Constructivism is a paradigm that believes learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is the constructor of their own knowledge. This theory believes that people actively construct or create their own objective reality. All new information is linked to prior knowledge. Learning Theories.com 2007
Genetic epistemology is linked to constructivism. It is the method in which knowledge is obtained/created. Wikipedia 2007
Constructivism Model Driscoll (2005) p. 84 Constructivism Assumes Knowledge is constructed Learning Goals Conditions for Instruction Methods for Instruction
Complex and relevant learning environments
Multiple perspectives and multiple modes of learning
Knowledge is acquired or “constructed” when learners actively create their own knowledge by trying to make sense out of new information that is presented to them and build upon previous learnings. (Perkins, 1991).
Comparison Learning Theory Socrates’ Recollection Behaviorism CIP Constructivism People Socrates, Plato B.F. Skinner, Thorndike, Pavlov, John B. Watson Lev Vygotsky, Piaget, Dewey Dewey, Goodman, Gibson, Piaget , and many other education and psychology researchers Terms Recollection, truths, soul Radical behaviorism, SRS (discriminative stimulus –operant response, contingent stimulus), law of effect, reinforcements, respondent and operant behavior Sensory, short-term, and long-term memory, encoding, metacognition, storage, retrieval, maintenance rehearsal, imagery, keyword method, mnemonics, schema activation, guided questioning Complex and relevant learning environments, collaboration, autonomy, rote, memory, retention and transfer, SOI model: selection, organization, integration, culture, relativity Mechanism for Acquiring knowledge Knowledge exist before birth, therefore individuals learn by recalling prior knowledge from a previous life, then applying it to current life situations. Knowledge begins with the environment, therefore learning occurs when people react to satisfying and aversive stimuli allowing them to affect our thinking and future decisions. Knowledge is acquired when information is stored in memory (sensory, short-term, or long-term memory), then recalled, and applied into knowledge. Knowledge is acquired or “constructed” when learners actively create their own knowledge by trying to make sense out of new information that is presented to them and build upon previous learnings. Implication for Teachers Teachers must guide students to find answers within themselves. Teachers must apply positive and negative reinforcements to change student behavior and discourage disruptive behaviors. Teachers must create leaning environments conducive to helping and allowing students to apply previous knowledge to current situations. Teachers must provide engaging opportunities for students to make sense of the information via hands-on activities and discussions.
Learning Theories are relevant at the Instructional Level
How learning takes place
Pedagological Views are relevant at the Curriculum Level, which affects us more directly on a daily basis
What is learned & Why
Our Pedagological View:
Learning processes must create interconnections for knowledge that is distributed over many actual and virtual locations. Maintaining these connections then becomes a learning skill that is essential for life-long learning.