Citations

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Identify the elements of citations
Distinguish between citations for books, book chapters, and journal articles
Recognize citation style names
Describe the purpose of an in-text citation and how it refers to the works cited page.

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  • Welcome to the NJIT Library Lesson, “Understanding Citations.” After watching this video, you should be able to Identify the elements of a citation - Distinguish between citations for books, book chapters, and journal articles - recognize citation style names describe the purpose of an intext citation and how it refers to the works cited page.
  • A citation is a short description of a specific source of information. A citation is a reference to an item containing the information needed identify the source and to be able to find it again. Citations usually include an author, a title, the source, and a date Citations show where an author found his or her facts Citations provides you, the reader with all the necessary information to find that original source that the author mentioned in his/her work so you can double check these facts or use the original source in your research. Understanding how to identify citations and different parts of citation will help you find the sources you need more quickly and may lead you to better sources for your research.
  • Generally a citation includes information about the title, the author, the source of publication, and the date of publication arranged in distinct sections.
  • Different fields of study have different rules and styles for citing sources. Because of this, citations that you find in some sources may include additional information or may look different. For this tutorial we will mostly be looking at citations in MLA style. If you have any questions on how citations appear in others styles such as ACS, APA, or Chicago, you can ask a librarian.
  • If you have any questions on how citations appear in others styles such as APA, Chicago or Turabian. You can ask a librarian. From the library homepage, library.njit.edu, click on "Ask a librarian" on the upper right hand side.   If you have questions about what citation style to use in your coursework, you can ask your instructor or TA what they expect.
  • Citations can describe and refer to a number of different sources including print and online materials such as books, journal articles, newspapers and websites. In this lesson, we will mostly focus on citations for journal or magazine articles and books or individual chapters from books.
  • Where are citations? Depending on what you are reading the citations for sources mentioned in the work, may appear in different locations. For journal articles, citations will most often appear at the end of the article in a list that is sometimes called references, bibliography, works cited or works consulted.
  • In a book, citations to sources that the author mentioned in the book can be found at the end in a references, bibliography, works cited or recommended reading section. This will be the case for most books by a single author.
  • If the book contains chapters or work from multiple authors such as an edited collection of essays, the citations for sources mentioned in a specific chapter may appear at the end of the chapter or the end of the book.
  • For both journal articles and books, citations may be appear in footnotes located at the bottom of the page of the article that mentions the work or endnotes located at the end of the article. If you are interested in a fact from a source mentioned in an article, check to see if there is an in text citation . Here we see (Pattison 1974).
  • Find the citation beginning with Pattison in the list of References at the end of the article for the entire citation for the source.
  • Citations for journals articles, books, and book chapters have similarities and differences. All citations contain some common elements - the author
  • The title
  • The date
  • Book and book chapter citations list the city of publication
  • Book and book chapter citations list the publisher
  • Journal Article and book chapter citations list where the article or chapter appeared
  • and the page numbers. In addition book chapter citations also list the book editor.
  • and the page numbers. In addition book chapter citations also list the book editor.
  • Journal article citations also list the volume number and the issue number if available.
  • If you are creating a citation, MLA requires you include – the
  • Along with the medium of publication (ie. Web or Print) and the date of access.
  • In college it is expected that you will document your sources of information. Citing properly will affect your grade and therefore is essential skill that all students need to acquire. At the beginning, it can seem difficult and complex, but citing sources has clear rules or conventions. There are three main reasons why you must reference clearly, systematically and consistently:   Avoid Plagiarism: If you include the work or ideas of others without citing it, this is plagiarism. Plagiarism is a form of academic cheating and carries strict penalties.   Show you have researched the topic: A well-cited piece of work demonstrates to your professor that you have thoroughly researched the topic, and that your work is based on evidence. Give readers information to find your sources. Readers of your work may wish to look at the external information you have referred to in your writing, so will need full details of the source to locate it.  
  • What does your professor mean when he/she says “Cite your sources.” you must provide An in text citation :  a parenthetical citation which direct the reader to the source of your paper’s quotes or ideas. The full citation on your Works Cited page .
  • When do you cite? When Quoting – when you repeat a piece of information in the author’s exact words or exactly as published. introduce the quote, quote, and add a spin. Rebecca always knew she was special. In her life story, she writes “Since I was ten, I always knew I was meant for great things” (Smith 33). Rebecca’s mission began then.
  • When paraphrasing - putting another’s ideas into your own words. You must acknowledge that you are using another’s intellectual property (ideas, facts, graphs, tables, pictures, diagrams, software music, etc). See the Intellectual Property Lesson for more on properly paraphrasing. . How you acknowledge their work depends on which style you are following. Be consistent with your formatting.
  • How are in text citation used? An intext citation usually is the author’s last name and page number. It refers to the Works Cited page where you will find the full citation by author’s last name. The works cited page has the citation which includes the information needed to locate the source.
  • Here’s my intext citation (Smith 33). The reader will look at the works cited page to find the citation that begins with Smith and then they have the information to locate the book and find the exact quote on page 33.
  • If your source does not have an author, you use the first words of your citation on the works cited page in your in text citation. Here’s my in text citation (“College Survey” 7). The reader will look at the works cited page to find the citation that begins with “College Survey” and then they have the information to locate this journal article and the statistic on page 7.
  • Citations styles have guidelines for all different sources and situations. If you need guidelines go to library.njit.edu and type cite in the FAQ box here. You can also ask a librarian for help. Click on the ask a librarian link in the upper right hand side.
  • Librarians are available to help you, you may reach us by chat, email, phone, or stop by. Our typical hours are listed here. Thank you for watching this library lesson.
  • Citations

    1. 1. Understanding Citations LIBRARY LESSONS From the Research helpdesk August 2011 This tutorial is adapted from “Understanding Citations” Tutorial at University of Texas at Austin http://www.lib.utexas.edu/ Understanding Citations is licensed by NJIT Library under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commerical-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    2. 2. Book (MLA)Journal Article (MLA)
    3. 3. …in an article on confusing concepts…published in American Journal of Psychiatry in1974 (Pattison 1974). If you are interested a fact from a source mentioned in an article, look for the in text citation. (Pattison 1974).
    4. 4. …and an article on confusing concepts… published in American Journal ofPsychiatry in 1974 (Pattison 1974).Pattison, E.M. (1974). Confusing concepts about theconcept of homosexuality. American Journal ofPsychiatry, 37, 340-349. Find the citation beginning with Pattison in the list of References at the end of the article for the entire citation for the source.
    5. 5. All citations contain some common elements AUTHOR TITLE DATEJournal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus 209.2 (2010): 358-368.BookArmitage, Philip. Astrophysics of planet formation.New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.Book ChapterMertins, Detlef. “Pervasive plasticity.” Solid States.Ed. Michael Bell. New York: Princeton ArchitecturalPress, 2010. 9-41.
    6. 6. All citations contain some common elements AUTHOR TITLE DATEJournal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus 209.2 (2010): 358-368.BookArmitage, Philip. Astrophysics of planet formation.New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.Book ChapterMertins, Detlef. “Pervasive plasticity.” Solid States.Ed. Michael Bell. New York: Princeton ArchitecturalPress, 2010. 9-41.
    7. 7. All citations contain some common elements AUTHOR TITLE DATEJournal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus 209.2 (2010): 358-368.BookArmitage, Philip. Astrophysics of planet formation.New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.Book ChapterMertins, Detlef. “Pervasive plasticity.” Solid States. Ed. Michael Bell. New York: Princeton ArchitecturalPress, 2010. 9-41.
    8. 8. Book and Book Chapter Citations list the City of Publication Publisher Journal Article Head J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus 209.2 (2010): 358-368. Book Armitage, Philip. Astrophysics of planet formation. New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.Book ChapterMertins, Detlef. “Pervasive plasticity.” Solid States.Ed. Michael Bell. New York : Princeton ArchitecturalPress, 2010. 9-41.
    9. 9. Book and Book Chapter Citations list the City of Publication PublisherJournal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus209.2 (2010): 358-368. Book Armitage, Philip. Astrophysics of planet formation. New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.Book ChapterMertins, Detlef. “Pervasive plasticity.” Solid States.Ed. Michael Bell. New York : Princeton ArchitecturalPress, 2010. 9-41.
    10. 10. Journal Article and Book Chapter Citations list Title of source Page Numbers Where this appearsJournal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?.“ Icarus.209.2 (2010): 358-368.BookArmitage, Philip. Astrophysics of planet formation.New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.Book ChapterMertins, Detlef. “Pervasive plasticity.” Solid States.Ed. Michael Bell. New York: PrincetonArchitectural Press, 2010. 9-41.
    11. 11. Journal Article and Book Chapter Citations list Title of source Page Numbers Where this appearsJournal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus. 209.2(2010): 358-368.BookArmitage, Philip. Astrophysics of planet formation.New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.Book ChapterMertins, Detlef. “Pervasive plasticity.” Solid States.Ed. Michael Bell. New York: Princeton ArchitecturalPress, 2010. 9-41.
    12. 12. Journal Article and Book Chapter Citations list Title of source Page Numbers Where this appearsJournal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus. 209.2(2010): 358-368.BookArmitage, Philip. Astrophysics of planet formation.New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.Book ChapterMertins, Detlef. “Pervasive plasticity.” Solid States.Ed. Michael Bell. New York: Princeton ArchitecturalPress, 2010. 9-41.
    13. 13. Journal Article Citations list additional information volume number, issue number,Journal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus 209.2 (2010): 358-368. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 Jan. 2011.
    14. 14. Journal Article Citations list additional information volume number, issue number, database where full text was retrieved, Journal Article Head J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus 209.2 (2010): 358-368. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 Jan. 2011.
    15. 15. Journal Article Citations list additional information volume number, issue number, database where full text was retrieved, medium of publication, and date accessed.Journal ArticleHead J.W. "Do ice caves exist on Mars?." Icarus 209.2 (2010): 358-368. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 Jan. 2011.
    16. 16. Why is Citing so Important to you?• Avoid Plagiarism.• Show you have researched the topic.• Give readers information to find your sources.
    17. 17. What does your professor mean when he/she says “Cite your sources”• You must provide… –an in-text citation –the full citation on your Works Cited Page
    18. 18. When do you cite?• When Quoting – when you repeat a piece of information in the author’s exact words or exactly as published. – introduce the quote, – quote, – and add a spin.Rebecca always knew she was special. In her life story, she writes “Since I was ten, I always knew I was meant for great things” (Smith 33). Rebecca’s mission began then.
    19. 19. When do you cite?• When paraphrasing - putting another’s ideas into your own words.• You must acknowledge that you are using another’s intellectual property (ideas, facts, graphs, tables, pictures, diagrams, software music, etc).• See the Intellectual Property Lesson for more on properly paraphrasing.
    20. 20. How are in text citations usedIn text citation (Author’s Last name, Page number) Works Cited Page (Full citation) The source
    21. 21. How are in text citations usedRebecca always knew she was special. In her life story, she writes “Since I was ten, I always knew I was meant for great things” (Smith 33). Rebecca’s career essentially began then. Smith, Rebecca. My Life. New York: Able Press, 2011. My Life R. Smith
    22. 22. How are in text citations usedSixty four percent of students say they need more time for social activities (“College Survey” 7).“College Survey.” Journal of All Colleges 10.1 (2011):2-9 Journal    College    64%  Survey of All more time Colleges 7  2 
    23. 23. CITE

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