Environmental Problemsand Ecological Balance in Asia By: MISS BLESS BERNARDO JULY 2012
Biodiversity Refers to the diversity of life in all its forms that comprise the natural world. range of organisms in environment: the range of organisms present in a particular ecological community or system.It can be measured by the numbers and types of different species, or the genetic variations within and between species.
• sum of all the different species ofanimals, plants, fungi, andmicrobial organisms livingon Earth and the variety ofhabitats in which they live.
Problems due to High Population Density• Unprecedented population growth and high population density are the two crucial problems of the Asian region to date.• As population continues to grow, more arable land is needed, leads to other problems such as desertification, salinization, and alkalinization.
• Leads to lack of space for human occupancy.• Leads to the destruction of the natural habitat of different species of flora and fauna.• Rapid population growth also results to problems of waste disposal and different pollutions.
WHAT IS POLLUTION???• It is when the harmful substances contaminate the environment• Refers to the bad condition of environment in terms of quantity and quality• The only a image in ones mind of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem
Land Degradation• As humans continue to exploit and intensify land use, minerals are lost.• It also erodes the fertility of the soil.• Improper irrigation may lead to SALINIZATION and ALKALINIZATION.
• Salinization – salts come to the surface of the land or salt is carried in by water. When water wells are overused, the water table lowers and saltwater or blackish water usually starts to permeate.
• Desertification – transformation of fertile land into a desert through soil erosion or overcultivation. The destruction of land in arid, semi- arid and sub-humid areas that leads to the loss of productivity. (70% of West Asia are arid)
Urbanization• 40% of the population in the Asia- Pacific region lives in urban areas.• Urbanization brings about a series of environmental problems.• Improper disposal of solid waste endangers human health and it also contaminates air, soil, and water.
Deforestation• Is indiscriminate cutting or over- harvesting of trees for lumber or pulp, or to clear the land for agriculture, ranching, constructio n, or other human activities.
• Deforestation is a crucial problem because it diminishes natural resources that are valuable to the people of a particular region.• Brings major problems such as soil erosion, flooding, siltation, and sedimentation.• Major causes are commercial logging, slash and burn agriculture, cutting down of trees for fuel
Air Pollution Contamination of theatmosphere by gaseous, liquid,or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health andwelfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors
Causes V.S. effects• This is starting to have • Industrialized countries adverse effects on the have worked to reduce environment such as levels of sulfur dioxide, causing acid rain, smog and smog, and smoke in a wide variety of health order to improve peoples problems health.• Cars, trucks, jet airplanes and other combustion • The health effects engine vehicles cause air caused by air pollution pollution. may include difficulty in• Causes respiratory health breathing, wheezing, problems and holes in the coughing and aggravation ozone layer, which of existing respiratory increases the exposure to and cardiac conditions the suns harmful rays
How Can We Prevent Air Pollution?• Public Transport: Whenever possible, try to travel by public transports. This helps in two ways; prevents air pollution and increases public income. If you are going to a nearby place, go by walking or use a bicycle, instead of using your vehicle. The objective is to minimize the use of fuels as far as possible
Saving Energy: Saving energy will, of course, help to prevent air pollution. Switch off the lights, fans, air conditioners,televisions, and other appliances, when not in use. You can also share a roomwith others when the air conditioner orfan is on, instead of switching them on in every room.
Recyclable Materials: Recycling is a simple approach to reduce pollution in two ways; saveenergy which is required for disposing and minimize the pollutants released during manufacturing. The list of recyclable materials include plastic bottles, aluminum cans and utensils, paper, craft papers, cardboard, corrugated boxes, and glass bottles
irritating noise from environment: irritating, distracting, orphysically dangerous noise towhich people are exposed in their environment and over which they usually have no control.
Noise Pollution or Sound Pollution exposure of people or animals to levels of sound that areannoying, stressful, or damaging to the ears. Although loud and frightening sounds are part ofnature, only in recent centuries has much of the world become urban, industrial, and chronically noisy.
•Most noise pollution comes from machines,especially automobiles, trucks, and aircraft.Construction equipment, farm machines, andthe din of machinery inside factories can bedangerously loud.•Some home appliances, shop tools,lawnmowers, and leaf blowers can also be noisy,as are guns, firecrackers, and some toys.•Even music, when played at very high volume,particularly through personal headphones, is asdamaging to the ears as a roaring chain saw.
Is contamination of streams, l akes, underground water, bays, or oceans by substances harmful to living things.
MARINE WATER CONTAMINATION-Is prevalent in almost all of the coastal regions of Asia. Solid waste and untreated wastewater from industries and factories are two of the most common marine water pollutants. Pollutants from industrial sources may pour out from the outfall pipes of factories or may leak from pipelines and underground storage tanks. Cities and other residential communities contribute mostly sewage, with traces of household chemicals mixed in.
Red Tide• This is a result of microscopic organisms called “dinoflagellates” that float in water.• poisonous reddish seawater: a brownish red discoloration in seawater, caused by an increased presence of plant-based plankton that sometimes leads to the poisoning of fish and, consequently, of those who eat fish.• There arises a scarcity of oxygen that causes the death water resources. Shellfishes are poisoned.
Causes Of Water PollutionThese pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural runoff; sewage and food processing waste; lead, mercury, and other heavy metals; chemical wastes from industrial discharges; and chemical contamination from hazardous waste sitesWater pollution can come from a number of different sources. If the pollution comes from a single source, such as an oil spill, it is called point-source pollution.
Effects Of Water PollutionIf severe, water pollution can kill large numbers of fish, birds, and other animals, in some cases killing all members of a species in an affected area.Pollution makes streams, lakes, and coastal waters unpleasant to look at, to smell, and to swim in. Fish and shellfish harvested from polluted waters may be unsafe to eat. People who ingest polluted water can become ill, and, with prolonged exposure, may develop cancers or bear children with birth defects.
How Can We Prevent Water Pollution?• Installation of filtration system is a good step. It is the most effective and working prevention of water pollution. • At homes clearing up drains also acts as water pollution control.• Water conservation is also a step for water pollution prevention in India.• Hence, it can be noticed that, a small effort from cleaning the waste before throwing in to garbage or drains can also contribute a lot in water pollution prevention
Solid Waste DisposalDisposal of normally solid or semisolid materials, resulting from human and animal activities, that are useless, unwanted, or hazardous.
Solid wastes typically may be classified as follows:• Garbage: decomposable wastes from food• Rubbish: nondecomposable wastes, either combustible (such as paper, wood, and cloth) or noncombustible (such as metal, glass, and ceramics)• Ashes: residues of the combustion of solid fuels• Large wastes: demolition and construction debris and trees• Dead animals• Sewage-treatment solids: material retained on sewage-treatment screens, settled solids, and biomass sludge• Industrial wastes: such materials as chemicals, paints, and sand• Mining wastes: slag heaps and coal refuse piles• Agricultural wastes: farm animal manure and crop residues.
Loss of Biodiversity• The underlying cause of biodiversity loss is the explosion in human population, now at 6 billion, but expected to double again by the year 2050. The human population already consumes nearly half of all the food, crops, medicines, and other useful items produced by the Earth’s organisms, and more than 1 billion people on Earth lack adequate supplies of fresh water.
• The conversion of forests, grasslands, and wetlands foragricultural purposes, coupled with the multiplication and growth of urban centers and the building of dams and canals, highways, and railways, has physically altered ecosystems to the point that extinction of species has reached its current alarming pace.
Ecological BalanceIt is of utmost importance that the ecological balance of Asia is maintained because the ecological condition of Asia affects the overall quality of the global environment.