analyzing Kantz <ul><li>Audience? </li></ul><ul><li>How is she entering the “conversation”? </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose (exigence)? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Facts, Opinions, Claims <ul><li>What is the difference? (Alice knows.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Facts as claims: an example <ul><li>http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-march-17-2010/don-t-mess-with-textbooks (@1:12) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Conflicting ideas <ul><li>What do you do if sources disagree? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Shirley do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000-45,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What would Alice do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical analysis </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Rhetorical Analysis <ul><li>Encoder= writer/speaker/ rhetor </li></ul><ul><li>Decoder=reader/listener/ audience </li></ul><ul><li>Reality= constraints, exigence </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Battle of Agincourt <ul><li>We won! And it was really hard, too. </li></ul><ul><li>We lost. But we were outnumbered! </li></ul>10,000 British soldiers 45,000 British soldiers
  9. 9. The Battle of Agincourt <ul><li>10,000 British soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Churchill, “A History of British Progress” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>written in 1930s, beginning of WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exigence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage readers to take pride in glorious history of British accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>45,000 British soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monsieur and Madame Guizot, “A History of France” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative opinion of England, British tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exigence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show how French were taken advantage of, how the battle was not so glorious </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What would Alice/Shirley do? <ul><li>5 teams </li></ul><ul><li>First to buzz in and answer correctly gets a point </li></ul><ul><li>Group with the most points gets a bonus point </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>If Alice/Shirley had to write a paper about Microsoft’s default font change that we discussed yesterday, what would they write? </li></ul><ul><li>Old Font </li></ul><ul><li>New Font </li></ul>
  12. 12. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Definition of a fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: thinks sources transmit facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: facts are claims </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>How do they read sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: narrative/story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: a “ message sent by someone to somebody for a reason ” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Why do they write? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: to find the truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: to make an argument </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of themselves as writers; what is their goal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: to be credible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: to persuade, say something new </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of their task (task representation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: original argument </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>How do they organize their writing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: in the order she found it, order the source writer puts it in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: in the order that fits her purpose to convince her audience </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Who is more likely to plagiarize? Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>Who writes more drafts? Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice; summary, rhetorical analysis, argument </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>View of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shirley: Research is not creative, but a static task designed to examine students on their understanding of facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice: Research is creative, and students are scholars “w h o work to find answers to problem questions” and who “se t reading and writing goals for themselves that will allow them to think constructively.” </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Alice vs. Shirley <ul><li>What “tool” does Alice have in her toolbox that Shirley does not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetorical situation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. More questions <ul><li>It seems like everything worth saying has already been said—how do you create an original argument? How can research be creative? Do you think that this would make research more enjoyable? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it possible for sources to disagree in ways other than pro/con? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Kantz think that plagiarism can be understandable, or even inevitable? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Kantz suggest that multiple drafts are useful? </li></ul>
  23. 23. What did the instructor do wrong, and how could she fix it? <ul><li>Minimal notes on draft, and those notes had to do with formalist issues </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t sequence the assignment, pacing it with enough time to allow students’ thoughts to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t teach rhetorical reading and writing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Gave “ weak assignment and an ineffective critique of the draft” </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t tell Shirley she was expected to say something original, that she should look for discrepant facts/conflicts in her sources, or that she should use her notes to comment on the sources and use the notes to plan her paper </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t teach Shirley to look for arguments instead of facts </li></ul>
  24. 24. Practice using textual sources persuasively: Charlie Sheen, wasted, or misunderstood? <ul><li>“ What does this say about Haim Levine [Chuck Lorre] after he tried to use his words to judge and attempt to degrade me. I gracefully ignored this folly for 177 shows ... I fire back once and this contaminated little maggot can't handle my power and can't handle the truth. I wish him nothing but pain in his silly travels especially if they wind up in my octagon. Clearly I have defeated this earthworm with my words -- imagine what I would have done with my fire breathing fists. I urge all my beautiful and loyal fans who embraced this show for almost a decade to walk with me side-by-side as we march up the steps of justice to right this unconscionable wrong.” </li></ul><ul><li>Write for each of the following citation strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Quoting directly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short phrase lead-in using a comma (,) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete sentence lead-in using a colon (:) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inserting select words into your own sentence using no additional punctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul>Stance 1 : You think Charlie is on drugs (and this proves it). Stance 2 : You think Charlie is being unfairly treated by Lorre.
  25. 25. An experiment: how do you read? <ul><li>Read an excerpt from an article out of context </li></ul><ul><li>At frequent intervals, answer the question: how do you interpret the text now? </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Like the modern world, modern scientific psychology is extremely technical and complex. The application of any particular set of psychological principles to any particular real problem requires a double specialist: a specialist in the scientific area, and a specialist in the real area. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Not many such double specialists exist. The relationship of a child’s current behavior to his early home life, for example, is not a simple problem--Sunday Supplement psychology notwithstanding. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Many variables must be understood and integrated: special (“critical”) periods of brain sensitivity, nutrition, genetic factors, the development of attention and perception, language, time factors (for example, the amount of time that elapses between a baby’s action and a mother’s smile), and so one. Mastery of these principles is a full time professional occupation. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The professional application of these principles--in, say, a day-care center--is also a full-time occupation, and one that is foreign to many laboratory psychologists. Indeed, a laboratory psychologist may not even recognize his pet principles when they are realized in a day care setting. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>What is needed is a coming together of real-world and laboratory specialists that will require both better communication and more complete experience. The laboratory specialists must spend some time in a real setting; the real-world specialists must spend some time in a theoretical laboratory. </li></ul>
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