Looking at structure: Wardle• (Introduction)• Identity• Authority• Learning to Write in a New Workplace: Alan’s story – Who is Alan and what is his place in the humanities department? – What was Alan’s view of himself and his authority? – How did Alan relate to the department in writing?• Discussion
Looking at structure: Mirabelli• (Introduction)• Literacy and contemporary theory• Methodology• Lou’s Restaurant• The Menu• Conclusion
What about your structure?• Introduction – Jot down the names of the scholars you will refer to.• Methodology – Jot down what methods you will need to describe.• Results/Discussion – Decide what organization will best suit your argument and create subject headings. • By Swales’s characteristics • By questions (see Wardle) • By community-specific topics (see Mirabelli) • By descriptive concepts (see McCarthy)• Write it on the board; let’s compare notes.
Drafting methodology• What do you need to include? – Background information about your community • Can be here, in your introduction, or at beginning of your results (Wardle, Mirabelli). – Observations • What • When • How long • How you recorded observations – Interviews • Who • How many times/how long – Collecting texts • What texts, how many • How you analyzed them
Organize your data into your outline• Decide what main pieces of evidence you want to include.• Add them to your outline. – Copy them onto the page or – Create a number system (1 for intro, 2 for methods, 3 for expertise section, etc.) and write the corresponding number next to your data
Clarify main ideas• Write a topic sentence for one of your sections. – Should connect to overall argument and also the main point of that paragraph/section – Example: “The complexity of language at Publix is evident in the hierarchy of Publix associates.” • Connects to overall argument (Publix is complex) and section argument (expertise at Publix)• Share.• Repeat for each section of your outline.
Start drafting one of your sections.• Decide what evidence you’ll use to support your topic sentence.• Decide what order to present your evidence in. – Example: • Interview with manager: some people worked at Publix since they were teenagers • Observation: expertise of different departments
Start drafting one of your sections.• Start writing about one piece of evidence. – Context • “There are associates that are new and taking their first job, but also seventy-five-year-old store managers who have been through all the different departments and work to occupy their time during the day.” – Evidence • “In an interview with the Assistant Customer Service Manager, Julia Pierce, I was informed that she and many of the other managers have been working for Publix since they were teenagers.” – Analysis • “As opposed to some jobs where a new employee might be handed a pamphlet and told to memorize it, Publix is a little more complicated. The more experienced associates lead by example to teach the new employees.“
Drafting with evidence• Add another piece. Show the connections. – Context / topic sentence • “Publix employees’ expertise varies not only by how long they’ve worked at the store, but also by the part of the store they work in. Publix associates are expected to meet or exceed the expectations of the customers, whatever their needs may be. This is accomplished through the use of language amongst the different departments.” – Evidence • “For instance, if a customer has a general question, such as where to find something, an associate of the customer service department would help them. But say that customer wants to know the difference between different cuts of meat; then, the customer would be referred to the meat department. The customer service associate would then call the meat department, give them a heads-up that a customer is coming back and what the inquiry was.” – Analysis • “This exchange of information is complex and necessary for smoother functioning of the store. The customer would never know it was going on.”
Drafting with evidence• Keep adding until the end of the paragraph/section.• Remember that you can have multiple paragraphs in each section.• Write an analysis of the section that connects to your overall argument.• Share.
Remember Swales and the CARS model?• Establish territory – Claim centrality – Make a topic generalization – Review previous items of research• Establish niche – Counter-claim – Indicate a gap – Raise a question – Continue a tradition• Occupy niche – Outline purposes – Announce principal findings – Indicate research-report structure
Let’s establish a territory I remember my first day as a Publix bagger twoyears ago. I went in thinking, “Shoot, any moroncould put groceries in a bag.” On my first day I waspaired with Dennis, a sixty-five-year-old baggerwho’d been working for Publix for eight years. Hedidn’t say much, but he told me to watch him and,when I felt I was ready, to go ahead and take over forhim. I then observed what to put with what, what tokeep by itself, and what to double-bag. It was a littlemore complicated than I had thought and I wasimpressed by their means of communicating theserules to me.(topic generalization)
Let’s establish a territory…continued Publix is a discourse community. John Swales states that adiscourse community has a broadly agreed set of commongoals, has mechanisms of intercommunication of itsmembers, uses its participatory mechanisms primarily toprovide information and feedback, utilizes and hencepossesses one or more genres in the communicativefurtherance of its aims, has acquired some specific lexis,and has a threshold level of members with a suitable degreeof relevant content and discoursal expertise (Swales 288-91).(reviewing previous items of research)
Let’s establish a nicheAfter reading Swales and his criteria, I realized thatdiscourse communities are everywhere and I hadnever realized it. Even Publix, where I’ve worked as abagger for two years, is a discourse communityaccording to Swales’ criteria.(continuing a tradition)
Let’s occupy the niche.There is a great deal of communication amongst us associates.We have adopted our own lexis which will be talked about later.We also communicate through bulletin boards, newsletters,paycheck attachments, and Post-it notes as well. Publix alsohas intercommunication as a chain. A latent side effect ofworking at Publix is learning how to communicate with otherpeople. I plan to examine Publix as a discourse community andexpose the complexity of language within the community.(announce principal findings/outline purposes)
What to include in your paper• Descriptive title• Introduction• Methodology• Results – Divided into sub-categories with subject headings• Discussion (or conclusion)• Appendix A: interviews• Appendix B: observation notes• Appendix C: copies of texts (or can include in body of the paper, if you want to refer to them)• Works Cited
Formatting• Major headings should be in bold• Minor headings should be in italics• Headings can be centered, or aligned left• Double-spaced• If you include images in your paper, label, “Figure 1,” “Figure 2,” etc., so you can refer to them in your writing.
Formatting• Example: Title This is my introduction. I’m writing something really neat. I’m establishing my territory, and talking about other scholars. Now I’m finding a niche, and occupying it. Methodology Here is where I describe my research methods. Results You could potentially give an overview of your results before you start going into your sub-headings. You could return to your argument, and tell readers what to expect. Expertise If expertise was one of your categories, here is where you would talk about it, using your evidence, and connecting to your argument. Lexis If lexis was one of your categories, here is where you would talk about it, using your evidence, and connecting to your argument. Discussion Here’s where you wrap things up. You could also title this “conclusion” if you would rather.
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