1 medicines
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  • 1. Medicines  Drugs used to treat or prevent illness or other conditions. • Substances other than food that change the structure or function of the body. • • • • Are all medicines drugs? Are all drugs Medicines? What is the difference between a drug and medicine? How are they similar?
  • 2. Medicines that treat or prevent illness can be classified into four categories: • Medicines that help prevent disease • Medicines that fight pathogens (germs) • Medicines that relieve pain and other symptoms • Medicines that manage chronic conditions, help maintain or restore health, and regulate body systems
  • 3. Vaccine  A preparation that prevents a person from contracting a specific disease.  A vaccine contains weakened or dead pathogens that cause the disease.  When your body detects the vaccine it produces antibodies to fight that pathogen so if you ever contract it again your body will remember how to fight it.  Vaccine effects fade over time. Some last only a year or two. Some last many years.
  • 4. Antitoxins ◦ Some bacteria get into our body and produce toxins that make us sick. Antitoxins fight the bacteria that produces toxins in our bodies. ◦ It is made by injecting animals or humans with a safe amount of toxin. Then after the animal or humans immune system produces antitoxins their blood is drawn, purified and the antitoxin is available for medicine.
  • 5.  Jim was a former milk wagon horse over 100 years ago who was used to produce the antitoxin to fight diphtheria.  Jim produced over 30 quarts of diphtheria antitoxin in his career, and saved many lives. ANTITOXINS and VACCINES prevent disease
  • 6. Medicines that treat or prevent illness can be classified into four categories: • Medicines that help prevent disease • Medicines that fight pathogens • Medicines that relieve pain and other symptoms • Medicines that manage chronic conditions, help maintain or restore health, and regulate body systems
  • 7.  Pathogen (germ) ◦ A microorganism that can cause illness to it’s host. Fungi, Virus, Bacteria etc. Antibiotic- a class of drug that destroys bacteria.  Antibiotics work in 2 ways   Killing Bacteria  Preventing bacteria from reproducing so they eventually die off.  Clip
  • 8.   Why are bacteria becoming resistant to our antibiotics? How can we help with drug resistance? ◦ Over use  People using them for any sickness trying to get better.  Using Antibiotics in livestock can cause drug resistance. ◦ Under use  People use them only when they can get them and they don’t take the full dose.  People not taking their full prescription they stop when they feel better.
  • 9.  Antiviral drugs ◦ Medicines that fight viruses.  They suppress it they don’t kill it. The virus stays in their body and can flare up. ◦ Cold Sores ◦ Also can become resistant to medications.  Antifungal drugs ◦ Medicines that fight fungus cells.  Athletes foot  Ring worm
  • 10. Classification of Medicines Medicines that treat or prevent illness can be classified into four categories: • Medicines that help prevent disease • Medicines that fight pathogens • Medicines that relieve pain and other symptoms • Medicines that manage chronic conditions, help maintain or restore health, and regulate body systems
  • 11.  Analgesics “Anne-Al-G-sic” Pain relievers ◦ Wide Range- Aspirin to Morphine  Fight fevers  Relieve Pain  Reduce swelling  Be Careful!!!! ◦ Asprin can cause an upset stomach, dizziness, and ringing in the ears. Can be fatal to children. Not for people under 20. ◦ Use something more mild like IB Profen or Advil.
  • 12. Narcotics    Pain relievers used for severe pain only when others don’t work. Work by binding to receptors and block the feeling of pain. Easily addictive and require a prescription. Limit use to no more than 4 months. Psychological and Physical Dependence. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  CodeineFentanyl (Duragesic) -- available as a patch Meperidine (Demerol) Morphine (MS Contin) Oxycodone (Oxycontin, Percocet, Percodan) Side Effects ◦ Drowsiness, Impaired Judgement, Nausea Vomiting,
  • 13.  Withdrawal-When a person stops using a drug they are physically dependent upon they experience withdrawal symptoms ◦ Nervousness, Insomnia, Headaches, Vomiting, Chills, Cramps etc.  Tolerance- When a persons body becomes used to a drug and needs more of it to produce the same effect. ◦ Can lead to Dependence and Addiction
  • 14. Medicines that treat or prevent illness can be classified into four categories: • Medicines that help prevent disease • Medicines that fight pathogens • Medicines that relieve pain and other symptoms • Medicines that manage chronic conditions, help maintain or restore health, and regulate body systems
  • 15. These Medicines maintain, restore, and enhance health. Examples Allergies Body Regulating Medicines Antidepressants Cancer Treatment Medicines
  • 16.  Allergies ◦ Antihistamines- Reduce allergy symptoms by blocking the chemicals produced by the immune system that cause the allergic reaction. ◦ Some allergic reactions kill  Bee Stings  Peanuts  Epinephrine- shot that slows or stops the reaction.
  • 17.  Body Regulating Medicines ◦ Medicines that regulate body chemistry  Insulin- Regulates amount of sugar in the blood  Inhalers- Prevent Asthma Attacks  Heart Medicines- Regulate heart beat or blood pressure.  Antidepressants ◦ Help people suffering from mental illnesses  Regulate blood chemistry  Stabilize moods  Depression, Anxiety, Schizophrenia
  • 18.  Cancer Treatment Medicines ◦ Help slow the cell growth of cancer ◦ Chemotherapy- Kill fast growing cancer cells. ◦ Immunotherapy- Uses the immune system to fight off cancer cells. ◦ Can also kill healthy cells  Side effects-reactions to medicines other than the one intended.
  • 19.  How do you take medicines? Oral- mouth, digestive system, blood stream  Topical- Skin  Inhaled- nose, lungs, and into blood stream  Injected- directly to blood stream 
  • 20.  Additive Interaction-When medicines work together in a positive way. ◦ Muscle Relaxer and Anti Inflammatory for Joint Pain  Synergistic Effect- The interaction of two ore more medicines that results in a greater affect than when each medicine is taken alone.  Antagonistic Interaction- The effect of one medicine is canceled or reduced when taken with another medicine.