Enc1101 Drafting Unit 1
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  • 1. DRAFTING UNIT ONE
  • 2.
    • Part one
    DRAFTING UNIT ONE
  • 3.
    • Audience
    • Purpose
    • Genre
    WHO ARE YOU WRITING FOR, AND WHY?
  • 4.
    • Write a 1-2 sentence thesis statement that summarizes your argument. What are you trying to show, and why?
    CLARIFY YOUR ARGUMENT
  • 5.
    • Keith Grant-Davie, “Rhetorical Situations and their Constituents”
      • RACE: rhetor, audience, constraints, exigence
      • Exigence is important
      • Any of the constituents can be plural
      • Rhetorical analysis helps students
    • Margaret Kantz, “Helping Students Use Textual Sources Persuasively”
      • Facts and opinions are both kinds of claims
      • Rhetorical awareness will help you as a writer
      • Use sources to make an argument, not a summary
        • Minor points: plagiarism and revision
    • Christina Haas and Linda Flower, “Rhetorical Reading Strategies and the Construction of Meaning”
      • More experienced readers tend to use more rhetorical strategies when reading
      • It’s important to connect what you already know to what you don’t know
      • Sometimes identifying the structure/function of a piece of writing will help you to learn more about it
    LET’S REVIEW
  • 6.
    • Grant-Davie
      • RACE: rhetor, audience, constraints, exigence
      • Exigence is important
      • Any of the constituents can be plural
      • Rhetorical analysis helps students
    • Kantz
      • Facts and opinions are both kinds of claims
      • Rhetorical awareness will help you as a writer
      • Use sources to make an argument, not a summary
        • Minor points: plagiarism and revision
    • Haas and Flower
      • More experienced readers tend to use more rhetorical strategies when reading
      • It’s important to connect what you already know to what you don’t know
      • Sometimes identifying the structure/function of a piece of writing will help you to learn more about it
    • What elements of each of these articles are relevant for your argument? Jot down each of the scholars’ names. Next to each name, write how you would use each article to support your argument for your particular audience.
    • Share with a partner. Discuss: are there any other relevant points that might be important for your audience? Are there any points you included that might not matter to your audience?
    USING SOURCES PERSUASIVELY
  • 7.
    • Rhetor: me
    • Audience: this class
    • Exigence: to help you learn rhetorical situation, prepare you for your unit 1 paper
    • Genre: lectures/discussions/activities
    • Structure:
      • Grant-Davie
      • Kantz
      • Haas and Flower
    • Why?
    STRUCTURING YOUR ARGUMENT
  • 8.
    • Audience: Florida voters, lawmakers
    • Exigence: to argue that the FCAT should be given less emphasis in schools
    • Genre: letter to the editor
    • How would you structure this? Why?
    STRUCTURING YOUR ARGUMENT
  • 9.
    • Audience: President of UCF, John Hitt
    • Exigence: to convince him to allocate more of the budget to composition classes
    • Genre: letter
    • How would you structure this? Why ?
    STRUCTURING YOUR ARGUMENT
  • 10.
    • Audience:
    • Exigence:
    • Genre:
    • How are you going to structure your argument, based on your audience, exigence, and genre?
    • Create an outline (or web, notes, etc. Whatever works for you.)
    • Share with a partner. Discuss ways to improve your organization.
    • Revise or elaborate as needed.
    STRUCTURING YOUR ARGUMENT
  • 11.
    • Audience: Florida voters, lawmakers
    • What mode(s) of persuasion would be most effective?
      • Pathos, ethos, logos
    • What kind of tone should you adopt?
      • Formal, informal, conversational, humorous, scholarly, argumentative, etc.
    • What kind of evidence will be most persuasive?
      • Quotes from articles, summaries of articles, personal examples, statistics, etc.
    • What kind of language should you use?
      • Sophisticated, simple, playful, strong, etc.
    • What genre conventions do you need to consider?
      • Length, citation style, opening and closing, structure, etc.
    MAKING RHETORICAL CHOICES
  • 12.
    • Audience: John Hitt
    • What mode(s) of persuasion would be most effective?
      • Pathos, ethos, logos
    • What kind of tone should you adopt?
      • Formal, informal, conversational, humorous, scholarly, argumentative, etc.
    • What kind of evidence will be most persuasive?
      • Quotes from articles, summaries of articles, personal examples, statistics, etc.
    • What kind of language should you use?
      • Sophisticated, simple, playful, strong, etc.
    • What genre conventions do you need to consider?
      • Length, citation style, opening and closing, structure, etc.
    MAKING RHETORICAL CHOICES
  • 13.
    • Audience: YOURS
    • What mode(s) of persuasion would be most effective?
      • Pathos, ethos, logos
    • What kind of tone should you adopt?
      • Formal, informal, conversational, humorous, scholarly, argumentative, etc.
    • What kind of evidence will be most persuasive?
      • Quotes from articles, summaries of articles, personal examples, statistics, etc.
    • What kind of language should you use?
      • Sophisticated, simple, playful, strong, etc.
    • What genre conventions do you need to consider?
      • Length, citation style, opening and closing, structure, etc.
    MAKING RHETORICAL CHOICES
  • 14.
    • Each paragraph:
      • Topic sentence presenting a supporting claim that connects to your argument
      • Enough context to set up your evidence
      • Evidence to support your claim (quotes, paraphrases, summaries, examples)
      • Analysis of the evidence that connects to your argument
      • (can repeat context>evidence>analysis if you have more to include in this paragraph)
    USING EVIDENCE EFFECTIVELY
  • 15.
    • Choose a paragraph/section of your paper to begin drafting.
      • Write a topic sentence presenting a supporting claim that connects to your argument.
      • Example:
        • “ Because teaching rhetorical reading is a difficult task, more money should be allocated to UCF composition courses to provide additional training for instructors.”
          • Claim: it’s important to train teachers in rhetorical reading strategies so they can teach it to their students, and UCF should fund this training.
          • Assumptions: rhetorical reading is an important skill, your audience knows what rhetorical reading strategies are, UCF has money to spend, training will help teachers teach rhetorical reading more effectively, teachers are willing to be trained
    USING EVIDENCE EFFECTIVELY
  • 16.
    • Now give some context to set up your evidence, and provide evidence to support your claim (quotes, paraphrases, summaries, examples)
      • Example:
        • “ Christina Haas and Linda Flower, themselves experts in rhetorical reading strategies , recognize that teaching students to think rhetorically is ‘genuinely difficult ’ (136).”
        • Gives the reader the context they need
        • Supports the claim in the topic sentence that teaching rhetorical reading is difficult
    USING EVIDENCE EFFECTIVELY
  • 17.
      • Now analyze the evidence to connect it to your argument.
        • Example:
          • “ If even renowned scholars like Haas and Flower acknowledge that teaching rhetorical reading is difficult, then typical faculty members would likely struggle to help students with this concept, as well. Additional training would provide them with the support they need to teach students effectively.”
          • Puts your own argument/spin on the articles
    USING EVIDENCE EFFECTIVELY
  • 18.
    • REPEAT FOR EACH PARAGRAPH
      • Topic sentence
      • Context
      • Evidence
      • Analysis
        • +context>evidence>analysis as needed
    USING EVIDENCE EFFECTIVELY
  • 19.
    • What should your introduction do?
      • Depends on your genre
      • Set ideas up
      • Articulate your argument
      • Frame the structure of your paper
    • What should your conclusion do?
      • Sum everything up; don’t repeat, but be sure to emphasize your main points all together
      • Point to the bigger picture; if your argument and claims are true, what should/will happen?
      • What are the implications for your readers, for the world at large?
    OPENING AND CLOSING
  • 20.
    • Introduction
      • Include a genre-appropriate opening and your argument
    • Claim 1
      • Topic sentence
      • Context
      • Evidence
      • Analysis
      • [repeat context>evidence>analysis as needed]
    • Claim 2
      • Topic sentence
      • Context
      • Evidence
      • Analysis
      • [repeat context>evidence>analysis as needed]
    • Claim 3, 4, 5…(repeat for each claim that you have)
    • Conclusion
    PART ONE: THE BIG PICTURE
  • 21.
    • Part two
    DRAFTING UNIT ONE
  • 22.
    • Remember our rhetorical reading heuristic?
      • Who wrote this? 
      • Who is their target audience?
      • What genre is this? Where was it written, and in what form?
      • What kind of language choices are they making? 
      • Why are they writing? What is their purpose/exigence?
    • Start brainstorming by asking yourself some similar questions about part one. (worksheet)
    BE A RHETORICAL READER…OF YOUR OWN WRITING
  • 23.
    • Take a look at your completed worksheet. What stands out to you? Are there patterns that you’re noticing?
    • Draft a tentative thesis statement.
      • Remember, your goal is to demonstrate that you were aware of your rhetorical situation and made the best choices for that situation.
      • You should try to focus your argument a little, and identify the specific claims you will be making.
    • Example:
      • “ The personal examples I use as evidence, my argument-driven organization, my polite but assertive tone, and my use of logical appeals all contribute to a rhetorically effective letter to President Hitt.”
    • (You can use your thesis statement in your intro if you want to)
    FOCUS YOUR ARGUMENT
  • 24.
    • Draft an outline of part two. Try to organize by main points, so that you can make connections between the scholars.
    • Use of evidence
    • Organization
    • Tone
    • Types of appeals
    • Language
    • Constraints
    • Etc.
    STRUCTURE YOUR ARGUMENT (AGAIN)
  • 25.
    • Under each point in your outline, jot down:
      • Evidence from part one that supports your claim
      • Concepts from the articles to analyze each piece of evidence
    • Use of evidence
      • Quote from Haas and Flower about “genuinely difficult”
        • Kantz: using sources to make an argument, not just to summarize
        • Grant-Davie: audience, constraints
      • Example from personal experience
        • Haas and Flower: using personal knowledge to construct meaning
    • Organization
      • Structure of part one as a whole (main claims)
        • Kantz: organizing claims, not a narrative
    • Tone
      • Mixture of polite and assertive language (quote specific examples)
        • Grant-Davie: constraints as an aid to writing, understanding audience
    SORTING YOUR EVIDENCE
  • 26.
    • Each paragraph in the body of part two will follow roughly the same structure as part one:
      • Topic sentence
      • Context
      • Evidence
      • Analysis
    • The one significant difference is that you will be using material from the articles to analyze your evidence
    DRAFTING PART TWO
  • 27.
    • Choose a paragraph/section of your paper to begin drafting.
      • Write a topic sentence presenting a supporting claim that connects to your argument.
      • Example:
      • “ In order to convince President Hitt to devote more money to the composition program, I used quotes from the scholars and examples from my own experiences, framing the evidence with analysis and interpretation to emphasize my argument.”
    DRAFTING PART TWO
  • 28.
    • Now give some context to set up your evidence, and provide evidence to support your claim (quotes, paraphrases, summaries, examples)
      • Example:
        • “ For example, in order to support my claim that teaching rhetorical reading is a complex task, I used an excerpt from Haas and Flower’s article, writing , ‘Christina Haas and Linda Flower, themselves experts in rhetorical reading strategies, recognize that teaching students to think rhetorically is “genuinely difficult” (136).’”
        • Notice that a direct quote from part one is used as evidence; summaries and paraphrases are okay too, but be sure to use some kind of specific evidence
    DRAFTING PART TWO
  • 29.
      • Now analyze the evidence to connect it to your argument: explain why you did what you did. Be sure to connect your rhetorical choices to concepts from the readings.
        • Example:
          • I used a direct quote because I wanted to demonstrate that teaching students to read rhetorically is not easy; teachers will need to be trained how to do it, and training costs money. Quoting the exact language Haas and Flower used lends credibility to my assertion, because they state so clearly the challenges of teaching rhetorical reading. I set up their quote with a little bit of context because I imagined that my audience, President Hitt, would not know who Haas and Flower are, and I wanted him to know that they are reliable. As Keith Grant-Davie explains, “the roles of rhetor and audience are dynamic and interdependent” (110). In this case, my choice to provide some explanation about Haas and Flower was dependent on the role that I imagined for my audience: a university President who doesn’t read specialized composition scholarship.
        • As you can see, the analysis part of your paragraph will probably take up the most time and space. Provide lots of detail, and connect everything back to the scholars.
    DRAFTING PART TWO
  • 30.
    • REPEAT FOR EACH PARAGRAPH
      • Topic sentence
      • Context
      • Evidence from part one
      • Analysis (connect to scholars!)
        • +context>evidence>analysis as needed
    DRAFTING PART TWO
  • 31.
    • What should your introduction do?
      • Set ideas up; maybe make some generalizations about your experiences in this class so far to lead in to your argument
      • Articulate your argument
      • Frame the structure of your paper
    • What should your conclusion do?
      • Sum everything up; don’t repeat, but be sure to emphasize your main points
      • Point to the bigger picture: how will you be able to use your rhetorical skills in the future? In this class, other college classes, work, life, etc.?
    OPENING AND CLOSING
  • 32.
    • Introduction
      • Include an opening and your argument
    • Claim 1
      • Topic sentence
      • Context
      • Evidence
      • Analysis (connect to scholars)
      • [repeat context>evidence>analysis as needed]
    • Claim 2
      • Topic sentence
      • Context
      • Evidence
      • Analysis (connect to scholars)
      • [repeat context>evidence>analysis as needed]
    • Claim 3, 4, 5…(repeat for each claim that you have)
    • Conclusion
    PART TWO: THE BIG PICTURE