Kaplan critical reasoning_workbook

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Kaplan critical reasoning_workbook

  1. 1. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS CHAPTER 16CRITICAL REASONING SET 1 Time: 25 minutes—16 Questions Directions: For each question in this section, select the best of the answer choices given.1. One problem with labor unions today is that their 2. Opening a plant in war-torn Country X is not top staffs consist of college-trained lawyers, inadvisable, despite what critics of the plan may economists, and labor relations experts who say. Ten years ago we opened our plant in cannot understand the concerns of real workers. Country Y in the middle of a revolution; that One goal of union reform movements should be plant has been generating substantial profits to build staffs out of workers who have come up ever since. from the ranks of the industry involved. Which of the following is the author of the The argument above depends primarily on which argument above most reasonably intending the of the following assumptions? reader to conclude? (A) Higher education lessens people’s (A) Wars are profitable for the author’s identification with their class background. particular business. (B) Union staffs should include more people (B) Country X is a more politically stable with first-hand industrial supervisory nation than is Country Y. experience. (C) Critics of the proposed plant in Country X (C) People who have worked in a given are likely to be biased. industry can understand the concerns of (D) The proposed plant in Country X will workers in that industry. generate profits despite the war. (D) Most labor unions today do not fairly (E) The proposed plant in Country X will be represent workers’ interests. more successful than the plant in Country (E) A goal of union reform movements should Y. be to make unions more democratic. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 177
  2. 2. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S3. Since the deregulation of the air travel industry 4. One Zydol capsule contains twice the pain in the late 1970’s, air fares have been relatively reliever found in regular aspirin. A consumer will low and the number of passenger miles flown have to take two aspirin in order to get the relief has been increasing. In recent months, however, provided by one Zydol. And since a bottle of air fares have risen but the number of passenger Zydol costs the same as a bottle of regular miles flown is still going up. aspirin, consumers can be expected to switch to Zydol. Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the statements above? Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument that consumers will be (A) The cost of air travel does not affect the discontinuing the use of regular aspirin and number of passenger miles flown. switching to Zydol? (B) People are now flying to destinations that they formerly reached by train or by other (A) A regular bottle of aspirin contains more modes of transportation. than twice as many capsules as does a bottle of Zydol. (C) Factors other than low air fares must be contributing to the rise in the number of (B) The pain reliever in Zydol is essentially the passenger miles flown. same pain reliever found in regular aspirin. (D) Takeovers in the deregulated air travel (C) Some headache sufferers experience a industry have been responsible for the brief period of dizziness shortly after rise in air fares. taking Zydol but not after taking regular aspirin. (E) Air fares can climb even higher without causing a drop in the number of (D) Neither regular aspirin nor Zydol is as passenger miles flown. effective in the relief of serious pain as are drugs available only by prescription. (E) A Zydol capsule is twice as large as the average aspirin. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 178
  3. 3. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS5. At a certain college, graduate teaching 6. Air travel is becoming increasingly more assistants conduct discussion sections but have dangerous. In the last year there have been no input into grading. It has been suggested that seven major collisions resulting in over 700 graduate assistants be given some grading deaths, more deaths than in any previous year. responsibility, but many undergraduates oppose that proposal. They argue that if grades are Which statement, if true, would most weaken assigned by graduate assistants, regular full- the argument above? time faculty will devote less time and attention (A) Since the volume of air traffic has been to undergraduate work. increasing all the time, an increase in the The information in the passage above answers number of deaths due to collisions does which one of the following questions? not necessarily mean greater danger. (B) The increase in collisions can be explained (A) Are grades assigned by graduate teaching by statistical coincidence, hijackings, and assistants inherently as fair as those unusual weather. given by regular faculty? (C) Mortality per passenger mile is lower for (B) Are some undergraduates in favor of air travel than for any kind of surface maintaining the full-time faculty’s interest transportation. in their schoolwork? (D) The increase in deaths due to collision in (C) May regular full-time faculty conduct air travel has proceeded at a rate identical discussion sections at the college? to that for deaths in all other major forms (D) Does graduate student contact with of transportation. undergraduates’ work make the grades (E) Last year the average number of assigned by regular faculty less valid? passengers per flown plane was (E) Are regular faculty members in favor of significantly lower than that of previous giving graduate assistants some teaching years. responsibility? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 179
  4. 4. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S7. According to a recent study, attending a single- 8. Although most people know that exercise is good sex high school aids an adolescent’s physical for the body, few realize the extent to which it is growth. Cited as evidence is the finding that valuable to the mind. The blood circulates more during the first two years of high school, the rapidly after physical exertion, thus allowing all average boy in an all-boys school grew five of the body’s organs to operate more efficiently. inches, and the average girl in an all-girls school This increased activity enables the brain to grew four inches. receive more oxygen, thereby creating a higher capacity for concentration. The answer to which of the following questions is needed in order to evaluate the reasoning The main point in the argument above is that presented in the study? (A) the greater the amount of oxygen the brain (A) Why was it that the first two years of high receives, the better the brain school were chosen as the focus of the functions. study? (B) exercise is a mental, as well as physical, (B) Did some of the boys in the study grow activity. less than five inches while they were in (C) exercise helps the brain more than it does high school? the rest of the body. (C) How much do the average male student (D) people can greatly improve their powers of and the average female student in a co- concentration by exercising more often. educational school grow during their first two years of high school? (E) exercise serves more than one purpose. (D) Did the girls in the study have as nutritious a diet as the boys during the time the study was being conducted? (E) What was the average height of the boys and the average height of the girls upon entering high school? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 180
  5. 5. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS9. Ernesto: Sales of VCRs—videocassette 10. Archaeologists have discovered various recorders—will decline in the next paintings on the walls and ceiling of a Chinese few years because the saturation cave whose entrance was blocked by a volcanic level among U.S. households has eruption in the 25th century B.C. and only virtually been reached. recently cleared by an earthquake. Since the paintings depict warriors using Type C bronze Milton: Every year a greater number of weapons, these archaeologists have concluded popular feature films is released on that Type C bronze weapons were already widely cassette—at least 6 per month. used in this area by 2500 B.C., far earlier than Clearly VCR sales will remain was previously believed. constant, if not rise. Which of the following pieces of additional Which of the following is the best logical evidence would most seriously weaken the evaluation of Milton’s response to Ernesto’s archaeologists’ conclusion? argument? (A) Another entrance to the cave remained (A) He cites evidence that, if true, disproves clear until a second volcanic eruption the evidence cited by Ernesto in drawing 1,000 years after the first. his conclusion. (B) Archaeologists have evidence that Type C (B) He points out a gap in the logic followed bronze weapons were in wide use in areas by Ernesto in drawing his conclusion. of present-day India as early as 2500 B.C. (C) He cites an issue ignored by Ernesto and (C) Alternative methods of dating place the which outweighs the issues raised by time of the volcanic eruption somewhat Ernesto. earlier, at around 3000 B.C. (D) He does not speak to Ernesto’s point (D) Most experts believe that Type C bronze because he fails to raise the issue of weapons were not in use anywhere in whether VCR sales may be linked to sales present-day China until 2000 B.C. of other leisure-related products. (E) The paintings were very faded when the (E) He fails to respond to Ernesto’s argument archaeologists found them, making because he assumes that nothing will identification of the depicted weapons significantly retard the sale of VCR’s, difficult. which was the issue that Ernesto raised. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 181
  6. 6. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S11. Considering the current economy, the 12. A public health official reported that 60 percent introduction of a new brand of cereal is unlikely of the children at summer school have never had to expand total sales of cereal, but rather will the measles or chicken pox, and that of this 60 just cause some existing buyers of cereal to percent not one child has ever been observed to switch brands. So it makes no sense for the eat the cheese served in the school lunches. Coolidge Corporation to introduce another brand From this he concluded that children who of cereal, since they will only hurt sales of the abstain from cheese products will protect brands of cereal they already produce. themselves from most childhood disease. Which of the following, if true, would most Each of the following, if true, would strengthen seriously weaken the argument above? the official’s argument EXCEPT: (A) Total sales of cereal will increase as the (A) Medically speaking, whatever serves to total population increases. inhibit measles and chicken pox will (B) Many new brands of cereal sell extremely generally inhibit the entire spectrum of well for the first year of their existence. childhood diseases. (C) Coolidge Corporation currently produces (B) The observations the official carried out fewer brands of cereal than do its were extremely accurate, and all those competitors. observed to abstain from cheese at school did, in fact, abstain. (D) Some cereal buyers regularly switch from brand to brand, even when no new brands (C) The children’s eating habits are the same have been introduced. at school as anywhere else, and those who abstain from cheese products at (E) Research indicates that the new brand will school do so in general. attract more buyers of competitors’ cereals than buyers of other Coolidge (D) Recent research has pointed to a brands. deficiency in cheese products as one of the major causes of measles and chicken pox infections. (E) Most cheeses and cheese products harbor bacteria that are known to be causative agents for many childhood diseases, such as measles and chicken pox. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 182
  7. 7. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS13. A confidential survey revealed that 75 percent of 14. Director: Our engineers are considering two the employees of Company P are dissatisfied different sites—one on the Abaco with their jobs. However, an investigation into River and one on the Bornos River— working conditions at the company showed for a hydroelectric plant. Although nothing uncommonly bad. Therefore, Company we have the technical expertise to P’s consulting firm concluded that the build roughly the same plant in employees’ dissatisfaction must result from an either place, producing roughly the unusually high incidence of psychological same amount of electricity per hour, problems on their part. building the plant on the Abaco site will cost over twice as much money. Each of the following, if true, casts doubt on the With our budget currently in deficit, consulting firm’s conclusion EXCEPT: we should build the dam at the Bornos site. (A) In the investigation of working conditions, no account was taken of the fact that for Which of the following, if true, best explains the the past year many Company P employees difference in building costs for the two proposed worked on a joint venture with Company O, dam sites? at Company O’s facilities. (B) Workers in many companies are (A) Many farms along the lower Bornos River dissatisfied although there are no valley would benefit from the controlled apparent problems with their working flow of water a dam would make possible. conditions. (B) The Abaco site is in an inaccessible area, (C) The consulting firm’s conception of what requiring the building of new roads and the constitutes uncommonly bad working importation of laborers. conditions is not identical to that of (C) The Bornos site is near a large city whose Company P’s employees. residents could use the resulting lake for (D) The reasons given by Company P’s inexpensive recreation. employees for their dissatisfaction varied (D) The Abaco site is in an area that contains greatly from employee to employee. many endangered species that would be (E) A battery of sets performed on Company threatened by the new dam. P’s employees one month ago revealed no (E) The Abaco River has a relatively low significant psychological stresses or volume of flow, making it impossible to problems. expand an Abaco plant to meet future electricity needs. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 183
  8. 8. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S15. In 1988, 50 people with emotional disturbances 16. The cause of the peculiar columnar growth underwent hypnosis to be cured of their mood pattern displayed by junipers growing near swings. A followup survey in 1993 revealed that burning underground veins of lignite coal has five had fairly stable emotional conditions at the never been convincingly explained. Until recently, time of the survey. These five subjects can the accepted theory posited that the abundance therefore serve as models of the types of of carbon monoxide in the local atmosphere people for whom hypnosis is likely to be caused the columnar growth. However, a new successful. theory holds that the cause is the persistent heat present near these underground fires Which of the following, if true, casts the most which, while not intense enough to inflame the doubt on the suitability of those five subjects as trees, can nonetheless change their normal models in the sense described? growth pattern. (A) The five subjects have very different The existence of which of the following would personalities and backgrounds. provide the strongest support for the new (B) Since 1988, the five subjects have theory? experienced dramatic mood swings interspersed with periods of relative (A) A columnar juniper growing in an stability. atmosphere of intense heat and an absence of carbon monoxide (C) Those people who were still suffering from unstable emotional conditions at the time (B) A normal juniper growing in an atmosphere of the 1993 survey had shown no of intense heat and an absence of carbon improvement since 1988. monoxide (D) Many psychologists are less concerned (C) A columnar juniper growing in an about a patient’s mood swings than about atmosphere of normal heat and a high the patient’s willingness to express his or concentration of carbon monoxide her problems and fears. (D) A normal juniper growing in an atmosphere (E) The emotional condition of most of the 45 of intense heat and a high concentration subjects who were still unstable at the of carbon monoxide time of the 1993 survey had actually (E) A columnar juniper growing in an worsened since 1988. atmosphere of intense heat and a high concentration of carbon monoxide STOP! END OF SET 184
  9. 9. ANSWERS ONTHE NEXT PAGE
  10. 10. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N SANSWER KEY1. C2. D3. C4. A5. B6. A7. C8. E9. E10. A11. E12. D13. D14. B15. B16. A186
  11. 11. CRITICAL REASONING SET 2 Time: 25 minutes—16 Questions Directions: For each question in this section, select the best of the answer choices given.1. Although air pollution was previously thought to 2. Statistics show that although consumption of exist almost exclusively in our nation’s cities, low-calorie, alternative sweeteners has gone up the recent increase in the number of persons in each of the past five years, so has the suffering from illnesses attributed to excessive percentage of the population that is obese. air pollution leaves us no choice but to conclude According to sugar manufacturers, this shows that other, nonurban areas are now affected. that the low-calorie, alternative sweeteners are not effective weight loss aids. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument Which of the following assertions, if true, would above? most weaken the sugar manufacturers’ (A) The nation’s cities have seen a marked conclusion? decrease in levels of air pollution. (A) Many people who use low-calorie, (B) The nation has experienced a sharp alternative sweeteners eat some foods decrease in the number of people moving that are not low-calorie. out of its cities. (B) Some low-calorie, alternative sweeteners (C) Illnesses due to air pollution are among can increase the appetite, making a the least common causes of death to person eat more than he or she normally urban dwellers. would. (D) Many illnesses previously thought (C) Many people use low-calorie, alternative unrelated to air pollution are now sweeteners to accompany a well- considered to be caused by it. balanced, low-calorie diet. (E) As a result of the problems in urban (D) Obesity has declined among people who areas, nonurban areas have passed strict have consistently used low-calorie, pollution control measures. alternative sweeteners. (E) The rise in the consumption of low-calorie, alternative sweeteners is primarily due to an increase in the number of users rather than an increase in the amount each user consumes. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 187
  12. 12. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S3. It has long been a commonplace in medical 4. The candy manufacturer’s claim that employee literature that the ingestion of drug L, in “theft” costs the company thousands of dollars combination with the application of lotion M, a year in potential sales is greatly overstated. causes the appearance of adverse reaction O. Most of the candy eaten on the job and not paid Recently, however, doubts have been cast on the for is eaten one piece at a time, by workers who role of lotion M in the appearance of adverse would not be willing to buy an entire box of it reaction O. anyway. Which one of the following research findings Which of the following, if true, most weakens the could most reasonably have created the doubts argument above? referred to above? (A) The workers eat only defective candies (A) The appearance of adverse reaction O that could not be sold. following the ingestion of drug L and the (B) Candy eaten by employees represents lost application of lotion M potential sales to nonemployees. (B) The absence of adverse reaction O (C) A few workers account for most of the following the ingestion of drug L and the candy that is eaten but not paid for. application of lotion M (D) Most of the candies eaten by employees (C) The ingestion of drug L and the are consumed during the holiday season, appearance of adverse reaction O in the when production outputs are at their absence of lotion M highest. (D) The absence of adverse reaction O (E) The amount of candy eaten by employees following the ingestion of drug L without is only a small fraction of the candy sold the application of lotion M by the company. (E) The disappearance of adverse reaction O following the ingestion of drug L and the application of lotion M GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 188
  13. 13. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS5. U.S. officials complain that the country’s trade 6. Children who attend private high schools may deficit with Japan is due to the fact that Japan’s initially feel that they can succeed without doing markets are not open enough to imports and the work required, but as they grow older they investment. Japanese officials reply that the realize the necessity of serious study. Each year United States should concentrate on improving the overwhelming majority of students its school systems and investing more money in disciplined for plagiarism and cheating on their scientific research and worker training. exams is found in the freshman class. It can be inferred from the statements above The argument above would be most weakened if that the Japanese officials most probably hold which of the following were true? which of the following opinions? (A) As they move up in grade, students learn (A) The United States should open its own how to cheat without being caught. markets to more imports and investment. (B) First-time offenders for plagiarism and (B) The trade deficit between the United cheating on exams are not disciplined. States and Japan is more the result of (C) The proctors for freshman exams are the poor American industrial performance than least vigilant. Japan’s import restrictions. (D) Acts of vandalism are most often (C) The trade deficit between the United committed by members of the sophomore States and Japan is a result of Japan’s class. closed markets. (E) Public school students are no less likely (D) U.S. school systems foster a mistrust of than private school students to believe Japan that prevents U.S. businesspeople that they can succeed in life without from negotiating intelligently with Japan. working hard. (E) Better education and worker training can help shrink the trade imbalance, but should not be counted on to close the gap entirely. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 189
  14. 14. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S7. The conflict between an artist’s work and the 8. To improve the physical fitness of its students, context in which it is placed is a traditional School District 4 instituted a policy whereby problem in aesthetics. Recent exhibits have students would be given extra credit in physical given it a new urgency. Too often a painter’s education for extracurricular athletic activities. canvases have been hung in an improper context School officials call the program a success, because the gallery managers have not since participation in after school sports has understood what the painter envisioned as the doubled since the program was instituted. work’s proper environment. Which of the following, if true, most seriously As an attempt to solve the problem described weakens the claim of the school officials? above, it would be most reasonable to (A) Most students who joined after school (A) bring artists and gallery managers into sports did so only to get extra credit. closer contact, so as to increase the (B) Most children who are in poor physical artist’s input into the way the exhibit is condition cannot be persuaded to join held after school sports by such an incentive (B) provide brochures at the exhibit that program. describe the artist and how he or she (C) Few students who joined after school intended the exhibit to look sports during the extra credit program will (C) redesign galleries so that their decor continue to play the sport after the school contains nothing that would distract the year ends. audience from the works themselves (D) Most of the new athletes are students (D) provide a uniform environment for all the who had never before participated in after works in an exhibition so that they appear school sports. within the same context (E) Fitness set show no significant (E) instruct gallery managers in the fine improvement in the physical condition of points of aesthetic theory so that they will students after they join after school be able to tell what, if anything, a painting sports. means GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE190
  15. 15. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS9. It takes 4 weeks for a team of 5 professional 10. Cultural anthropologists who have been window washers working regular full-time hours observing and interviewing customers in retail to properly clean every window of the Empire stores have announced a definitive theory of State Building. The building’s owner demands consumer purchasing behavior. that all the windows always be clean. Yet even if the 5 washers work consistently throughout their Which of the following, if true, would be least regular work week, they will not be able to finish likely to represent a benefit of the theory to cleaning all the windows before some windows retailers? will again need cleaning. (A) Retailers will be able to eliminate costly product displays that fail to increase It can be correctly inferred on the basis of the sales. statements above that which of the following must be true? (B) Retailers will gain insight into how consumers determine whether or not to (A) If an Empire State Building window is to be buy a particular product. kept clean, it must be cleaned by a professional window cleaner. (C) The new theory will make consumers aware of how product displays influence (B) The owner’s demand for proper cleaning of their purchasing decisions. all the windows will never be fulfilled. (D) The new theory will determine what types (C) If a team of 5 window washers cleans all of retail display gimmicks produce a the Empire State Building’s windows in negative reaction in consumers. less than 4 weeks, some of the windows will not be properly cleaned. (E) The new theory will explain why consumers often purchase at different stores goods (D) In order to ensure that all of the Empire that could be bought at just one store. State Building’s windows are clean, the owner must have his window washers work overtime. (E) Some Empire State Building windows must be cleaned more frequently than once every four weeks if they are to be kept clean. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 191
  16. 16. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S11. Archaeologists have recently found, in various 12. Doubling the cost of public transportation to grave sites in the Mexican state of Veracruz, compensate for money lost by declining ridership small ceramic animals with attached wheels. At would be disastrous. The greater expense would first, this find might seem to discredit the belief only further discourage commuters who are that the wheel and its uses were unknown in pre- already dissatisfied with the poor condition of Colombian culture. On reflection, however, it buses and trains. If the fares are increased, would seem that the discovery actually bears out many commuters will choose to drive their cars this belief. To be familiar with these toys and yet instead, causing pollution and traffic congestion. not to apply the principle of the wheel to daily As a result, the city will lose money and become tasks such as carting, transportation, and even more noisy and smog-filled than it is now. pottery making must indicate a lack of understanding of the wheel and its potential Which of the following is an assumption made in benefits. advancing the argument above? (A) Commuters who decide to drive instead of Which of the following best expresses the using public transportation will not share argument made in the passage above? rides with one another. (A) If the pre-Colombian people of Veracruz (B) Commuters will not park their cars in had understood the principle of the wheel, garages and thereby spend more money they would not have attached wheels to than they would by using buses or trains. ceramic animals. (C) The condition of public transportation will (B) If the pre-Colombian people of Veracruz not improve as a result of the fare had understood the principle of the wheel, increase. they would have adapted it to everyday use. (D) Commuters who use their own cars currently outnumber those who use buses (C) If the pre-Colombian people of Veracruz and trains. had uses for the wheel in their everyday lives, they would have adapted the idea of (E) A significant number of people who now the wheel from the wheeled ceramic use public transportation have cars or can figures. easily obtain them. (D) The pre-Colombian people of Veracruz must have known of the wheel and its uses because they attached wheels to ceramic animals. (E) Since the pre-Colombian people of Veracruz did not know of the wheel or its uses, the ceramic animals found in the grave sites must be the remains of later cultures. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 192
  17. 17. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS13. The cost of transatlantic airfare has nearly 14. Truck driver: The gasoline tax is too high and doubled over the past five years, yet airlines are it must be lowered. It has been doing a booming business. Clearly, people today raised every year for the last have more money to spend on vacations than five years, while other sales they did five years ago. taxes have not. If the government persists in unfairly All of the following, if true, would weaken the penalizing truck drivers, our argument above EXCEPT: increased operating costs will (A) Most people buying transatlantic tickets either hurt consumers or put us today use them for business trips, so out of business. airfare is refunded by their companies. State official: But your gasoline tax dollars (B) There are fewer airlines in existence today maintain and improve the very than five years ago. roads you depend on. Without (C) People are taking shorter vacations and those additional revenues, road staying in cheaper hotels than they used conditions would deteriorate, to. costing you and consumers much more in maintenance and (D) Crossing the Atlantic by ship requires repairs. more time than most people can afford. If the statements made above are true, the best (E) Domestic airline flights have seen a characterization of the logical relationship steady increase in passengers. between the two arguments is that the state official’s response (A) points out that the truck driver’s proposal will actually worsen the problem it is intended to solve (B) is circular, assuming the truth of its conclusion in order to justify its conclusion (C) points out that the truck driver is selfish because more people are aided by the gasoline tax than are penalized (D) is merely an attempt to excuse the government’s policies without providing any justification for those policies (E) points to an inherent contradiction between the cause the truck driver cites and the effects the truck driver thinks will follow from the cause GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 193
  18. 18. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S15. Archaeologists recently unearthed a prehistoric 16. The study of foreign languages is finally statuette, portraying the figure of a woman, that becoming a serious endeavor in U.S. education. had been carved from a mastodon bone. A team The number of American college students of researchers carefully studied the statuette, enrolled in non-English language courses has which they named the Venus of Orleans. Since it increased by 20 percent over the last five years. was similar in shape and design to another bone Spanish, with over 500,000 students, is the carving, the so-called Venus of Grenoble, they most popular; its enrollment has increased by concluded that in all likelihood it was carved at 30 percent. Meanwhile, enrollment in Japanese the same time, about 70,000 years ago. and Russian has nearly doubled, and now Skeptics point out, however, that carbon-14 comprises eight percent of total foreign language testing indicates that the recently discovered study. Clearly there is now an increased interest statuette is only about 50,000 years old. in foreign language study. When these students join the work force, they will enhance not only Which of the following, if true, would tend most U.S. businesses’ ability to compete internationally to weaken the force of the skeptics’ objection? but also our country’s reputation abroad. (A) Carbon-14 dating places the age of the Venus of Grenoble at 70,000 years. The answer to which of the following questions would be LEAST relevant to evaluating the above (B) No other, similar, statuettes have been claims? found at the site where the Venus of Orleans was unearthed. (A) Do students enrolled in foreign language classes continue their studies long enough (C) The carbon-14 dating process is unreliable to attain competence in those languages? for objects dating from before 60,000 BC. (B) By what percentage has overall enrollment (D) The carbon-14 dating process has in U.S. colleges and universities increased provided unreliable dates for many objects over the past five years? older than 100,000 years. (C) Does a significant number of students of (E) Some speculation persists that the Venus foreign languages go into professions in of Orleans was carved out of the femur or which the ability to speak other languages thigh bone of a prehistoric ox. is useful? (D) Has the study of “dead” languages like Latin and Ancient Greek increased at a similar rate to that of modern languages? (E) How does the percentage increase in foreign language enrollment over the past five years compare to previous increases in enrollment? STOP! END OF SET 194
  19. 19. ANSWERS ONTHE NEXT PAGE
  20. 20. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N SANSWER KEY1. D2. D3. C4. B5. B6. A7. A8. E9. E10. C11. B12. E13. E14. A15. C16. D196
  21. 21. CRITICAL REASONING SET 3 Time: 25 minutes—16 Questions Directions: For each question in this section, select the best of the answer choices given.1. In 1980, 13 percent of the Arbican population 2. The Kapoor Meatworks has a virtual monopoly moved from urban areas to suburban areas. This on expensive, gourmet delicacies. In order to percentage steadily declined, until, in 1990, it expand their market, they intend to offer a reached 3 percent. budget line of less costly delicacies. Such a product is virtually unknown, and they realize If the statements above are true, all of the that its success depends upon a heavy following statements concerning Arbicans advertising campaign. They have decided to between 1980 and 1990 could also be true finance the advertising with the profits from their EXCEPT: gourmet line. (A) The number of Arbicans moving from Which of the following, assuming each is a suburban areas to urban areas also realistic possibility, would pose the most serious decreased. obstacle to the Kapoor Meatworks’ project? (B) The Arbican population increased, and so did the number of Arbicans moving from (A) The introduction of a budget line of urban to suburban areas. delicacies completely undercuts the sales of the gourmet line. (C) The Arbican population decreased, and so did the number of Arbicans moving from (B) At the start, the company spends more on urban to suburban areas. advertising than it makes from sales of the budget line delicacies. (D) The Arbican population decreased, and the number of Arbicans moving from urban to (C) When the budget line delicacies grow in suburban areas remained the same. popularity, competitors enter the budget delicacies market and Kapoor does not (E) The Arbican population increased, and the have a monopoly in that market. number of Arbicans moving from urban to suburban areas remained the same. (D) Many of the consumers who purchase the budget line are tempted to try the delicacies offered in the gourmet line. (E) Many of the stores that now carry Kapoor’s gourmet line of delicacies are exclusive, and refuse to carry their budget line. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 197
  22. 22. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S3. Recent statistics make it seem unlikely that the 4. In a nature reserve in India, people are total consumption of electricity determines its sometimes attacked by tigers. It is believed that cost to individual consumers. Recent increases the tigers will only attack people from behind. So in total consumption, especially during the hot for the past few years many workers in the summer months, have sometimes been reserve have started wearing masks depicting a accompanied by a decrease in the cost per unit human face on the back of their heads. While and at other times by an increase. many area residents remain skeptical, no worker wearing one of these masks has yet been Which of the following positions is best attacked by a tiger. supported by the information presented above? Which of the statements below, if true, would (A) It must be the case that the cost of best support the argument of those who electricity to consumers is what advocate the use of the mask? determines the total consumption. (B) Even though a correlation exists between (A) Many workers in the nature reserve who the total consumption of electricity and its do not wear the masks have been cost to consumers, no causal relation attacked recently by tigers. exists. (B) Workers in other nature reserves who (C) Further investigation into the way these wear similar masks have not been statistics were gathered is certainly called attacked recently by tigers. for. (C) No tigers have been spotted on the nature (D) The cost of electricity depends upon reserve in recent years. something other than the total (D) Many of the workers who wear the masks consumption of electricity. also sing while they work in order to (E) The cost-per-unit of electricity to frighten away any tigers in the area. consumers is dependent on the total (E) The tigers have often been observed electricity consumption. attacking small deer from in front rather than from behind. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 198
  23. 23. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS5. Since Arlene Hodges was installed as president 6. Although recently introduced with a wave of of the Caralis corporation, profits have increased publicity, combined audio/video receivers are by an average of 11 percent per year. During the proving tough to sell. As a result, the tenure of her predecessor, the corporation’s manufacturers keep advertising, and offering profits averaged a yearly increase of only 7 handsome discounts. What the manufacturers percent. Obviously Ms. Hodges’ aggressive have yet to see is that the public’s reluctance marketing efforts have caused the acceleration isn’t due to the price of the product; the public is in the growth of Caralis’ profits. still debating the even more fundamental question of --------. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion drawn above? Which of the following best completes the passage above? (A) The corporation’s new manufacturing plant, constructed in the past year, has (A) whether the product is worth its price resulted in a 15 percent increase in (B) whether there is a use for such a product production capacity. (C) whether the models will soon become (B) For each year of Ms. Hodges’ presidency, obsolete the corporation’s financial records show an increase in profits over the previous (D) whether the uses for such a product year. outweigh its high cost (C) During the tenure of Ms. Hodges’ (E) whether more stylish models will appear in predecessor, the corporation began an the future advertising campaign aimed at capturing consumers between the ages of 24 and 35. (D) Since Ms. Hodges became president, the corporation has switched the primary focus of its advertising from print ads to radio and television commercials. (E) Just before he was replaced, Ms. Hodges’ predecessor directed the acquisition of a rival corporation, which has nearly doubled the corporation’s yearly revenues. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 199
  24. 24. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S7. Although statistics and definitions are inexact, Questions 8 and 9 are based on the following. educated guesses put the number of refugees In spite of what its critics say, the new, worldwide at well over 10 million. The expensive artificial kidney implant is a boon overwhelming majority prefer to return to their to modern medicine. These critics should native land than to emigrate to a foreign one. remember that the first heart transplants The millions of refugees from Afghanistan are stimulated an enormous amount of beneficial sufficient proof: Despite the toll the war and medical research, even though the transplant subsequent fighting have taken on their country, technique was later rejected in favor of less very few have applied for permission to invasive surgical procedures. emigrate. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument above? 8. The author defends the artificial kidney implant against the critics by (A) Most refugees are as reluctant to emigrate as are the refugees from (A) attacking her opponents’ method of Afghanistan. circular reasoning (B) The refugees from Afghanistan fled what (B) implying an analogy between the benefits they considered political oppression rather of the artificial kidney implant and the than economic disaster. benefits of the early heart transplants (C) Most of the children born to refugees (C) pointing out a contradiction implicit in their prefer to remain in their adoptive country criticism of the implant’s high cost rather than return to the land their parents (D) criticizing the professional objectivity of left. her opponents rather than their claim (D) Although refugees flee their homes for a (E) implying an analogy between the critics’ variety of different reasons, the opposition to the artificial kidney implant overwhelming majority are looking for and their opposition to the early heart improved living conditions. transplants (E) The number of refugees worldwide has risen dramatically over the last ten years. 9. Opponents of the artificial kidney implant could best defend their position against the author’s argument by pointing out that (A) once perfected, the new artificial kidney implant will cost very little (B) many of those who oppose the new artificial kidney implant have very good reputations in the scientific community (C) the high cost of the new artificial kidney implant does not necessarily mean that its creators are incompetent or profligate (D) the medical research that the artificial kidney implant will stimulate is similar to the research stimulated by the heart transplants (E) the fact that one medical innovation stimulated beneficial research does not mean that all such innovations will do so GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 200
  25. 25. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS10. The population increase over a given year is 11. Chef: An ordinance ought to be passed banning always calculated as a percentage of the midtown street vendors from selling food previous year’s population, with a population within a certain proximity to restaurants. decrease being recorded as a negative increase. With their high rents and costs, In 1990 Essex County and Union County both restaurants cannot be expected to experienced a population increase of more than compete with the vendors. Even in cases 3 percent. In 1991 Essex County and Union where these vendors sell food completely County both experienced a population increase different from the restaurant’s bill of fare, of 1.5 percent. In 1992 Union County the price differential is enough to attract experienced a negative increase in population of to the vendors customers who would Ϫ1.7 percent. Essex County had 209,100 otherwise have eaten in the restaurants. residents in 1990 and 209,000 residents in 1992. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above? If the information above is accurate, which of the following must be true? (A) The food served in midtown restaurants is better than that sold by street vendors. (A) Both counties experienced positive (B) Most street vendors who sell food would population increases in the years 1990 suffer losses from being forced to move to and 1991, yet both experienced negative other locations. population increases in 1992. (C) Most customers who eat in midtown do so (B) In 1992 more people moved from Union on expense accounts, and do not pay for County to Essex County than moved from their own meals. Essex County to Union County. (D) There are not enough police officers to (C) In 1990 there were more people living in enforce regulations requiring street Union County than in Essex County, but in vendors to move a certain distance from 1992 there were more people living in restaurants. Essex County than in Union County. (E) The average profit on food sold by a street (D) Both counties experienced negative vendor is roughly the same percentage as population increases in the years 1990 that on food served in restaurants. and 1991, yet both experienced positive population increases in 1992. (E) Both counties experienced positive population increases in the years 1990 and 1991, yet while Essex County experienced a positive increase in 1992, Union County had a negative increase. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 201
  26. 26. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S12. It has been against the law for federal agencies 13. The manufacturer of DTF claims its product and federal contractors to discriminate against a reduces facial wrinkles and wishes to sell it as a qualified job applicant because of a disability. pharmaceutical. The Food and Drug Now that Congress has approved legislation to Administration (FDA), however, has ordered expand these existing provisions to cover private lengthy and costly experiments to determine industry as well, the number of disabled people whether DTF truly reduces facial wrinkles. The who are involuntarily unemployed will drop manufacturer, a small cosmetics firm, lacks the substantially. resources to carry out the required research and will probably comply with less rigorous FDA The author of the above argument must be regulations by labeling DTF a cosmetic. assuming which of the following? Which of the following can be most reasonably (A) Many congressmen were reluctant to pass inferred from the statements above? the new legislation to prevent discrimination against the disabled. (A) Cosmetics are among the products not (B) Some private employers in the past regulated by the FDA. deliberately chose not to hire qualified but (B) Only established pharmaceutical firms disabled job applicants. have the capital required to enter new (C) The federal government currently employs products in the market. more disabled people than does private (C) The makers of DTF thought they would sell industry. greater quantities of their product if it were (D) The approved legislation would stop a pharmaceutical rather than a cosmetic. discrimination against the disabled in the (D) The FDA regulates claims made about public and private sectors. pharmaceuticals more strictly than claims (E) Many disabled people voluntarily choose made about cosmetics. to remain unemployed. (E) DTF has very little effect, if any, on facial wrinkles and would not have received FDA approval. STOP! END OF TEST 202
  27. 27. CRITICAL REASONING PRACTICE SETS14. Homeowner: Recent drops in the value of our 15. Plant Y thrives in environments of great sunlight homes are due to the and very little moisture. Desert X is an undesirability of living near the environment with constant, powerful sunlight, recently opened 24-hour bus and almost no moisture. Although Plant Y thrives depot. in the areas surrounding Desert X, it does not exist naturally in the desert, nor does it survive Transportation official: The police, not the bus long when introduced there. depot, are at fault. Survey data shows that most prospective Which of the following, if true, would be most homeowners avoid the useful in explaining the apparent discrepancy community because of its high above? crime rate. (A) Desert X’s climate is far too harsh for the Which of the following, if true, would be the most animals that normally feed on Plant Y. effective rebuttal that the homeowner could (B) For one week in the fall, Desert X gets make to the argument put forward by the consistent rainfall. transportation official? (C) The environment around Desert X is (A) The community’s crime rate has risen ideally suited to the needs of Plant Y. nearly as quickly as the value of homes (D) Due to the lack of sufficient moisture, has fallen, over the same period of time. Desert X can support very little plant life. (B) Those homeowners whose homes are (E) Plant Y cannot survive in temperatures as situated in the immediate area of the bus high as those normally found in Desert X. depot must endure constant noise. (C) The constant activity and commerce generated by the bus depot has made the community a favored hangout for thieves and other criminals. (D) The community’s police force has not seen a pay raise or increase in manpower for the last five years. (E) The surveys of prospective homeowners did not include questions concerning the desirability of living in a community with a 24-hour bus depot. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 203
  28. 28. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N S16. The World Automobile Association (WAA) publishes a list of the “Best and Worst Drivers of the World,” ranking the drivers of every nation according to the number of traffic deaths per mile driven in that country. Each of the following, if true, would by itself provide a logical objection to using the WAA’s ranking as a representation of the quality of drivers in each nation EXCEPT: (A) The roads in some countries are in bad repair and are therefore more dangerous than roads in other countries. (B) The average driver in industrialized countries can afford to maintain his or her car in better condition than can the average driver in less developed countries. (C) Some countries contain hundreds of thousands of miles of road while other countries contain relatively few miles of road. (D) Minor accidents that would cause little injury in many countries are often fatal when they occur in extremely mountainous countries. (E) Because of differences in national economies, the average car in some countries contains many more passengers than does the average car in other countries. STOP! END OF SET 204
  29. 29. ANSWERS ONTHE NEXT PAGE
  30. 30. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N SANSWER KEY1. D2. A3. D4. A5. E6. B7. A8. B9. E10. A11. C12. B13. D14. C15. E16. C206
  31. 31. CRITICAL REASONING EXPLANATIONS CHAPTER 21CRITICAL REASONING EXPLANATIONS SET 1Answer Key:1. C 7. C 13. D2. D 8. E 14. B3. C 9. E 15. B4. A 10. A 16. A5. B 11. E6. A 12. D1. C background. Supervisory experience (B) isn’t theThe Conclusion: Union reform movements should same as coming up through the ranks. Labor unionsbuild staffs out of workers who have come up the having problems, which the author admits, isn’t theranks. same as (D) most of them unfairly representing workers’ interests. That’s an overstatement.The Evidence: Union movements are currently “Democratic” (E) is a new term, and one thesuffering from a problem: Their staffs consist of argument doesn’t need.college-educated professional types who don’tunderstand the concerns of the worker. 2. DIf the author believes that hiring up-from-the-ranks The Conclusion: None is stated, but as the questionworkers (an idea introduced in the conclusion) will stem alerts us, one is implied.cure that problem, he must be assuming that theseformer workers do understand workers’ real The Evidence: A plant opened in Country Y during aconcerns. revolution ten years ago has always generated substantial profits.There’s no need to assume that higher educationlessens people’s identification with their class The author draws an analogy between the two plants.background (A), since the author hasn’t said that the since the one in Country Y has made money, so too,lawyers, economists, and experts who don’t she implies, will the one in Country X.understand workers come from a working class The author’s point is that the plant can be successful 295
  32. 32. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N Sdespite the war, not that (A) the plant will be The implication is that Zydol is more cost-effectivesuccessful because of the war. The author presents the than aspirin: you get a much better bargain with atwo countries as similar, so she’s not arguing that (B) bottle of Zydol. But if the aspirin bottle containsone is more stable than the other. The author is more than twice as many tablets as the Zydol bottle,attacking her opponents’ argument, but not (C) their then it’s the aspirin bottle that gives you more painmotives. She makes no judgment (E) as to which reliever for your money.plant will be more successful. Remember, comparingand contrasting things that are considered equivalent The argument concerns which is the better bargain,in the stimulus is a common wrong answer type for not which is the better pain reliever. Thus it doesn’tinference questions. matter (B) that the ingredient is the same. (C) points to some consumers who won’t want Zydol. Perhaps, but one, these may be very few, and two, this doesn’t3. C attack the author’s reasoning, which is based on cost.The Conclusion: There is none stated. One is implied, Pain sufferers who don’t have a doctor’s prescriptionthough, and we’re to locate it among the answer are left with the same choice between Zydol andchoices. aspirin, so (D) doesn’t weaken Zydol’s case againstThe Evidence: Since deregulation, low air fares have aspirin. Even if you make an unwarranted leap andcorrelated with increased miles flown. Recently prices assume that there may be fewer of the large Zydolhave risen, but the number of passenger-miles flown pills (E) per bottle, choice (A) clearly does a better jobis still increasing. of arguing along this line.The passage begins with a correlation and then 5. Bbreaks it in the next sentence. What can you infer The Undergraduates’ Conclusion: If grades arefrom this? Not very much, you may have thought, assigned by graduate assistants, regular full-time fac-and you’d be right: the key to this question is not ulty will devote less time to undergraduate work.drawing an unwarranted sweeping conclusion fromthe evidence. What you can safely conclude is that the Their Evidence: There really isn’t any: just the ideaair fare doesn’t, by itself, determine the amount of air that giving grading responsibilities to graduatetravel. students will somehow move regular full-time faculty away from the undergraduates’ work.That air-fares don’t have any effect on air travel (A) istoo strong. We can’t infer why passenger-miles flown The only thing to do is go through the choices to seehave increased (B); it might be at the expense of other which question we can answer. Since theforms of transportation, but it might not be. The undergraduates are against the proposal, it’s safe toauthor merely states that the air fares have risen conclude that they want the full-time faculty to stayrecently, but never mentions a cause (D) like interested in their work. We have no information“takeovers.” So far, the recent rise in air fares hasn’t about the fairness of graduate assistants’ grades (A).reduced passenger-miles flown, but that doesn’t All we know about the discussion sections (C) is thatmean (E) that a further increase won’t. graduate assistants now hold them; we aren’t told whether or not full-time faculty may hold them. (D) asks about the validity of the faculty’s grades. We4. A know that some people have proposed that graduateThe Conclusion: Consumers can be expected to assistants be given some grading responsibility, butswitch to Zydol. that doesn’t imply (D) that they believe the faculty’s grades have been made less valid by the graduateThe Evidence: Although one has to take two aspirins students’ “contact” with undergraduates. And we’reto get the relief provided by one Zydol, nevertheless a told absolutely nothing about (E) the faculty’sbottle of Zydol costs the same as a bottle of aspirin. opinion of the proposal. 296
  33. 33. C R I T I C A L R E A S O N I N G E X P L A N AT I O N S6. A some less. The reasons for the growth differenceThe Conclusion: Air travel is becoming more danger- between boys and girls (D) isn’t relevant to theous. growth differences between coed and single-sex schools. Since the study is only interested in howThe Evidence: In the last year there have been seven much students grow during the first two years ofcollisions and over 700 deaths, the highest number of high-school, it’s irrelevant how tall they are to startdeaths ever. with (E).We want something that suggests that the increase infatalities doesn’t prove an increase in danger. If more 8. Eand more people are traveling by airplane, an increase The Conclusion: Exercise is good for the mind as wellin the number of deaths doesn’t prove that air travel as for the body.is becoming more dangerous. The question of howdangerous air travel is can’t be answered unless we The Evidence: Exercise increases the speed at whichknow the proportion, not the number, of passengers blood circulates, allowing the brain to receive morewho get killed. oxygen and thus concentrate better.The author’s contention isn’t undermined by (B) the The main point is the conclusion, that exercise isreasons for the lack of safety. Pointing out more good for the mind as well as the body. More generally,dangerous methods of transportation (C) doesn’t exercise serves more than one purpose.deny that the danger of air travel is increasing. (A) goes out on a limb; the author’s point is theLikewise, the fact that other forms of transportation beneficial effects of exercise, not the unlimitedare also getting more dangerous (D) doesn’t dent the benefits of oxygen. While exercise aids mentalauthor’s claim. Fewer passengers per place (E) means activity, it’s not (B) a mental activity as such. Whethermore collisions, but we already know how many exercise aids the brain more or less than he rest of thecollisions there were. body (C) isn’t discussed. This is a classic wrong answer type: the choice that compares two items the7. C stimulus treats equally. While the author argues thatThe Conclusion: Attending a single-sex high school exercise is beneficial to the mind, “greatly improving”promotes growth. concentration (D) is an overstatement.The Evidence: During the first two years, the averagestudent in an all—boys school grew five inches and 9. Ethe average girl in an all—girls school grew four Ernesto’s Conclusion: VCR sales will decline.inches. Ernesto’s Evidence: The saturation level forThe question stem tells you that something has been households has been reached.left out of the argument. The conclusion compares Milton’s Conclusion: VCR sales won’t decline.single-sex schools to coed schools, but the evidenceonly cites data from single-sex schools. Until we Milton’s Evidence: More and more films are releasedknow how much the average student grows in co- on videotape.educational schools, we have no evidence that thegrowth in single-sex schools is greater. Milton simply ignores Ernesto’s argument that the saturation point has been reached for VCR’s. HeEven if we knew the answer to (A) we’d still have no concentrates on the new cassettes coming out, but theevidence from the coed schools. (B) is a rather silly availability of new cassettes doesn’t mean peoplequestion: we’re dealing with average growth, so we’d need buy or will buy more recorders. Milton ignoresexpect some boys to grow more than the average and the relevant issue of saturation raised by Ernesto, and 297
  34. 34. P R A C T I C E S E T S A N D E X P L A N AT I O N Ssimply assumes that sales of VCR’s will continue as 11. Ebefore. The Conclusion: Introducing a new cereal will only hurt the brands Coolidge already produces, soMilton’s evidence doesn’t disprove Ernesto’s evidence Coolidge shouldn’t introduce another brand of(A). The videos appearing each year have nothing to cereal.do with whether the saturation point in VCRownership has been reached. “Finding a gap” (B) in The Evidence: The introduction of a new brand ofan argument means demonstrating that the evidence cereal doesn’t increase the total number of cerealdoesn’t lead to the conclusion; Milton merely brings buyers, but only encourages those who already buyup some irrelevant information that has nothing to cereal to switch brands.do with Ernesto’s reasoning. Milton does cite an issuethat Ernesto ignored (C), but the claim that this issue There’s an assumption here: that the new brand will“outweighs” the issue of saturation is unsupported. only attract those who currently buy other brands ofMilton does fail to speak to Ernesto’s point (D) but Coolidge’s cereal. If the new brand steals buyers fromnot for the bizarre reason given here. Ernesto has competitors’ cereals, then it will help Coolidge byabsolutely nothing to say about “other leisure-related adding to its total sales.products” there’s no reason for Milton to raise this Even if the population does increase and total cerealissue. sales with it (A), a new brand might still hurt the sales of Coolidge’s established cereals. The new cereal may10. A sell well (B), but if that just means it’s stealing lots ofThe Conclusion: People must already have been using buyers from other Coolidge cereals, what good is it?Type C weapons in this area by 2500 B.C. The fact that Coolidge has only a few brands (C) doesn’t make it likely that a new cereal brand wouldThe Evidence: Depictions of the weapons exist on the steal buyers from competitors’ brands rather thanwalls of a cave that was sealed off in 2500 B.C. from other Coolidge brands. Neither does the factWe need to show that the paintings either don’t that some brand switching is usual even when a newdepict weapons that were in use or that the paintings brand isn’t introduced (D).were made after 2500 B.C. The archaeologists areassuming that there was only one entrance to the 12. Dcave. If there’s another entrance to the cave that was The Conclusion: Not eating cheese protects childrenonly sealed much later, then people could have from childhood diseases.entered the cave and made the paintings long afterthe first entrance was sealed. The Evidence: All the children at summer school who have never had measles or chicken pox have alsoIf anything, the existence of the weapons in India (B) never eaten the cheese served in the school lunches.might be considered to strengthen the argument,since it shows Type C weapons were in existence as The author deduces a causal relationship: not eatingearly as 2500 B.C. Pushing the date of the eruption cheese leads to protection from childhood diseases. Iback (C) also strengthens the argument by making it hope you saw that this has numerous holes. Four oflikely that the paintings were done even earlier than the choices help to fill those holes; the fifth does not.claimed. Without some evidence to back it up, the That fifth choice is (D). If research shows thatopinion of the experts (D) isn’t worth much. That abstaining from cheese products is a major cause ofidentification was difficult (E) is not the same as its some childhood diseases, then the health official’sbeing uncertain or controversial. claim that children can protect themselves from disease by not eating cheese is flat-out wrong. 298
  35. 35. C R I T I C A L R E A S O N I N G E X P L A N AT I O N SIt’s important that the author be able (A) to infer Her Evidence: Although the same plant can producefrom measles and chicken pox (in the evidence) to the same amount of electricity in either site, buildingother childhood diseases. Also necessary is that the at Abaco will cost twice as much money.observations be accurate (B) and the students’behavior at home mirror their behavior at school (C). Looking at the question stem first here really helpsEach of those speaks to the legitimacy of the you narrow your focus when reading the stimulus.correlation. Most important, though, is that there The only thing you’re interested in is why the Abacoreally be (E) a causal connection, rather than just a site will cost more than twice as much as the Bornoscorrelation, between cheese eating and childhood site. The stimulus doesn’t give you any hint as to howillness. the sites are different, so you’ll have to rely on the correct answer to provide a complete explanation by itself. If the Abaco site is in the middle of nowhere,13. D and requires constructing new roads and importingThe Consulting Firm’s Conclusion: The employees’ laborers, then of course it’s going to be moredissatisfaction is all in their heads. expensive to build there.Its Evidence: 75 percent of the employees are The benefits of the Bornos plant to farms (A) don’tdissatisfied. An investigation showed no explain its lower cost of construction. Neither do theuncommonly bad working conditions. benefits to nearby city residents (C). PossibleWe need the one choice that doesn’t weaken the environmental damage caused by a plant built atconsulting firm’s conclusion; that’s a good tip that the Abaco (D) is another reason for building at Bornos,conclusion isn’t solidly based. The mere fact that the but it’s a different reason. The problem or issue ofcomplaints vary doesn’t hurt the firm’s conclusion expansion (E), like the environment, might meritthat the complaints are based on psychological consideration, but it’s not a factor in determining theproblems. In fact, it might even strengthen the firm’s cost of building.argument: every employee has his or her own mentalhang-up, so every employee comes up with his or her 15. Bown irrational complaint. The Conclusion: These five people can serve as mod- els for the type of person who can be helped by hyp-If many employees had been working at a different nosis.company’s facilities (A), then it could be thesefacilities, not mental problems, that are responsible The Evidence: A study showed that these fivefor the complaints. If the situation in Company P is previously disturbed hypnosis subjects had stablefairly normal (B), there’s no need for the firm to emotional conditions.hypothesize an unusual incidence of psychologicalproblems among the workforce. If the firm’s The survey only found that at the time of the studydefinition of uncommonly bad conditions differs the five seemed to be doing OK. Remember, thesefrom that of the workers (C), then the firm may well people were originally suffering from mood swings;have overlooked the real causes of employee maybe the study just caught them on a good day. Ifdissatisfaction. And if a battery of tests (E), showed that’s the case—if since 1988 these people have beenno significant psychological problems, then the very experiencing dramatic mood swings and occasionalcause cited by the firm is attacked. periods of health—then hypnosis hasn’t really helped them and they’re not good models.14. B The author presented the people as models ofThe Director’s Conclusion: We should build the dam different types of people who can be helped, not as aat the Bornos site. single model of a single personality type, so they needn’t be similar (A). It doesn’t matter that the other 299

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