Lesson 6Citing Sources & Plagiarism Introduction to College Research Instructor: Amber Burtis
Questions Answered in this Lesson • Why do we need to cite sources? • What is plagiarism? • How can I be sure that I don’t plagiarize? • What is SIUC’s policy on plagiarism? • What are quoting and paraphrasing? • What are the three main citation styles and for which academic disciplines are they used? • How do I read and write citations? • What are the different parts of a citation?
About the Source for this Lesson The following slides about citing, plagiarism, paraphrasing, and quoting and are all based, with permission, directly on information from Plagiarism.org. This web site is an excellent source for further information. For more information see: http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_what_is_plagiarism.html http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_how_do_i_cite_sources.htmlhttp://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_preventing_plagiarism_when_writing.html
What is a Citation?• A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your paper came from another source. It also gives them the information necessary to find that source again, including: – information about the author – the title of the work – the name and location of the publisher – the date it was published – the page numbers of the material you are borrowing
When Do I Need to Cite? • Whenever you use quotes • Whenever you paraphrase • Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed • Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another • Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas.
Why Do You Need to Cite Sources?• There are two reasons: – Citing your sources gives proper credit to the authors of the work you used and – It allows others to go back and locate the sources you used to write your paper.• If you don’t cite your sources, then you are, even if it is inadvertent, passing the work of others off as your own. This is called plagiarism.
What is Plagiarism?All of the following are considered plagiarism:• turning in someone else’s work as your own• copying words or ideas without giving credit• failing to put a quotation in quotation marks• giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation• changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit• copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not
Steps to Avoid PlagiarismIf you are worried about plagiarizing here are some things you can do:• Plan your paper (formulate your own original argument or statement and then figure out how you’ll integrate the information from your sources)• Take effective notes (write down the citation information for all your sources as you find them)• If you don’t know whether or not to cite something, just cite it• Know how to quote and paraphrase your sources• Consult with your instructor
What is Quoting?• Quoting is when you take the exact words from an original source and put quotation marks around it.• Quote only when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make.• If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting.
How Often Should I Quote?• Quote as infrequently as possible. You never want your essay to become a series of connected quotations, because that leaves little room for your own ideas.• Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient (but remember that you still have to cite them!). If you think it’s important to quote something, an excellent rule of thumb is that for every line you quote, you should have at least two lines analyzing it.
Paraphrasing• A paraphrase is when you put someone else’s ideas into your own words.• Keep in mind: – You must change the structure of the original sentence – You can’t just change the words of a sentence to synonyms – You still must cite the source you are paraphrasing – You add credibility to your paper by including paraphrases
SIUC’s Student Code of Conduct• Plagiarism is punishable under the Student Code of Conduct. This is part of the Code defining academic dishonesty: – Plagiarizing or representing the work of another as one’s own work; – Preparing work for another that is to be used as that person’s own work; – Cheating by any method or means….. – See: http://policies.siuc.edu/policies/conduct.html
Types of Citation Styles Below are the most popular citation styles. Inparenthesis is the discipline with which that style is mainly used: APA (Social Sciences) Chicago (Humanities, especially History)MLA (Humanities, especially Languages & Literature)
Try this Tutorial• Click into this tutorial and put the knowledge you just gained to the test.http://library.acadiau.ca/tutorials/plagiarism/
Reading a Citation• You will be using APA for your final project so we will focus on reading APA citations, but you can find examples of Chicago and MLA citations in the handouts I gave you on the first day of class.• Let’s take this example…..
Parts of the APA CitationThe color coding below should help you differentiate the parts of the APA citation. For help with your final project see: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/07/ Du, J. (2009). Economic reforms and health insurance in China. Social Science & Medicine, 69(1), 387-395. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.05.014 Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. doi:0000000/000000000000
Putting it All Together• You should have at least 10 sources for your final project (from the homework assignments you turned into me).• Now all you need to do is find another 10 sources and put all 20 into APA citations for your annotated bibliography.• See the final project guidelines on the course homepage for more details and start putting your final project together.