“ Rhetorical Situations and their Constituents” Keith Grant-Davie
In your own words, how would you define “rhetorical situation”?
Send a text message to a friend, explaining the term “rhetorical situation” to them.
How did the two definitions differ, if at all?
What is Grant-Davie adding to the “conversation”?
Establish a territory
Bitzer, Vatz, Consigny
Establish a niche
“ more thoroughly developed scheme” (104)
Occupy a niche
More comprehensive analysis of exigence
Rhetors are as important as audience
Any of constituents can be plural (106)
What are the four constituents?
What’s so special about exigence?
Should answer three questions:
What the discourse is about (106)
Addresses stases (like who?/what?/where?/when?/why?) re. fact and definition
Topic, but also more abstract meaning; what values and issues are at stake?
Why it is needed (107)
Stases of cause and value
Why this, and why now? (kairos)
What it should accomplish (108)
Stases of policy or procedure
Goals, intended reaction
Potentially both primary and secondary objectives
How can the constituents be plural?
Anyone who happens to hear/read a discourse
Readers/listeners who form part of an external rhetorical situation
Audience the writer has in mind (resides in writer before and during composing)
Audience roles suggested by the discourse itself (derived by readers, including the author-as-reader)
Multiple rhetors? Exigences?
“ w o rking either for or against the rhetor’s objectives ” (111)
“ a l l factors in the situation, aside from the rhetor and the audience, that may lead the audience to be either more or less sympathetic to the discourse, and that may therefore influence the rhetor’s response to the situation ” (112)