Masters in Public HealthAlcohol Problems: A Health Promotion              Approach             Module Guide         Kirsti...
Masters in Public HealthAlcohol Problems: A Health Promotion              Approach                Module Guide            ...
School of Public HealthUniversity of the Western CapePrivate Bag X17Bellville7535E-mail: ccarolissen@uwc.ac.zaFax:        ...
CONTENTS              I     MODULE INTRODUCTION                       PAGE1.          LETTER OF WELCOME                   ...
I      MODULE INTRODUCTION1      LETTER OF WELCOME                                                   School of Public Heal...
We would greatly value your feedback on how you found the experience ofcompleting the Module. You can let off steam and re...
2       INFORMATION ABOUT THIS MODULE2.1     Module Aims and RationaleThis module is designed to address the following iss...
Use these measures critically to identify patterns of use.      Explain and apply different explanations and theories of a...
www.ccsa.ca                         Canadian Centre on Substance Abusewww.ias.org.uk                      Institute of Alc...
Then, briefly describe a local setting where drinking takes place and argue forthe use of either one of the two approaches...
Pages 7-12 have been removed from this version.
!"#$%   &        !        Introduction:                         Alcohol Origins and                         UseIntroductio...
INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES OF UNIT 1 By the end of this unit, you should be able to: !     ! M+-%.--!()#!&,+5+/-!3/0!-)+*(...
Unit 1 - Session 1Alcohol: Origins of Use, &Value as a CommodityIntroduction<)+-!-#--+&/!+/(,&0.%#-!=&.!(&!()#!)+-(&,+%3$1...
1          LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THIS SESSION    By the end of this session, you should be able to:     ! M+-%.--!-)+*(-!+/...
3        THE ORIGINS OF THE USE OF ALCOHOLI/!&,0#,!(&!./0#,-(3/0!()#!%&6$#7+(+#-!&*!()#!#3/+/5!3/0!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!+/!()#!2...
()3(!)+-(&,+%3$$=1!3$%&)&$!*&$$&2#0!()#!-3#!63((#,/!&*!+/0.-(,+3$+-3(+&/!3-!&-(!&()#,!%&&0+(+#-!3/0!()3(!%&$&/+#-!2#,#!fg!...
E$#3,$=!$+@.&,!-#$$+/5!3/0!.-#!+-!3/!+/(#5,3$!63,(!&*!3$$!%&./+(+#-!+/!9&.()#,/!:*,+%3!3/0!/##0-!(&!4#!3%%#6(#0!3-!-.%);!:...
<)#,#!+-!./*&,(./3(#$=!3!$3%8!&*!,#-#3,%)!3/0!&/5&+/5!-.,K#+$$3/%#!03(3!(&!%&/*+0#/($=!0#-%,+4#!3$%&)&$!6,&0.%(+&/1!%&/-.6...
6        FURTHER READING!    ! Y35#,1!:;!^Aaaa_;!<)#!V+,-(!M#%30#!&*!fN.,&6#3/!Z##,h!+/!:63,()#+0!9&.()!      :*,+%3?!<)#!...
22   Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
Unit 1 - Session 2Patterns of ConsumptionIntroduction!I/!()#!*+,-(!-#--+&/1!2#!+/(,&0.%#0!()#!-&%+&J6&$+(+%3$!3/0!#%&/&+%!...
By the end of this session, you should be able to:    !        ! N76$3+/!-&#!&*!()#!8#=!(#,-!.-#0!(&!0#-%,+4#!3$%&)&$!%&/-...
O#3()1!M;!Z;              ^FQQQ_;!Drinking Occasions: Comparative                           149-154                       ...
+/!()+-!%&/(#7(;!:!&,#!#3/+/5*.$!23=!(&!#3-.,#!0,+/8+/5!+-!(&!*&%.-!&/!3/0!#3-.,#!drinking occasions!&,!#K#/(-!2)#/!0,+/8+...
-3$$!/.4#,!&*!6#&6$#!,3()#,!()3/!()#!&%%3-+&/-!2)#/!6#&6$#!*,&!3%,&--!()#!-6#%(,.!+/0.$5#!+/!,+-8=!0,+/8+/5;!!<).-!*3,!2#!...
!     Task 2 – Using a complementary model to measure alcohol problems !     !     3_! 9.3,+-#!()#!%&/%#6(.3$!-)+*(-!+/!0#...
!3.2      Alcohol Content and Risky DrinkingAbsolute alcohol content!^&,!6.,#!3$%&)&$_!+-!3!@.3/(+(=!#3-.,#0!3-!3!6#,%#/(3...
&*!3$%&)&$!%&/-.#01!#;5;!Y#3-.,+/5!()#!4$&&0!3$%&)&$!$#K#$!&*!4&0+#-!+/!3!&,(.3,=!5+K#-!3/!+/0+%3(+&/!&*!()#!$#K#$!&*!3$%&...
!4_!   R++(3(+&/-!3/0!6&--+4$#!4+3-#-!+/!()#!-(.0+#-?!      :!3&,!+--.#!+/!3/=!4#)3K+&.,J,#$3(#0!-(.0=!+-!()#!.-#!&*!self ...
READING:!E$33-#/1!X;!c;!^9#6(;!Aaaa_;!<)#!Z#/#*+(-!&*!()#!E:[N!3-!3!9%,##/+/5!     <&&$!*&,!:$%&)&$+-!+/!3!E$&-#0!>.,3$!9&...
#76#,+#/(3(+&/!3/0!,#5.$3,!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!3&/5-(!=&.()!3,#!%&6$#7!3/0! /##0!(&!4#!#73+/#0!*,&!K3,+&.-!3/5$#-;! ! <)#!636#,...
!!! TASK 5 – Assessing further measures of alcohol consumption")+$#!,#30+/5!()+-!636#,1!2)+%)!+/%$.0#-!3!*&%.-!&/!3$%&)&$!...
I(!+-!3$-&!3$3,+/5!(&!,#3$+-#!*,&!()#!03(3!()3(!.6!(&!a;To!&*!()#!2&#/!2#,#!3(!,+-8!&*!)3K+/5!3!%)+$0!2+()!V:9!&,!3!+$0#,!...
FEEDBACK")#/!0&+/5!3!-+(.3(+&/3$!3/3$=-+-!+/!&,0#,!(&!6$3/!3/=!+/(#,K#/(+&/!,#$3(#0!(&!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-1!+(!+-!#--#/(+3$!(&...
7          REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING!    ! :#,+%3/!G-=%)+3(,+%!:--&%+3(+&/;!^AaaS_;!Diagnostic and statistical      m...
38   Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
Unit 1 - Session 3Theories of Alcohol Use andAddictionIntroduction:$()&.5)!&-(!&*!()+-!&0.$#!*&%.-#-!&/!&0#,3(#!3$%&)&$!.-...
1                    LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THIS SESSION    By the end of this session, you should be able to:     ! N76$3+/...
6&$+(+%3$1!%.$(.,3$!3/0!#%&/&+%!+--.#-_!(&!300,#--+/5!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-!*+,-(;!<)#!,#3-&/-!*&,!()+-!2+$$!4#%&#!%$#3,#,!3-!2#...
(&!30&$#-%#/(-;!I(!3=!3$-&!/&(!4#!366$+%34$#!(&!()&-#!&*!&()#,!35#-!+/!6&6.$3(+&/-!&.(-+0#!&*!"#-(#,/!0#K#$&6#0!%&./(,+#-;...
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Alcohol problems guide - 2010
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Alcohol problems guide - 2010

669

Published on

This instructional module will help you to develop an understanding of the various consequences of alcohol abuse and of the research processes used to measure this. The rest of the module will provide you with approaches to preventing alcohol problems, ranging from policy and environmental changes to educational and rehabilitation programmes. Some of the readings were chosen to illustrate the main concepts of the module using the following themes: youth, women, and foetal alcohol syndrome.

Authors: Kirstie Rendall-Mkosi, Lucy Alexander, Nandipha Matshanda

Institution: University of the Western Cape

This resource is part of the African Health Open Educational Resources Network: http://www.oerafrica.org/healthoer. The original resource is also available from the authoring institution at http://freecourseware.uwc.ac.za/.

Creative Commons license: Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
669
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Alcohol problems guide - 2010

  1. 1. Masters in Public HealthAlcohol Problems: A Health Promotion Approach Module Guide Kirstie Rendall-Mkosi Lucy Alexander & Nandipha Matshanda School of Public Health University of the Western Cape
  2. 2. Masters in Public HealthAlcohol Problems: A Health Promotion Approach Module Guide School of Public Health University of the Western Cape Module Registration Number: 880111 Value of module: 20 credits Study time required: 200 notional learning hours Pre-requisites: Postgraduate Diploma in Public Health or equivalent; Core modules for the Masters in Public Health Study Materials for this module: Module Guide & Module Readings Module convenor: Kirstie Rendall-Mkosi
  3. 3. School of Public HealthUniversity of the Western CapePrivate Bag X17Bellville7535E-mail: ccarolissen@uwc.ac.zaFax: + 27 21 959-2872Tel: +27 21 959-2166 or 959-2809Copyright 2010, by the SOPH, University of the Western Cape. This work is licensed under aCreative Commons License : Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0.First published 2004.This version 2008/2010 (Module Intro)The vision of the School of Public Health at the University of the WesternCape is to build the capacity of Public Health workers to transform thehealth sector from a predominantly curative, hospital-based service to ahigh quality, comprehensive, community-based, participatory and equitablesystem. The aim of this module is to enhance the measurement skillsrequired to achieve these Public Health objectives.!"#$%&()*+Design & layout: Cheryl Ontong
  4. 4. CONTENTS I MODULE INTRODUCTION PAGE1. LETTER OF WELCOME 12 INFORMATION ABOUT THIS MODULE 32.1 Module Aims and Rationale 32.2 Module Outline 32.3 Learning Outcomes 32.4 Texts and References 42.5 Module Evaluation 53 ASSESSMENT 53.1 Information about the Assignments 53.2 Assignments and assessment criteria for Alcohol 5 Problems: A Health Promotion Approach II STUDY SESSIONS 13UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION: ALCOHOL ORIGINS AND USE 13Session 1 Alcohol: Origins of Use, and Value as a 15 Commodity.Session 2 Patterns of Consumption. 23Session 3 The Theories of Alcohol Use and Addiction. 39UNIT 2 CONSEQUENCES AND APPROACHES TO 47 ALCOHOL PROBLEMSSession 1 The Consequences of Alcohol Use. 49Session 2 Different Approaches to Alcohol Problems. 57Session 3 The Range of Interventions. 63UNIT 3 POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INTERVENTIONS 69Session 1 Control through Policy. 71Session 2 Environmental Changes. 83Session 3 Multifaceted Integrated Programmes. 91UNIT 4 ALCOHOL AND THE INDIVIDUAL 103Session 1 Alcohol Education. 105Session 2 Early Intervention. 111Session 3 Rehabilitation 117
  5. 5. I MODULE INTRODUCTION1 LETTER OF WELCOME School of Public Health (SOPH) University of the Western Cape Private Bag X17 Bellville 7535 South AfricaDear colleague,Welcome to the ‘Alcohol Problems: A Health Promotion Approach’ module.Since alcohol abuse can have negative consequences for individuals, familiesand the wider society, it constitutes an important public health issue.Unfortunately it is not as straightforward to deal with on a policy andeducational level as other tobacco, because alcohol can be used with noharmful effect if used responsibly. In developing countries it is still a neglectedproblem in terms of prevention and rehabilitation, with few resources allocatedto law enforcement, awareness raising, and training of service providers andpolicy makers.We have purposely introduced the history of the use of alcohol in SouthernAfrica at the beginning of the module, as the history has important socio-political, economic and behavioural influences on current patterns of alcoholuse.The module will help you to develop an understanding of the variousconsequences of alcohol abuse and of the research processes used tomeasure this. The rest of the module will provide you with approaches topreventing alcohol problems, ranging from policy and environmental changesto educational and rehabilitation programmes. Some of the readings werechosen to illustrate the main concepts of the module using the followingthemes: youth, women, and foetal alcohol syndrome.We hope that you will be equipped to assess alcohol problems in thecommunities in which you work and live, and have some realistic ideas oninitiatives involving people in taking control of alcohol sales and consumption.This is normally demonstrated through the two assignments that are requiredto be done for this module.We hope that you find the module interesting and that you will be an advocatefor putting alcohol problems higher on the public health agenda locally andnationally. SOPH, UWC: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach - Module Introduction 1
  6. 6. We would greatly value your feedback on how you found the experience ofcompleting the Module. You can let off steam and reflect on what you havegained from this experience, while letting us know how we could have madethe study experience easier and more useful for you. For your convenience,please use the Module Evaluation Form located on this site. We suggest youcomplete the Evaluation Form soon after you complete the module.SincerelyKirstie Rendall-MkosiModule Convenor2 SOPH, UWC: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach - Module Introduction
  7. 7. 2 INFORMATION ABOUT THIS MODULE2.1 Module Aims and RationaleThis module is designed to address the following issues: The history of the use of alcohol, focusing on developing countries; How the burden of disease/injury and social problems relates to alcohol; The concepts of responsible drinking, risky drinking, and dependent drinking; The different approaches that can inform health promotion strategies to reduce alcohol related problems; Planning interventions on a policy, environmental and individual basis; Community based programme planning and development using the Ottawa Charter as a framework.2.2 Module OutlineThe module consists of four units, each of which is divided into three studysessions.Study sessions vary in length, and may take between five and six hours tocomplete. The four units are as follows:Unit 1 - Alcohol Origins and Use.Unit 2 - Consequences and Approaches to Alcohol Problems.Unit 3 - Policy and Environmental Interventions.Unit 4 - Alcohol and the Individual.2.3 Learning OutcomesThis module is intended to assist you in further developing the following skillsand knowledge. By the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to: Develop tools for planning, monitoring and evaluating alcohol interventions. Discuss the shifts in patterns of alcohol use in South Africa, in relation to socio- political and cultural factors. Contrast the benefits and harmful effects of alcohol, particularly in developing contexts. Identify and interrogate measures used in collecting alcohol related data and the factors which affect them. SOPH, UWC: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach - Module Introduction 3
  8. 8. Use these measures critically to identify patterns of use. Explain and apply different explanations and theories of alcohol use, addiction and dependence, and how these theories influence prevention and treatment approaches. Describe and contrast the Harm Reduction and the traditional Preventive approaches to alcohol problems and their range of relevant strategies. Describe the range, requirements and uses of multifaceted integrated programmes in the control of alcohol problems. Show a critical understanding of the role of different agencies (such as government, media and community involvement) in alcohol intervention. Describe ways in which policy can be used to control the use, marketing, cost, availability and contents of alcohol. Describe and assess the concept and technique of the Brief Interventions strategy to alcohol intervention and assess the requirements for making the intervention succeed.2.4 Texts and ReferencesParry, C.D.H., & Bennetts, A.L. (1998). Alcohol Policy and Public Health in SouthAfrica. Cape Town: Oxford University PressYou will also be expected to pursue relevant current literature and additionalresource material as required for your assignment tasks. The School ofPublic Health provides students with a Reader of just over 400 pages, whichcontains the required readings for the module, but not the readings listedunder Further Readings at the end of each session. SOPH pays for copyrightfor these Readers per student and therefore cannot offer the Reader as anOER.Relevant websitesThe following websites may be helpful to you in the course of this module:Web Address Organisation / documentwww.mrc.ac.za/adarg/adarg.ht Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Group –m Medical Research Council. Can download recent publications.http://wn.apc.org/sanca/ South African National Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Resource centre in Milpark, Johannesburg.www.CDA.gov.za Central Drug Authority. Responsible for implementation of National Drug Master Plan.www.niaaa.nih.gov/ National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism – part of the National Institutes of Health in the USA. Range of resources.www.adca.org.au/ Alcohol and other Drugs Council of Australia – NGO representing alcohol and other drugs field.www.alcohol.org.nz/ Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand4 SOPH, UWC: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach - Module Introduction
  9. 9. www.ccsa.ca Canadian Centre on Substance Abusewww.ias.org.uk Institute of Alcohol Studieswww.cad.org.za Christian Action for Dependents in South Africawww.alcoholicsanonymous.or Alcoholics Anonymous in South Africag.zawww.fasworld.com National Organisation on FAS in Canada2.5 Module EvaluationWhen you come to end of the module, we would be grateful if you couldprovide us with feedback on how you found the experience – what was goodabout it, as well as things you would like to see changed. A link to theevaluation form is located on the webpage menu. This feedback will assist usin revising the module, planning future modules and providing students withappropriate support.3 ASSESSMENT3.1 Information about AssessmentThere are TWO compulsory assignments in the module.The modules are weighted as follows:Assignment 1: 40%Assignment 2: 60%To pass the module: You are required to pass both assignments with a minimum of 50%. You must have a minimum aggregate of 50% or more for the module. If you get below 50% in Assignment 1, you may repeat it once only. If you do not pass it second time around, you cannot proceed to Assignment 2 and must repeat the module. If you do not achieve 50% in Assignment 2, you repeat the entire module the following year.3.2 Assignments for Alcohol Problems: A Health Promotion Approach ASSIGNMENT 1: A Comparison of Two Approaches to Alcohol Problems (100 marks; length: 2 500 words) (40% of module result)Compare “reduction in consumption” and “harm reduction” - the two mainapproaches to reducing alcohol related problems at a population level.Discuss the theoretical origins and main principles of the two approaches.Describe a concrete example of each approach in action, from the literature. SOPH, UWC: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach - Module Introduction 5
  10. 10. Then, briefly describe a local setting where drinking takes place and argue forthe use of either one of the two approaches in implementing one specificstrategy, giving reasons for the choice. Marking Criteria: Assignment 1 Marks Assignment has a logical structure & is written in an academic style. 10 The approaches and their theoretical origins are clearly distinguished. 30 Appropriate examples are presented. 10 Reasons for choice of approach and strategy are convincingly argued. 30 Insight and creativity is evident. 10 Referencing and Reference List/Bibliography are presented in a recognised 10 academic format. Total 100 ASSIGNMENT 2: Plan an Intervention for Alcohol Problems (100 marks; length: 2 500 words) (60% of module result)Plan a range of appropriate interventions to reduce alcohol related harm for aspecific target group or risky setting in the area where you live or work.Address the following issues in the discussion of your plan:a) The community group or setting.b) Evidence of alcohol related problem/s in terms of patterns of alcohol use, the social dynamics involved, and the consequences of alcohol abuse.c) Describe and justify key interventions at a policy, environmental and personal level that could realistically reduce the risks in this setting.Assignment 2: Marking Criteria Marking Criteria: Assignment 2 Marks Assignment has a logical structure & is written in an academic style. 10 Sound description and analysis of drinking patterns and consequences. 20 Scope, appropriateness to setting and creativity of interventions is evident. 30 Rationale for choices of interventions convincingly argued. 20 Appropriate structures and role players are included in the intervention 10 strategies. Referencing and Reference List/Bibliography are presented in a recognised 10 academic format. Total 1006 SOPH, UWC: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach - Module Introduction
  11. 11. Pages 7-12 have been removed from this version.
  12. 12. !"#$% & ! Introduction: Alcohol Origins and UseIntroduction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here are three Study Sessions in this unit:9(.0=!9#--+&/!A?!:$%&)&$?!B,+5+/-!&*!C-#1!3/0!D3$.#!3-!3!E&&0+(=;!!9(.0=!9#--+&/!F?!G3((#,/-!&*!E&/-.6(+&/;!!9(.0=!9#--+&/!H?!<)#!<)#&,+#-!&*!:$%&)&$!C-#!3/0!:00+%(+&/;!!!I/!9#--+&/!A1!2#!#76$&,#!()#!)+-(&,=!&*!3$%&)&$!.-#!3/0!6,&0.%(+&/!+/!%&$&/+3$!3/0!6&-(J%&$&/+3$!9&.()#,/!:*,+%31!()#!-&%+&J6&$+(+%3$!3/0!%.$(.,3$!+/*$.#/%#-!&/!()#!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!+/!0#K#$&6+/5!%&./(,+#-1!3/0!()#!+63%(!&*!+/0.-(,+3$+-+/5!3$%&)&$!6,&0.%(+&/!+/!()#-#!%&/(#7(-;!!9#--+&/!F!6,&K+0#-!3/!&K#,K+#2!&*!()#!%&/%#6(-!3/0!#3-.,#-!.-#0!+/!,#-#3,%)+/5!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-1!3/0!-(,#--#-!()#!+6&,(3/%#!&*!./0#,-(3/0+/5!-&%+3$!3/0!%.$(.,3$!63((#,/-!&*!3$%&)&$!.-35#;!!!9#--+&/!H!*&%.-#-!&/!()#!()#&,+#-!&*!3$%&)&$!.-#!3/0!)#3$()!4#)3K+&.,1!3/0!#76$&,#-!)&2!&/#L-!&0#$!&*!./0#,-(3/0+/5!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-!+/*$.#/%#-!()#!+/(#,K#/(+&/!-(,3(#5+#-!&/#!+-!$+8#$=!(&!%)&&-#;!! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 13
  13. 13. INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES OF UNIT 1 By the end of this unit, you should be able to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asters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  14. 14. Unit 1 - Session 1Alcohol: Origins of Use, &Value as a CommodityIntroduction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hat political and economic roles has alcohol played, then and now?!!!!Contents!A! R#3,/+/5!&.(%&#-!&*!()+-!-#--+&/!F! >#30+/5-!!H! <)#!&,+5+/-!&*!()#!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!S! :$%&)&$!3-!3!%&&0+(=!T! 9#--+&/!-.3,=!U!! V.,()#,!,#30+/5!Timing of this session<)+-!-#--+&/!,#@.+,#-!=&.!(&!%&6$#(#!(),##!-.4-(3/(+3$!,#30+/5-!(&(3$$+/5!US!635#-!3/0!(),##!(3-8-;!I(!-)&.$0!(38#!=&.!34&.(!*&.,!)&.,-!(&!%&6$#(#;! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 15
  15. 15. 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THIS SESSION By the end of this session, you should be able to: ! M+-%.--!-)+*(-!+/!3$%&)&$!.-#!+/!9&.()#,/!:*,+%3!+/!,#$3(+&/!(&!-&%+&J6&$+(+%3$! *&,%#-; ! N76$3+/!()#!6,&0.%(+&/!3/0!%&/-.6(+&/!&*!3$%&)&$!3-!3/!#%&/&+%!3%(+K+(=;!2 READINGS !!W&.!2+$$!4#!,#*#,,#0!(&!()#!*&$$&2+/5!,#30+/5-!+/!()#!%&.,-#!&*!()+-!-#--+&/; Author/s Publication details Page numbers in Reader >&&1!>;1! ^FQQF_;!E)!F!J!M,+/8+/5!+/!M#K#$&6+/5! 339-348 X#,/+53/1!M;1! 9&%+#(+#-?!<)#!N%&/&+%1!9&%+3$!3/0!E.$(.,3$! E3,$+/+JY3,$3((1!Z;1! E&/(#7(;!I/!Alcohol in Developing Societies: A [.,##1!B;1!Y38#$31! Public Health Approach.!O#$-+/8+?!V+//+-)! ];1!Y3,-)3$$1!Y;! V&./03(+&/!*&,!:$%&)&$!9(.0+#-!+/! Y#0+/3!Y&,31!Y;1! %&$$34&,3(+&/!2+()!()#!"OB?!FAJHU;! Y&/(#+,&1!Y;1!G3,,=1! E;1!G3(3/#/1!X;1! >+$#=1!R;1!937#/31! 9;! :4$#,1!E;!`! ^AaaF_; E)!A!J!:$%&)&$!+/!9&.()#,/!:*,+%3/! 1-18 E,.-)1!X;!! R34&,!O+-(&,=;!I/!X;!E,.-)!`!E;!:4$#,!^#0-_;! Liquor and Labor in Southern Africa.! G+#(#,3,+(b4.,5?!C/+K#,-+(=!&*!c3(3$!G,#--?!AJ HT;!! X#,/+53/1!M;!O;! ^Aaaa_;!E)!a!J!E&./(,=!G,&*+$#!&/!:$%&)&$!+/! 167-178 d+4342#;!I/ R; >+$#=!`!Y;!Y3,-)3$$!^#0-;_;! Alcohol and Public Health in 8 Developing Countries.![#/#K3?!"OB?!ATeJAeT;!16 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  16. 16. 3 THE ORIGINS OF THE USE OF ALCOHOLI/!&,0#,!(&!./0#,-(3/0!()#!%&6$#7+(+#-!&*!()#!#3/+/5!3/0!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!+/!()#!2&,$0!(&03=1!2#!/##0!(&!(,3%#!+(-!&,+5+/!3/0!()#!+/*$.#/%#-!&/!+(-!.-#;!:$%&)&$!+-!/&!&,0+/3,=!%&&0+(=!$+8#!+$8!&,!4,#30?!4#%3.-#!&*!+(-!psychoactive!6,&6#,(+#-1!+;#;!()3(!+(!3**#%(-!()#!4,3+/!3/0!+/*$.#/%#-!4#)3K+&.,1!+(!)3-!4##/!#**#%(+K#$=!.-#0!3/0!34.-#0!3%,&--!&-(!-&%+#(+#-!+/!()#!2&,$0;!!!Z#*&,#!=&.!-(3,(!,#30+/51!+(!3=!4#!+/(#,#-(+/5!(&!,#*$#%(!&/!=&.,!&2/!*3+$=L-!K3$.#-!3/0!#76#,+#/%#!^)+-(&,+%3$!3/0!%.$(.,3$_!&*!3$%&)&$!4=!0&+/5!<3-8!A;!!! TASK 1 – Tracing alcohol use in your family!! <)+/8!&*!=&.,!5,3/063,#/(-!&,!2)3(!=&.!8/&2!&*!=&.,!5,#3(!5,3/063,#/(-!+/!()#!$3(#!! APQQ-!3/0!#3,$=!AaQQ-;!!! 3_! M&!=&.!8/&2!2)3(!/&,-!3/0!K3$.#-!-.,,&./0#0!()#!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!+/!()#+,!! (+#i!!! 4_! "#,#!/&,-!^$+8#!35#1!5#/0#,1!(+#!3/0!6$3%#!&*!0,+/8+/5_!+/*$.#/%#0!4=!*3%(&,-!! &.(-+0#!&*!()#+,!+#0+3(#!%&./+(=1!&,!0+0!()#=!*&$$&2!()#+,!(,30+(+&/-!&/$=i!!! %_! ")3(!23-!()#!0,+/8!&*!%)&+%#i!")&!6,&0.%#0!+(!3/0!)&2!23-!+(!0+-(,+4.(#0i!! 0_! c&2!()+/8!&*!=&.,!%.,,#/(!*3+$=!3/0!3/-2#,!()#!-3#!@.#-(+&/-!*&,!()#!6,#-#/(!! -+(.3(+&/1!4#*&,#!&K+/5!&/!(&!@.#-(+&/!^#_;!! #_! ")3(!3+/!*3%(&,-!)3K#!,#-.$(#0!+/!%)3/5#-!+/!3$%&)&$!%&/-.6(+&/!%&63,#0!! (&!AQQ!=#3,-!35&i!!!c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lcohol in Developing Societies: A! Public Health Approach.!O#$-+/8+?!V+//+-)!V&./03(+&/!*&,!:$%&)&$!9(.0+#-!+/!! %&$$34&,3(+&/!2+()!()#!"OB?!FAJHU;!9##!66HHaJHSP!+/!()#!>#30#,;!!!V&,!()&-#!&*!=&.!2&,8+/5!+/!0#K#$&6+/5!%&/(#7(-1!()#!,#30+/5!-.55#-(-!()3(!()#!%&/(#7(.3$!3-6#%(-!&*!3$%&)&$!.-35#!/##0!(&!4#!2#$$!./0#,-(&&01!3/0!-#/-+(+K#$=!)3/0$#0!+/!()#!6&-(J%&$&/+3$!#,3;!!>&&!#(!3$!#6)3-+-#!()#!)+-(&,+%3$!$+/8-!4#(2##/!3$%&)&$!3/0!6&$+(+%3$!%&/(,&$!&*!5,&.6-!&*!6#&6$#!+/!%&$&/+3$!9&.()#,/!:*,+%3;!f:$%&)&$+%!4#K#,35#-!2#,#!g!%&&/$=!.-#0!3-!3!%&$&/+b+/5!*&,%#!(&!3((,3%(1!63=1!#/(#,(3+/!3/0!%&/(,&$!+/0+5#/&.-!$34&.,#,-h!^>&&!#(!3$1!FQQF?!FS_;!O&2#K#,1!+(!+-!3$-&!-+5/+*+%3/(! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 17
  17. 17. ()3(!)+-(&,+%3$$=1!3$%&)&$!*&$$&2#0!()#!-3#!63((#,/!&*!+/0.-(,+3$+-3(+&/!3-!&-(!&()#,!%&&0+(+#-!3/0!()3(!%&$&/+#-!2#,#!fg!(.,/#0!+/(&!3,8#(-!*&,!3$%&)&$+%!4#K#,35#-!gh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`!E,.-)!^AaaF_!(,3%#-!()#!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!+/!6,#J%&$&/+3$!:*,+%3!3/0!N.,&6#1!3/0!0#-%,+4#-!()#!%&/K#,5#/%#!&*!()#!(2&!0.,+/5!()#!%&$&/+3$!#,3!+/!()#!Aa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– Consider the impact of the control of alcohol on our society ! :-!=&.!,#30!()+-!%)36(#,1!(38#!/&(#-!&/!()#!#**#%(!()3(!63-(!%&/(,&$!&*!3%%#--!3/0!!-3$#!&*!$+@.&,!)3-!)30!&/!9&.()#,/!:*,+%3/!-&%+#(+#-!(&03=;!!! READING:!:4$#,1!E;!`!E,.-)1!X;!^AaaF). E)!A!J!:$%&)&$!+/!9&.()#,/!:*,+%3/!R34&,! O+-(&,=;!I/!X;!E,.-)!`!E;!:4$#,!^#0-_;!Liquor and Labor in Southern Africa. G+#(#,3,+(b4.,5?!C/+K#,-+(=!&*!c3(3$!G,#--?!SJHT;!9##!66!AJAP!+/!()#!>#30#,;!!I/!9&.()#,/!:*,+%3!(&03=1!+(!+-!%$#3,!()3(!(,30+(+&/3$!/&,-!&/!()#!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!)3K#!$3,5#$=!4##/!#,&0#0;!<)+-!+-!+0#/(+*+#0!3-!&/#!&*!()#!3/=!,#3-&/-!*&,!+/%,#3-#0!%&/-.6(+&/!&*!3$%&)&$1!#-6#%+3$$=!+/!.,43/!3,#3-;!I/!()+-!,#53,01!()+/8!&*!2)&!6,&0.%#-!3/0!-#$$-!2)3(!3$%&)&$1!3/0!()#!#7(#/(!&*!#%&/&+%!53+/-?!+/!&()#,!2&,0-1!2)&!4#/#*+(-!*,&!()#!+/%,#3-#0!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!(&03=i!!!18 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
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d+4342#;!B()#,!%&./(,+#-!)3K#!3!*#2!$3,5#!%&#,%+3$!%&63/+#-!6,&0.%+/5!3/0!-#$$+/5!$+@.&,1!2)+%)!3,#!0+,#%($=!(37#0!&/!()#+,!-3$#-;!<)#-#!&6#,3(#!3$&/5-+0#!3/0!+/(#,3%(!2+()!3/=!./,#5.$3(#0!-3$$!&.($#(-1!-.%)!3-!+/!9&.()!:*,+%3!3/0!c+5#,+31!2)#,#!+(!+-!0+**+%.$(!*&,!()#!5&K#,/#/(!(&!#/-.,#!()3(!(37!+-!63+0;!!!<)#!#%&/&+%-!&*!3$%&)&$!6,&0.%(+&/!3/0!3,8#(+/5!+-!%,+(+%3$!(&!./0#,-(3/0?!<3-8!H!&**#,-!=&.!3!%)3/%#!(&!%&/-+0#,!()#!+--.#!+/!=&.,!$&%3$!%&/(#7(!4#*&,#!,#30+/5!34&.(!+(!3(!/3(+&/3$!3/0!5$&43$!$#K#$-;!! TASK 3 – The economic importance of alcohol in your area E&/-+0#,!()#!(&2/!&,!%+(=!+/!2)+%)!=&.!$+K#1!3/0!(,=!(&!$+-(!3$$!()#!0+**#,#/(!8+/0-!&*! 6,&0.%#,-!3/0!-#$$#,-!&*!$+@.&,;!!! ! 3_! ")3(!6,&6&,(+&/!3,#!+/*&,3$!-#$$#,-!3/0!2)3(!6,&6&,(+&/!3,#!*&,3$!-#$$#,-i! 4_! ")#,#!0&!()#=!5#(!()#+,!-(&%8i!I-!+(!4,#2#0!&/!-+(#!&,!+-!+(!4&.5)(!*,&!3! 2)&$#-3$#,i! %_! M&!=&.!8/&2!2)&!&2/-!()#!2)&$#-3$#,!3/0!2)#,#!()#!K3,+&.-!$+@.&,-!3,#! 6,&0.%#0i!I*!/&(1!(,=!(&!*+/0!&.(;! 0_! ")3(!3,#!()#!/.4#,-!&*!6#&6$#!4#/#*+(+/5!*,&!()#!6,&0.%(+&/!3/0!-3$#!&*! 3$%&)&$!J!,3/5+/5!*,&!()#!3/35+/5!0+,#%(&,!3/0!-)3,#)&$0#,-!&*!()#!)&$0+/5! %&63/=1!(&!()#!-)#4##/!&2/#,i! #_! ")3(!+-!()#!5#&5,36)+%3$!-6,#30!&*!$+@.&,!&.($#(-i!:,#!()#,#!&,#!+/!2&,8+/5! %$3--!3,#3-!()3/!+/!+00$#!%$3--!3,#3-1!&,!$#--i! *_! ")3(!0&!=&.!%&/%$.0#!34&.(!()#!+6&,(3/%#!&*!3$%&)&$!3-!3!%&&0+(=!+/!=&.,! 3,#3i! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 19
  19. 19. <)#,#!+-!./*&,(./3(#$=!3!$3%8!&*!,#-#3,%)!3/0!&/5&+/5!-.,K#+$$3/%#!03(3!(&!%&/*+0#/($=!0#-%,+4#!3$%&)&$!6,&0.%(+&/1!%&/-.6(+&/!3/0!!%&/-#@.#/%#-!+/!9&.()#,/!:*,+%3/!%&./(,+#-;!<)+-!+/%$.0#-!9&.()!:*,+%3!2)+%)!+-!,3/8#0!3-!3!+00$#J+/%&#!%&./(,=!3/0!()#,#*&,#!%&.$0!4#!K+#2#0!3-!&,#!34$#!(&!&/+(&,!3/0!%&/(,&$!+--.#-!3,&./0!3$%&)&$;!C/0#,-(3/034$=!d+4342#1!3!$&2J+/%&#!%&./(,=!2+()!3!$#53%=!&*!6&$+(+%3$!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!-++$3,!(&!9&.()!:*,+%31!*3%#-!3/=!&,#!-#,+&.-!%)3$$#/5#-!()3/!()#!%&/(,&$!&*!3$%&)&$;!!!<)#!/#7(!,#30+/5!4=!X#,/+53/!^Aaaa_!)+5)$+5)(-!()#!0+$#3-!&*!d+4342#!2+()!,#53,0!(&!3$%&)&$;!R+4#,3$+-3(+&/!&*!()#!3,8#(!#%&/&=1!./0#,!6,#--.,#!*,&!()#!I/(#,/3(+&/3$!Y&/#(3,=!V./0!^IYV_!3/0!"&,$0!Z3/81!)3-!,#-.$(#0!-+.$(3/#&.-$=!+/!+/%,#3-#0!6,&0.%(+&/!3/0!30K#,(+-+/5!&*!3$%&)&$1!3/0!,#0.%#0!%&/(,&$-!&/!-3$#-1!#-6#%+3$$=!+/!()#!,.,3$!3,#3-;!<)#!3,(+%$#!3$-&!0#-%,+4#-!()#!&/&6&$=!()3(!#7+-(-!&/!(,30+(+&/3$!3/0!/&/J(,30+(+&/3$!3$%&)&$+%!4#K#,35#-!3/0!()#!,#$3(+&/-)+6!&*!()#-#!(&!()#!5&K#,/#/(!&*!d+4342#1!3/0!(&!()#!9&.()!:*,+%3/!&/&6&$+#-;!! READING? X#,/+53/1!M;O;!^Aaaa_;!E)!a!!J!E&./(,=!G,&*+$#!&/!:$%&)&$!+/!d+4342#;! I/!R;!>+$#=!`!Y;!Y3,-)3$$!^#0-;_;!Alcohol and Public Health in 8 Developing Countries. [#/#K3? "OB? ATeJAeT; 9## 66AUeJAeP +/ ()# >#30#,;!X#,/+53/!366$+#-!)+-!%&/%$.-+&/-!(&!0#K#$&6+/5!%&./(,+#-!+/!5#/#,3$1!#6)3-+-+/5!()#!/##0!*&,!fg!&/+(&,+/51!,#-#3,%)!3/0!#7%)3/5#!&*!#76#,+#/%#!,#53,0+/5!3$%&)&$!6&$+%+#-!+/!0#K#$&6+/5!%&./(,=!%&/(#7(-;!g!"+()&.(!()+-!j)#!%&/%$.0#-k1!()#,#!+-!3!-(,&/5!%)3/%#!()3(1!3-!+/!d+4342#1!3$%&)&$!2+$$!4#!$#*(!(&!()#!3,8#(!(&!,#5.$3(#h!^X#,/+53/1!Aaaa?!Ae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asters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  20. 20. 6 FURTHER READING! ! Y35#,1!:;!^Aaaa_;!<)#!V+,-(!M#%30#!&*!fN.,&6#3/!Z##,h!+/!:63,()#+0!9&.()! :*,+%3?!<)#!9(3(#1!()#!Z,#2#,-!3/0!()#!M,+/8+/5!G.4$+%1!AaUFJeF. Journal of African History,!SQ?!HUeJHPP;!! ! O32&,()1!:;!`!:%.031!9;!";!^AaaP_;!9.4J93)3,3/!:*,+%3;!I/!Y;![,3/(!^#0;_;! Alcohol and Emerging Markets. Patterns, Problems and Responses.!C9:;! I/(#,/3(+&/3$!E#/(,#!*&,!:$%&)&$!G&$+%+#-?!AaJTU;!! ! >+$#=1!R;!`!Y!Y3,-)3$$;!^Aaaa_;!E&./(,=!G,&*+$#!&/!:$%&)&$!+/!9&.()!:*,+%3;! I/!Alcohol and Public Health in 8 Developing Countries;!![#/#K3?!"OB?! AHTJATU;! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 21
  21. 21. 22 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  22. 22. Unit 1 - Session 2Patterns of ConsumptionIntroduction!I/!()#!*+,-(!-#--+&/1!2#!+/(,&0.%#0!()#!-&%+&J6&$+(+%3$!3/0!#%&/&+%!+--.#-!,#$3(#0!(&!3$%&)&$!6,&0.%(+&/!3/0!%&/-.6(+&/;!I/!()+-!-#--+&/1!()#!*&%.-!+-!&/!%&/-.6(+&/!3/0!63((#,/-!&*!.-35#;!!!:-!=&.!2#$$!8/&21!()#,#!+-!6$#/(=!&*!K3,+3(+&/!+/!()#!%&/-.6(+&/!&*!3$%&)&$!*,&!&/#!6#,-&/!(&!()#!/#7(;!O&2!0&!2#!#3-.,#!3/0!&/+(&,!()#!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!4=!3/!+/0+K+0.3$1!&,!+/!3!5,&.61!3!%&./+(=!&,!3(!3!-&%+#(3$!$#K#$i!")3(!#()&0-!3/0!+/0+%3(&,-!%3/!4#!.-#0!4=!)#3$()!6,&&(#,-!(&!#3-.,#!()#-#!0+**#,#/(!$#K#$-!&*!%&/-.6(+&/1!3/0!2)3(!3,#!-&#!&*!()#!*3%(&,-!()3(!6,&&(#!&,!$++(!3$%&)&$!.-#i!O&6#*.$$=!4=!()#!#/0!&*!()+-!-#--+&/!=&.!2+$$!4#!%$#3,#,!34&.(!()#-#!+--.#-1!3/0!()#!0+$#3-!2#!*3%#!+/!#3-.,+/5!3$%&)&$!.-#;!<)#,#!3,#!3!$&(!&*!(3-8-!+/!()+-!-#--+&/?!(,=!(&!#/535#!2+()!()#1!(&!#/-.,#!()3(!=&.!5,3-6!()#!f#--#/(+3$!(&&$-h!&,!%&/%#6(-!=&.!/##0!*&,!2&,8+/5!+/!()+-!*+#$0;!!Contents!A! R#3,/+/5!&.(%&#-!&*!()+-!-#--+&/!F!! >#30+/5-!H! E&/%#6(-!3/0!#3-.,#-!&*!%&/-.6(+&/!S! I0#/(+*=+/5!63((#,/-!&*!0,+/8+/5!!T! c&,-!*&,!0,+/8+/5!U! 9#--+&/!-.3,=!e!! >#*#,#/%#-!3/0!*.,()#,!,#30+/5!Timing of this session<)+-!-#--+&/!%&/(3+/-!#+5)(!*3+,$=!-)&,(!,#30+/5-!(&(3$$+/5!HF!635#-1!3/0!-+7!(3-8-;!I(!+-!3!K#,=!+6&,(3/(!-#--+&/1!-&!=&.!-)&.$0!2&,8!(),&.5)!+(!()&,&.5)$=;!I(!%&.$0!(38#!=&.!3(!$#3-(!*&.,!)&.,-!(&!%&6$#(#;!1 LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THIS SESSION Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 23
  23. 23. By the end of this session, you should be able to: ! ! N76$3+/!-&#!&*!()#!8#=!(#,-!.-#0!(&!0#-%,+4#!3$%&)&$!%&/-.6(+&/!3/0! 63((#,/-!&*!.-#;! ! I0#/(+*=!3/0!+/(#,,&53(#!#3-.,#-!.-#0!+/!%&$$#%(+/5!3$%&)&$!,#$3(#0!+/*&,3(+&/;! ! M+-%.--!%.$(.,3$!K3,+34$#-!+/!()#!#3-.,##/(!&*!3$%&)&$!%&/-.6(+&/;! ! M#-%,+4#!()#!63((#,/-!&*!.-#!3/0!&()#,!%,+(+%3$!*3%(&,-!2)+%)!6,&&(#!&,!$++(!()#! .-#!&*!3$%&)&$;!2 READINGS !!W&.!2+$$!4#!,#*#,,#0!(&!()#!*&$$&2+/5!,#30+/5-!+/!()#!%&.,-#!&*!()+-!-#--+&/; Author/s Publication details Page numbers in Reader >&%)#1!:;!Y;!`! ^AaaP_;!E)!AH!J!<)#!I6$+%3(+&/-!&*!M,+/8+/5! 315-338 NK3/-1!];!>;! G3((#,/-!*&,!G,+3,=!G,#K#/(+&/1!N0.%3(+&/1! 3/0!9%,##/+/5;!I/!Y;![,3/(!`!R;!R+(K38!^#0-_;! Drinking Patterns and Their Consequences.! C9:?!I/(#,/3(+&/3$!E#/(,#!*&,!:$%&)&$!G&$+%+#-?! FSHJFUT;! G3,,=1!E;M;O;1! ^FQQF_;!:$%&)&$!C-#!+/!9&.()!:*,+%3?!V+/0+/5-! 297-304 Z)3/31!:;1!Y=#,-1! *,&!()#!9&.()!:*,+%3/!E&./+(=! Z;1!G$ 00#3//1! N6+0#+&$&5=!c#(2&,8!&/!M,.5!C-#! V$+-)#,1!:;X;1!#(!3$;! ^9:ENcMC_!G,&#%(;!Journal of Studies on Alcohol1!UH^S_?!SHQJSHT; E$33-#/1!X;!c; ^9#6(;!Aaaa_;!<)#!Z#/#*+(-!&*!()#!E:[N!3-!3! 57-62 9%,##/+/5!<&&$!*&,!:$%&)&$+-!+/!3!E$&-#0! >.,3$!9&.()!:*,+%3/!E&./+(=;!South African Medical Journal,!Pa^a_?!aeUJaea; V$+-)#,1!:;!X;!#(!3$; ^FQQA_;!9.4-(3/%#!C-#!4=!9(.0#/(-!+/!9&.()! 121-130 :*,+%31!<3/b3/+3!3/0!d+4342#;!African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, A^F_?!PAJ ae;!! R&/0&/1!R;1!c#$$1!D;1! ^AaaP_;!O#3$()!9(3(.-!:&/5!V3,!"&,8#,-! 187-194 <)&6-&/1!YJR;!`! +/!()#!"#-(#,/!E36#!l!E&$$3(#,3$!NK+0#/%#! Y=#,-1!X;N; *,&!3!9(.0=!&*!B%%.63(+&/3$!O3b3,0-;!South African Medical Journal,!PP^a_?!AQaUJAAQA;! E,&7*&,01!X;!`! ^9#6(;!Aaaa_;!:$%&)&$!E&/-.6(+&/!4=! 63-68 D+$&#/1!M; G,#5/3/(!"&#/!+/!"#-(#,/!E36#;!South African Medical Journal,!Pa?!aUFJaUT;! Z#//#((1!R;!:;1! ^AaaH_;!Z&./03,+#-!Z#(2##/!c&,3$!3/0! 39-46 X3/%31!:;1![,3/(1!Z;! G3()&$&5+%3$!M,+/8+/5?!:!E,&--JE.$(.,3$! V;!`!93,(&,+.-1!c; E&63,+-&/;!Alcohol Health & Research World, Ae^H_?!AaQJAaT;!24 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  24. 24. O#3()1!M;!Z; ^FQQQ_;!Drinking Occasions: Comparative 149-154 Perspectives on Alcohol and Culture.!C9:;! I/(#,/3(+&/3$!E#/(,#!*&,!:$%&)&$!G&$+%+#-?!AaAJ AaP;!3 CONCEPTS AND MEASURES OF CONSUMPTION!Y#3-.,+/5!()#!%&/-.6(+&/!63((#,/-!&*!3$%&)&$!3(!%&./+(=!&,!%&./(,=2+0#!$#K#$!+-!/&(!3/!#3-=!#7#,%+-#;!:-!0+-%.--#0!+/!9#--+&/!A1!()#!6,&0.%(+&/!3/0!-3$#!&*!3$%&)&$!,3/5#-!*,&!,#5.$3(#0!(&!./,#5.$3(#01!2)+%)!38#-!#3-.,##/(!3(!()#!6&+/(!&*!-3$#!0+**+%.$(;!I/!300+(+&/1!%&/-.6(+&/!63((#,/-!K3,=!%&/-+0#,34$=!*,&!6#,-&/!(&!6#,-&/1!3-!3!,#-.$(!&*!3!=,+30!&*!+/*$.#/%#-;!!<)#!(#,+/&$&5=!.-#0!+/!#3-.,+/5!0,+/8+/5!+/%$.0#-!()#!*&$$&2+/5!%&/%#6(-!3&/5-(!&()#,-?!dependent drinkers1!risky drinking, drinking patterns, regular!3/0!harmful use of alcohol, absolute 3/0 average alcohol content 3/0 drinkingoccasions. "#!2+$$!0+-%.--!()#!.-#!&*!()#-#!%&/%#6(-!+/!()#!%&.,-#!&*!()+-!-#--+&/;!:(!()+-!6&+/(!+(!3=!4#!.-#*.$!(&!0#*+/#!2)3(!2#!#3/!4=!dependent drinking!3/0!risky drinking?! f:$%&)&$!0#6#/0#/%#h!,#*#,-!(&!3!.-#,L-!#76#,+#/%#!&*!(&$#,3/%#!(&! 3$%&)&$1!2+()0,323$!-=6(&-!-.%)!3-!3/!3%.(#!%,3K+/5!*&,!3$%&)&$!3/0! (,#4$+/51!,#$+#*!0,+/8+/5!(&!(38#!323=!()#!2+()0,323$!-=6(&-1!$&--!&*! %&/(,&$1!3/0m&,!%&6.$-+K#!0,+/8+/51!2)+%)!+-!3!%&6#$$+/5!/##0!(&! %&/-.#!3$%&)&$;h!^:#,+%3/!G-=%)+3(,+%!:--&%+3(+&/1!AaaS_!! Risky drinking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wo Models for Measuring Alcohol Usage!I(!)3-!4##/!*&./0!()3(!()#!(&(3$!6#,!%36+(3!+/(38#!&*!3$%&)&$1!&,!#K#/!()#!2##8$=!&,!&/()$=!+/(38#!4=!3/!+/0+K+0.3$1!+-!/&(!3!63,(+%.$3,$=!.-#*.$!#3-.,#!+/!300,#--+/5!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-;!E3/!=&.!()+/8!2)=i!!V3%#0!2+()!3/!+/0+K+0.3$L-!(&(3$!%&/-.6(+&/!&,!#K#/!()#+,!2##8$=!&,!&/()$=!+/(38#1!)&2!%3/!=&.!8/&2!2)#()#,!()#=!3,#!#/535+/5!+/!6,&4$#!0,+/8+/5i!M&!()#=!0,+/8!&-(!&*!()#+,!+/(38#!&K#,!&/#!%&/(+/.&.-!&%%3-+&/!3-!+/!4+/5#!0,+/8+/51!&,!0&!()#=!0,+/8!3!$+(($#!#3%)!03=i!<&(3$!%&/-.6(+&/!+-!#3/+/5$#--! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 25
  25. 25. +/!()+-!%&/(#7(;!:!&,#!#3/+/5*.$!23=!(&!#3-.,#!0,+/8+/5!+-!(&!*&%.-!&/!3/0!#3-.,#!drinking occasions!&,!#K#/(-!2)#/!0,+/8+/5!(38#-!6$3%#1!,3()#,!()3/!#3-.,+/5!(&(3$!+/0+K+0.3$!%&/-.6(+&/;!!!:/&()#,!23=!(&!#3-.,#!3$%&)&$!+/(38#!+-!,#6,#-#/(#0!4=!Y&0#$!:!4#$&2;!O&2!.-#*.$!0&!=&.!()+/8!+(!2&.$0!4#!(&!=&.!+/!3--#--+/5!6,&4$#!0,+/8+/5!+/!3!%&./+(=i!^>##4#,!()3(!()#!-+5/+*+%3/%#!&*!3!&0#$!+-!()3(!+(!,#6,#-#/(-!()#!23=!2#!./0#,-(3/0!-&#()+/5?!+(!()#,#*&,#!+/*$.#/%#-!()#!+/(#,K#/(+&/-!2#!6,&6&-#;_!Y&0#$!:!+-!&*(#/!.-#0!(&!#$.%+03(#!0,+/8+/5?!+(!+-!3!%&/(+/..!-(,#(%)+/5!*,&!Non-use!(&!Harmful use. <)#!-%3$#!+6$+#-!$+(($#!&,!/&!+/(38#!&/!()#!$#*(!3/0!)#3K=!.-35#!&/!()#!,+5)(;!!Model A!A Model of Alcohol Usage!!!!!!!!!!!!!!c&/J.-#!!!!!! N76#,+#/(3$!.-#!!!!!! B%%3-+&/3$!.-#!! >#5.$3,!.-#!!!! O3,*.$!.-#!!^The Public Health Bush Book1!Aaaa?A;TH_!!!I/!()+-!&0#$1!()#!%&/(+/..!+-!43-#0!&/!()#!3--.6(+&/!()3(!2#!%3/!+0#/(+*=!6#&6$#L-!3K#,35#!%&/-.6(+&/!3/0!$&%3(#!()#!&/!()#!%&/(+/..;!<)#!&0#$!3$-&!+6$+#-!()3(!Harmful use!+-!&/#!-(35#!&,#!-#,+&.-!()3/!Regular use1!+6$=+/5!()3(!&/$=!K#,=!*,#@.#/(!.-#!&,!0#6#/0#/%#!3,#!()#!6,&4$#!3,#3-;!!!TASK 1 – Analyse a model of alcohol consumption!")=!0&!=&.!()+/8!Y&0#$!:!+-!6,&4$#3(+%!3-!3!(&&$!*&,!+0#/(+*=+/5!,+-8=!0,+/8+/5!+/!3!%&./+(=i!!!FEEDBACK!!!<)+-!&0#$!+-!@.#-(+&/34$#1!4#%3.-#!+(!#@.3(#-!0,+/8+/5!3(!()#!harmful $#K#$1!^+;#;!0,+/8+/5!2)+%)!%&.$0!,#-.$(!+/!6,&4$#-_!2+()!)+5)!%&/-.6(+&/!&,!dependent drinking;!I/!*3%(!3/=!6#&6$#!2)&!.-#!3$%&)&$!&%%3-+&/3$$=!&,!#76#,+#/(3$$=1!0&!-&!+/!3!)3,*.$!23=1!6#,)36-!+/!3!4+/5#!*3-)+&/;!I/!300+(+&/1!()#,#!3,#!3/=!&,#!,+-8=!0,+/8#,-!()3/!0#6#/0#/(!0,+/8#,-1!3/0!()#!0#6#/0#/(!0,+/8#,-!3,#!&,#!$+8#$=!(&!6,3%(+-#!)3,!+/++-3(+&/!-(,3(#5+#-;!I*!()+-!&0#$!2#,#!(&!4#!.-#0!+/!+-&$3(+&/!(&!./0#,-(3/0!3!-+(.3(+&/!&*!3$%&)&$!%&/-.6(+&/1!+(!+-!$+8#$=!()3(!+/(#,K#/(+&/-!2&.$0!(3,5#(!()#!Regular users!+/!63,(+%.$3,1!(&!6,#K#/(!()#!*,&!,#3%)+/5!()#!Harmful use!#/0!&*!()#!%&/(+/..;!<)+-!-.55#-(-!()3(!()#,#!2&.$0!4#!$+(($#!&,!/&!*&%.-!&/!()#!4,&30!,3/5#!&*!0,+/8#,-1!/&,!&/!&%%3-+&/3$!&,!#76#,+#/(3$!4+/5#!0,+/8#,-1!/&,!&/!()#!-6#%+*+%!&%%3-+&/-!&*!0,+/8+/5;!9.%)!+/(#,K#/(+&/-!2&.$0!&/$=!(3,5#(!3!26 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  26. 26. -3$$!/.4#,!&*!6#&6$#!,3()#,!()3/!()#!&%%3-+&/-!2)#/!6#&6$#!*,&!3%,&--!()#!-6#%(,.!+/0.$5#!+/!,+-8=!0,+/8+/5;!!<).-!*3,!2#!)3K#!/&(#0!()3(!/#+()#,!(&(3$!/&,!3K#,35#!%&/-.6(+&/!3,#!63,(+%.$3,$=!)#$6*.$!+/!+0#/(+*=+/5!6,&4$#!&,!)3,*.$!0,+/8+/51!2)+%)!+-!2)3(!2#!3,#!3+/$=!+/(#,#-(#0!+/;!<)+-!&0#$!+-!()#,#*&,#!/&(!()3(!)#$6*.$;!!Model B:!&,#!,#%#/(!&0#$!0+-%.--#0!4=!>&%)#!`!NK3/-!^AaaP_!+/!()#!,#30+/5!#/(+&/#0!4#$&2!30K&%3(#-!3!-)+*(!323=!*,&!3!*&%.-!&/!3K#,35#!%&/-.6(+&/1!(&!3!*&%.-!&/!drinking patterns 3/0!()#!,+-8-!+/K&$K#0!+/!-&#!&*!()#;!<)#!%&/%#6(!&*!3!drinking pattern!+6$+#-!0#-%,+4+/5!()#!3&./(1!,#5.$3,+(=!3/0!%&/(#7(!+/!2)+%)!3$%&)&$!+-!.-#01!2)+$#!drinking occasions 3,#!()&-#!#K#/(-!0.,+/5!2)+%)!3$%&)&$!+-!.-#0!f+/!&/#!-+((+/5h;!I/!.-+/5!()+-!&0#$1!&.,!+/(#,K#/(+&/-!2&.$0!3+!(&!,#0.%#!()#!6&(#/(+3$!)3,!&*!drinkingoccasions,!,#53,0$#--!&*!()#!+/0+K+0.3$L-!3K#,35#!&,!(&(3$!+/(38#1!3/0!(&!6,&&(#!()#!4#/#*+%+3$!3-6#%(-!&*!$&2!$#K#$-!&*!-&%+3$!0,+/8+/5!+/!3!-3*#!#/K+,&/#/(;!!!<&!3--+-(!=&.!+/!,#30+/5!()#!636#,!2+()!*&%.-1!(,=!<3-8!F;!<)#!636#,!%&K#,-!&,#!()3/!2#!3,#!6,#-#/($=!300,#--+/5!+/!()+-!-#--+&/1!4.(!=&.!2+$$!3$-&!*+/0!+(!)#$6*.$!2)#/!=&.!-(3,(!=&.,!*+,-(!3--+5/#/(n!-&!,##4#,!(&!,#(.,/!(&!+(;!!!V&%.-!&/!()#!#+5)(!%&/%#6(.3$!-)+*(-!()3(!)3K#!+/*$.#/%#0!()#!23=!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-!3,#!300,#--#01!3-!2#$$!3-!&/!()#!0+-%.--+&/!&*!fE&/(#7(.3$!I--.#-h;!<38#!/&(#!&*!<34$#!AH;A!&/!635#!FSa1!+/!2)+%)!()#!3.()&,-!0#-%,+4#!(),##!$#K#$-!&*!6#,-6#%(+K#!&/!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-?!()#+,!&0#$!*&%.-#-!&/!()#!meso &,!+00$#!$#K#$!6#,-6#%(+K#;!<)+-!6#,-6#%(+K#!+6$+#-!()3(!&/#!-)&.$0!fj*k&%.-!&/!63,(+%.$3,!#6+-&0#-!&*!0,+/8+/5!+/!2)+%)!+/0+K+0.3$-!&,!%&./+(=!3,#!)3,#0!&,!6$3%#0!3(!,+-8h!^>&%)#!`!NK3/-1!AaaP?!FSa_;!<)#!-#%(+&/!&/!f<)#!E&/(+/.3!&*!>+-8h!6,#-#/(-!()#+,!&0#$1!2)+%)!+-!-##/!3-!f3$(#,/3(+K#!&,!%&6$##/(3,=h!(&!()#!(,30+(+&/3$!&0#$!^>&%)#!`!NK3/-1!AaaP?!FTS_;!!!!>&%)#1!:;!Y;!`!NK3/-1!];!>;!^AaaP_;!E)!AH!J!<)#!I6$+%3(+&/-!&*!M,+/8+/5!G3((#,/-!*&,!G,+3,=!G,#K#/(+&/1!N0.%3(+&/1!3/0!9%,##/+/5;!I/!Y;![,3/(!`!R;!R+(K38!^#0-_;!Drinking Patterns andTheir Consequences.!C9:?!I/(#,/3(+&/3$!E#/(,#!*&,!:$%&)&$!G&$+%+#-?!FSHJFUT;!9##!66!HATJHHP!+/!()#!>#30#,;!!! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 27
  27. 27. ! Task 2 – Using a complementary model to measure alcohol problems ! ! 3_! 9.3,+-#!()#!%&/%#6(.3$!-)+*(-!+/!0#-%,+4+/5!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-!2)+%)!3,#! %&K#,#0!+/!()+-!636#,?!2)3(!0&#-!#3%)!+6$=!34&.(!()#!03(3!2#!%&$$#%(!(&! 0#-%,+4#!&,!#3-.,#!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-i!! 4_! ")3(!0&!=&.!4#$+#K#!(&!4#!()#!K3$.#!&*!()#!#-&!$#K#$!6#,-6#%(+K#!2)#/! 0#3$+/5!2+()!3$%&)&$!,#$3(#0!6,&4$#-i! %_! ")3(!-&,(!&*!03(3!.-(!4#!%&$$#%(#0!+/!()#!f,+-8!$#K#$h!&0#$!6,#-#/(#0!4=!()#! 3.()&,-i!FEEDBACK!O#,#!+-!-&#!-#$#%(+K#!*##043%8?!3_! "#!)3K#!-.3,+-#0!()#!%&/%#6(.3$!-)+*(!(#,#0!f:$%&)&$!3-!3/! N7%#6(+&/!(&!G&6.$3(+&/!O#3$()!E&/(,&$!E&/%#6(-h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when, where, who, how,what, 3/0 why!&*!3$%&)&$!.-#;!<)#!(,#/0-!+/!3$%&)&$!.-#!()3(!-)+*(!&K#,!(+#!%3/!3$-&!4#!(,3%#0!(),&.5)!3/-2#,+/5!()#-#!@.#-(+&/-!*&,!0+**#,#/(!0#%30#-;!>#30!()#!-)&,(!%)36(#,!4=!O#3()!(&!./0#,-(3/0!()#!%&/(,+4.(+&/!&*!@.3$+(3(+K#!03(3!+/!()#!./0#,-(3/0+/5!&*!3$%&)&$!63((#,/-;!!!!! READING?!O#3()1!M;!Z;!^FQQQ_;!Drinking Occasions: Comparative Perspectives on! Alcohol and Culture.!C9:?!I/(#,/3(+&/3$!E#/(,#!*&,!:$%&)&$!G&$+%+#-?!AaAJAaP;!9##!! 66!ASaJATS!+/!()#!>#30#,;!!!<)#!0+$#3!3-!(&!2)+%)!&0#$!+-!&,#!.-#*.$!&,!2)#()#,!()#=!-)&.$0!4#!.-#0!+/!%&4+/3(+&/!2+$$!4#!0+-%.--#0!353+/!+/!C/+(!Fn!4.(!8##6!+(!+/!+/0!2)#/!,#30+/5!34&.(!()#!#3-.,#-!%.,,#/($=!4#+/5!.-#0!(&!@.3/(+*=!3$%&)&$!.-#1!3/0!()#+,!%&/-#@.#/%#-;!<)#!/#7(!+6&,(3/(!%&/%#6(!()3(!2#!2+$$!0+-%.--!+-!()#!3$%&)&$!%&/(#/(!+/!0+**#,#/(!0,+/8-;!!!!28 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  28. 28. !3.2 Alcohol Content and Risky DrinkingAbsolute alcohol content!^&,!6.,#!3$%&)&$_!+-!3!@.3/(+(=!#3-.,#0!3-!3!6#,%#/(35#!&*!3!K&$.#!&*!3/!3$%&)&$+%!4#K#,35#;!M+**#,#/(!%&./(,+#-!.-#!-$+5)($=!0+**#,#/(!#3-.,#-!*&,!3!f-(3/03,0!0,+/8h;!<)#!3&./(!&*!3$%&)&$!6#,!-(3/03,0!0,+/8!^.-.3$$=!3!%&&/$=!.-#0!-+b#!*&,!-#,K+/5!#3%)!(=6#!&*!4#K#,35#_!+-!%3$%.$3(#0!3-!3!6#,%#/(35#1!3/0!3-!3/!34-&$.(#!3&./(!+/!5,3-!^,3/5+/5!4#(2##/!U5!3/0!AU5!&*!6.,#!3$%&)&$1!4.(!&,#!.-.3$$=!3,&./0!AA5!&,!AF5_;!<)#!,3/5#!&*!0+**#,#/(!3$%&)&$!%&/(#/(-!+-!0#(3+$#0!+/!()#!(34$#!4#$&2;!!HOW MUCH ALCOHOL IS THERE IN ONE DRINK? Drink Average alcohol Size of one drink Absolute alcohol content (%volume) (typical serving) content (g) Y3$(!4##,!^$35#,_! To! HSQ$! AF! 9&,5).!4##,! Ho! TQQ$! AF! E+0#,! Uo! HSQ!$! AU! E&&$#,!m!5,36#!! TJAQo! HSQ$! AF! "+/#! AFo! AFQ$! AA! 9)#,,=! Aeo! TQ$! e! R+@.#.,! HQo! FT$! U! Z,3/0=1!2)+-8=1! SHo! FT$! AA! 5+/1!K&0831!%3/#!^:036(#0!*,&!G3,,=!`!Z#//#((-1!AaaP?!AFa_!!<&!@.3/(+*=!()#!3&./(!&*!34-&$.(#!3$%&)&$!(38#/!4=!3!6#,-&/1!()#!(=6#!&*!0,+/8!3/0!()#!/.4#,!&*!standard drinks!/##0-!(&!4#!,#%&,0#0;!:!%3$%.$3(+&/!%3/!()#/!4#!0&/#!(&!*+/0!()#!absolute alcohol intake1!#;5;!(2&!5$3--#-!^AFQ$_!&*!2+/#!^AA5_!p!F!7!AA5!p!FF5!&*!3$%&)&$;!!!")#/!blood alcohol concentration (Z:E_!+-!#3-.,#01!+(!+-!#76,#--#0!+/!5m$;!<)#!$#53$!$++(!*&,!0,+K+/5!+/!9&.()!:*,+%3!+-!Q;QT5mAQQ$!&,!TQ5mAQQ$;!<)+-!+-!,&.5)$=!()#!$#K#$!3*(#,!0,+/8+/5!(2&!4##,-1!&,!(2&!5$3--#-!&*!2+/#1!&,!3!0&.4$#!(&(!&*!-6+,+(-;!!Risky drinking!%3/!4#!./0#,-(&&0!3-?!*+K#!^T_!&,!&,#!-(3/03,0!0,+/8-!*&,!3$#-!&/!3/=!&/#!&%%3-+&/1!3/0!(),##!^H_!&,!&,#!-(3/03,0!0,+/8-!*&,!*#3$#-!&/!3/=!&/#!&%%3-+&/;!O&2#K#,1!0#6#/0+/5!&/!()#!-3*#(=!&*!()#!#/K+,&/#/(!3/0!()#!(&$#,3/%#!&*!()#!+/0+K+0.3$1!/#53(+K#!%&/-#@.#/%#-!%&.$0!3,+-#!3*(#,!#K#/!*#2#,!0,+/8-!#;5;!:!3/!0&+/5!-%.43!0+K+/5!%&.$0!)3K#!+63+,#0!.05##/(!3*(#,!&/$=!(2&!0,+/8-1!,#-.$(+/5!+/!)+-!0,&2/+/5;!!3.3 Sources of DataI(!+-!/#%#--3,=!(&!.-#!K3,+&.-!-&.,%#-!&*!03(3!2)#/!0#-%,+4+/5!$#K#$-!3/0!63((#,/-!&*!%&/-.6(+&/!&*!3$%&)&$;!<)#-#!-&.,%#-!3=!4#!43-#0!&/!,&.(+/#!03(3!%&$$#%(+&/!-.%)!3-!6&$+%#!-(3(+-(+%-1!&%%3-+&/3$!-.,K#=-1!&,!)#3$()!-#,K+%#!,#%&,0-1!(,#3(#/(!%#/(,#-!3/0!&,(.3,+#-;!I/#K+(34$=!3/=!&*!()#-#!-&.,%#-!#3-.,#!()#!%&/-#@.#/%#-!&*!3$%&)&$!34.-#!3/0!&/$=!+/0+,#%($=1!()#!3&./(! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 29
  29. 29. &*!3$%&)&$!%&/-.#01!#;5;!Y#3-.,+/5!()#!4$&&0!3$%&)&$!$#K#$!&*!4&0+#-!+/!3!&,(.3,=!5+K#-!3/!+/0+%3(+&/!&*!()#!$#K#$!&*!3$%&)&$!.-#!4#*&,#!0#3();!!")+$#!+(!+-!6&--+4$#!(&!53()#,!+/*&,3(+&/!&/!3$%&)&$+%!4#K#,35#!-3$#-!*,&!()#!*&,3$!$+@.&,!%&63/+#-!3/0!(&!%3$%.$3(#!%,.0#!6#,!%36+(3!3$%&)&$!.-#!&K#,!3!-6#%+*+%!6#,+&0!&*!(+#1!()+-!0&#-!/&(1!3-!2#!)3K#!-##/1!5+K#!-.**+%+#/(!+/*&,3(+&/!&/!()#!/3(.,#!&*!0,+/8+/5!)34+(-1!/&,!&/!()#!%&/-#@.#/%#-!&*!)3,*.$!0,+/8+/5;!!<&!5#(!3!4,&30#,!&K#,K+#2!&*!()#!,3/5#!&*!-&.,%#-!&*!03(31!,#30!()#!3,(+%$#!4=!G3,,=!#(!3$!^FQQF_!2)+%)!6,#-#/(-!()#!*+/0+/5-!&*!3!-(.0=!&*!3$%&)&$!.-35#!+/!9&.()!:*,+%3!&K#,!3!*&.,!=#3,!6#,+&0;!V&%.-!&/!()#!@.#-(+&/-!+/!<3-8!H!3-!=&.!,#30;!! READING:!G3,,=1!E;!M;!O;!#(!3$;!^FQQF_;!:$%&)&$!C-#!+/!9&.()!:*,+%3?!V+/0+/5-!*,&! ()#!9&.()!:*,+%3/!E&./+(=!N6+0#+&$&5=!c#(2&,8!&/!M,.5!C-#!^9:ENcMC_! G,&#%(;!Journal of Studies on Alcohol1!UH!^S_?!SHQJSHT;!9##!66!FaeJHQS!+/!()#! >#30#,;!!!! TASK 3 – Limitations in various methods of describing alcohol use. :-!=&.!,#30!()#!3,(+%$#!4=!G3,,=!#(!3$!^FQQF_1!(,=!(&!3/-2#,!()+-!@.#-(+&/?! To what extent is SACENDU able to provide an accurate picture of alcohol consumption and its effects in South Africa?! !C-#!()#-#!-.4J@.#-(+&/-!(&!0&!=&.,!3/3$=-+-?! 3_! I0#/(+*=!3$$!()#!-(.0+#-!3/0!-&.,%#-!,#*#,,#0!(&!+/!()+-!636#,1!()#!#()&0-!.-#0! 3/0!()#!6&6.$3(+&/!2)+%)!*3$$-!+/(&!()#!-36$#-;! 4_! ")+%)!-&.,%#-!)3K#!+/)#,#/(!4+3-#-!+/!()#1!3/0!2)+%)!3,#!$#--!4+3-#0i! %_! :,#!()#,#!&()#,!-&.,%#-!&,!#()&0-!2)+%)!=&.!()+/8!%&.$0!6,&K+0#!4#((#,! +/*&,3(+&/!&/!2)+%)!(&!43-#!6&$+%+#-!3/0!+/(#,K#/(+&/-iFEEDBACK!E)#%8!=&.,!,#-6&/-#-!(&!@.#-(+&/-!^3_!3/0!^4_!)#,#;!3_! <)#!3+/!-&.,%#-!&*!+/*&,3(+&/!,#*#,,#0!(&!+/!()+-!636#,!3,#?! A;! <)#!9&.()!:*,+%3/!M#&5,36)+%!3/0!O&.-#)&$0!9.,K#=;!! F;! :/!#6+0#+&$&5+%3$!-(.0=!&/!*&#(3$!3$%&)&$!-=/0,&#!^V:9_;! H;! :!-(.0=!&*!()#!0,+/8+/5!)34+(-!&*!3!5,&.6!&*!6#&6$#!+/!3+$;!! S;! :BM!^:$%&)&$!3/0!&()#,!0,.5-_!(,#3(#/(!%#/(,#-L!6,&*+$#!&*!()#+,! 63(+#/(-;! T;! c3(+&/3$!D+&$#/%#!3/0!I/.,=!9.,K#+$$3/%#!-(.0=;! U;! 9.,K#=!&*!)+5)!-%)&&$!-(.0#/(-L!0,+/8+/5!)34+(-;! e;! 9(.0=!&*!()#!4$&&0!3$%&)&$!%&/(#/(!+/!3!-36$#!&*!6#&6$#!3,,#-(#0;!30 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  30. 30. !4_! R++(3(+&/-!3/0!6&--+4$#!4+3-#-!+/!()#!-(.0+#-?! :!3&,!+--.#!+/!3/=!4#)3K+&.,J,#$3(#0!-(.0=!+-!()#!.-#!&*!self reported! +/*&,3(+&/;!M,+/8+/5!3$%&)&$!+-!3!4#)3K+&.,!()3(!+-!$+8#$=!(&!4#!./0#,! ,#6&,(#01!&2+/5!(&!()#!-(+53!&*!0,+/8+/5!(&&!.%)1!&,!/&(!4#+/5!+/! %&/(,&$!&*!&/#L-!4#)3K+&.,;!I(!+-!3$-&!0+**+%.$(!(&!@.3/(+*=!3$%&)&$!+/(38#! 4#%3.-#!&*?!0+**#,+/5!3$%&)&$!%&/(#/(!+/!0+**#,#/(!4#K#,35#-!^,3/5+/5! *,&!Ho!(&!Sao_1!-(=$#-!&*!0,+/8+/5!^#;5;!63--+/5!3!K#--#$!3,&./0_1!3/0! ()#!-+b#-!&*!5$3--#-!&,!&()#,!K#--#$-!.-#0;!<)#!-(.0+#-!2)#,#!4$&&0! 3$%&)&$!$#K#$!+-!#3-.,#01!&,!3!4,#3()3$=-#,!+-!.-#01!5+K#!3!&,#! 3%%.,3(#!6+%(.,#!&*!()#!6#,-&/L-!%.,,#/(!3$%&)&$!+/(38#!4.(!%3//&(!4#! .-#0!(&!0#-%,+4#!()#!63((#,/!&*!0,+/8+/5!&*!()#!+/0+K+0.3$;!! <)#!3&,+(=!&*!()#!-(.0+#-!*&%.-!&/!()#!3&,!%+(+#-!3/0!()#,#*&,#! #7%$.0#!&-(!&*!()#!,.,3$!6&6.$3(+&/;!I/!-&#!6,&K+/%#-1!()#!,.,3$! 6&6.$3(+&/!+-!)+5)#,!()3/!()#!.,43/1!3/0!()#,#*&,#!3!-+5/+*+%3/(!-#%(+&/! &*!()#!6&6.$3(+&/!+-!/&(!,#*$#%(#0!+/!()#!-(.0+#-1!#;5;!+/!()#!N3-(#,/! E36#!3/0!R+6&6&!G,&K+/%#-;!! :/&()#,!+--.#!+-!2)#()#,!()#!03(3!&/!(,#3(#/(!+/!3!63,(+%.$3,!=#3,!+-! ,#6,#-#/(3(+K#!&*!3!6&6.$3(+&/;!:$()&.5)!(,#3(#/(!%#/(,#-!,#6&,(! K3,+&.-!(,#/0-!+/!()#!(=6#-!&*!0,.5-!.-#01!35#-!&*!63(+#/(-1!#(%1!&/#! /##0-!(&!%&/-+0#,!%,+(+%3$$=!2)3(!63,(!&*!()#!6&6.$3(+&/!5#(-!30+((#0!(&! (,#3(#/(!%#/(,#-1!&,!.-#-!3/!&.(63(+#/(!*3%+$+(=;!G&&,#,!6#&6$#1!2&#/! 2+()!0#6#/0#/(-!3/0!6#&6$#!+/!&.($=+/5!3,#3-!3,#!$+8#$=!(&!#76#,+#/%#! 6,&4$#-!+/!3%%#--+/5!()#-#!-#,K+%#-;!9&!353+/1!()#!(,#/0-!-)&.$0!4#! K+#2#0!2+()!%3.(+&/!3-!()#=!0&!/&(!,#6,#-#/(!3$$!()&-#!who may!need! (,#3(#/(1!4.(!&/$=!those who!have accessed!(,#3(#/(;!!!")3(!0+0!=&.!%&/%$.0#!34&.(!()#!9:ENcMC!+/+(+3(+K#i!!I/!()#!34-#/%#!&*!03(3!()3(!+-!%&$$#%(#0!+/!3!-=-(#3(+%!3/0!-(3/03,0+-#0!23=1!3/0!4#3,+/5!+/!+/0!()#!$++(3(+&/-!&*!#3%)!&*!()#!03(3!-&.,%#-!%&/(,+4.(#0!3(!9:ENcMC!##(+/5-1!()#!+/*&,3(+&/!%3/!4#!.-#0!(&!./0#,-(3/0!&/$=!some!(,#/0-1!3/0!+/*&,!6&$+%=!&/!some specific problems;!!!3.4 Screening for Alcohol Problems and Alcohol Dependence!Z=!/&2!=&.!2+$$!)3K#!,#3$+-#0!()3(!3!6#,-&/!%3/!)3K#!6,&4$#-!3-!3!,#-.$(!&*!.-+/5!3$%&)&$!2+()&.(!/#%#--3,+$=!4#+/5!0#6#/0#/(!&/!+(!^&,!4#+/5!%$3--+*+#0!3-!3/!f3$%&)&$+%h_;!!<)#!E:[N!-%,##/+/5!(&&$!^2)+%)!-(3/0-!*&,!C.((+/5!0&2/1!A//&=3/%#!3(!%,+(+%+-1!G.+$(=!*##$+/5-!3/0!.-#!&*!E=#J&6#/#,-_!+-!%&&/$=!.-#0!+/!()#!-%,##/+/5!&*!6#&6$#!(&!0#(#%(!6&--+4$#!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-!&,!0#6#/0#/%#;!:-!%3/!4#!-##/!+/!()#!3,(+%$#!4=!E$33-#/!^Aaaa_1!()#!(&&$!%3/!3$-&!4#!.-#0!3-!63,(!&*!3!-.,K#=!(&!53()#,!+/*&,3(+&/!3(!()#!$#K#$!&*!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-!+/!3!63,(+%.$3,!%&./+(=;! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 31
  31. 31. READING:!E$33-#/1!X;!c;!^9#6(;!Aaaa_;!<)#!Z#/#*+(-!&*!()#!E:[N!3-!3!9%,##/+/5! <&&$!*&,!:$%&)&$+-!+/!3!E$&-#0!>.,3$!9&.()!:*,+%3/!E&./+(=;!South African Medical Journal,!Pa!^a_?!aeUJaea;!9##!66!Te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howmuch is drunk in one occasion!3/0!how frequent these occasions are;!<)#!factors encouraging more risky drinking!3,#!3$-&!&*!+/(#,#-(!+*!#3/+/5*.$!6,#K#/(+K#!+/(#,K#/(+&/-!3,#!(&!4#!30#;!!4.1 Measuring Usage by Age Group!I/!0#K#$&6+/5!%&./(,+#-1!2#!3,#!63,(+%.$3,$=!%&/%#,/#0!34&.(!()#!4#$+#*-!3/0!4#)3K+&.,-!&*!=&./5!6#&6$#!,#53,0+/5!3$%&)&$;!<)#!*3%(&,-!+/*$.#/%+/5!()#!32 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  32. 32. #76#,+#/(3(+&/!3/0!,#5.$3,!.-#!&*!3$%&)&$!3&/5-(!=&.()!3,#!%&6$#7!3/0! /##0!(&!4#!#73+/#0!*,&!K3,+&.-!3/5$#-;! ! <)#!636#,!4=!V$+-)#,!#(!3$!^FQQA_!0#&/-(,3(#-!)&2!%$3--,&&!43-#0!-.,K#=-! %3/!4#!.-#0!(&!53.5#!()#!8/&2$#05#1!4#$+#*-!3/0!6,3%(+%#-!&*!-%)&&$J5&+/5! =&.();!I*!,#6#3(#0!#K#,=!*#2!=#3,-1!()#!(,#/0-!&*!age of first use of substances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b3/+3!3/0!d+4342#;!African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, A!^F_?!PAJae;! 9##!66!AFAJAHQ!+/!()#!>#30#,; !TASK 4 – Measures of alcohol consumption:*(#,!,#30+/5!()+-!636#,!&/!-.4-(3/%#!.-#!4=!-(.0#/(-1!3/-2#,!()#!*&$$&2+/5!@.#-(+&/-?!! FEEDBACK3_! ")3(!3,#!()#!3+/!#3-.,#-!&*!-.4-(3/%#!.-#!+/!()#!@.#-(+&//3+,#-i4_! ")3(!0&!()#!0+**#,#/(!(+#!6#,+&0-!+6$=i%_! ")3(!3,#!()#!3+/!%&/%$.-+&/-!&*!()#!-(.0=!3/0!)&2!2&.$0!()+-!+/*&,! 6,#K#/(+&/!6,&5,3#-!+/!()&-#!6$3%#-i 4.2 Measuring Usage in Relation to Setting ! :/&()#,!+6&,(3/(!23=!(&!%&/0.%(!,#-#3,%)!&/!6#&6$#!2)&!0,+/8!+-!(),&.5)!3! *&%.-!&/!()#!&%%.63(+&/3$!-#((+/5;!<)+-!3,(+%$#!4=!R&/0&/!#(!3$!^FQQA_! 0#-%,+4#-!3!-(.0=!3--#--+/5!()#!&%%.63(+&/3$!)3b3,0-!*&,!3!5,&.6!&*!3$#!*,.+(! *3,!2&,8#,-!+/!()#!"#-(#,/!E36#;!:$%&)&$!%&/-.6(+&/!23-!*&./0!(&!4#!3/! +6&,(3/(!%&J*3%(&,!+/!6&&,!/.(,+(+&/1!,3(#!&*!)#30!+/.,+#-!3/0!#76&-.,#!(&! 6#-(+%+0#-;!V&%.-!&/!<3-8!T!2)+$#!=&.!,#30!+(;!! ! READING:!R&/0&/1!R;1!c#$$1!D;1!<)&6-&/1!YJR!`!Y=#,-1!X;N;!^AaaP_;!O#3$()! ! 9(3(.-!:&/5!V3,!"&,8#,-!+/!()#!"#-(#,/!E36#!l!E&$$3(#,3$!NK+0#/%#!*,&!3! 9(.0=!&*!B%%.63(+&/3$!O3b3,0-;!South African Medical Journal,!PP!^a_?!AQaUJAAQA;! 9##!66!APeJAaS!+/!()#!>#30#,;! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 33
  33. 33. !!! TASK 5 – Assessing further measures of alcohol consumption")+$#!,#30+/5!()+-!636#,1!2)+%)!+/%$.0#-!3!*&%.-!&/!3$%&)&$!.-#!4=!3$#!*3,!2&,8#,-1!3/-2#,!()#!*&$$&2+/5!@.#-(+&/-?!3_! ")3(!3,#!()#!3+/!#3-.,#-!&*!3$%&)&$!.-#!+/!()#!-(.0=i! 4_! :,#!()#!03(3!%&$$#%(+&/!(&&$-!&,#!,#$+34$#!()3/!()#!@.#-(+&//3+,#-!.-#0!+/!()#!! 6,#K+&.-!-(.0=i!")=i!%_! ")3(!0&#-!()#!+/*&,3(+&/!34&.(!()#!$#/5()!&*!(+#!-6#/(!2&,8+/5!+/!()#!VNNMZ:E]! 35,+%.$(.,3$!-#((+/5!(#$$!.-i!>#-6&/0!(&!^0_i!0_! ")3(!,&$#!%&.$0!()#!63((#,/-!,#K#3$#0!+/!()+-!-(.0=!6$3=!+/!5.+0+/5!3!O#3$()!! G,&&(+&/!+/(#,K#/(+&/!+/!()+-!%&/(#7(i!!4.3 Measuring Drinking Patterns with Surveys & Self-reported Habits!<)#!3,(+%$#!4=!E,&7*&,0!`!D+$&#/!+/(,&0.%#-!=&.!(&!3!-.,K#=!#()&0!&*!3--#--+/5!0,+/8+/5!63((#,/-1!43-#0!#/(+,#$=!&/!-#$*J,#6&,(#0!03(3n!+(!3$-&!+/(,&0.%#-!()#!6)#/&#/&/!&*!*&#(3$!3$%&)&$!-=/0,&#!^V:9_;!!!!! READING:!E,&7*&,01!X;!`!D+$&#/1!M;!^9#6(;!Aaaa_;!:$%&)&$!E&/-.6(+&/!4=! G,#5/3/(!"&#/!+/!"#-(#,/!E36#;!South African Medical Journal,!Pa?!aUFJaUT;!! 9##!66!UHJUP!+/!()#!>#30#,;!!!<)#!-(.0=!,#6&,(#0!+/!()#!3,(+%$#!3+#0!(&!3--#--!3$%&)&$!.-#!4=!6,#5/3/(!2&#/!+/!(),##!./0#,J,#-&.,%#0!3,#3-!&*!()#!"#-(#,/!E36#!l!(2&!&*!()#!-3$$!(&2/-!3/0!&/#!2+()+/!()#!E36#!Y#(,&6&$#;!<)#!-36$#!&*!UHU!2&#/!23-!0,32/!*,&!Ae!3/(#/3(3$!%$+/+%-!3%,&--!()#!(),##!3,#3-1!3/0!#3%)!2&3/!23-!+/(#,K+#2#0!&/%#!&/$=;!I/!()+-!-(.0=1!()#!%&$$#%(+&/!&*!0#&5,36)+%!+/*&,3(+&/!23-!+6&,(3/(!+/!&,0#,!(&!#-(34$+-)!2)#()#,1!3&/5-(!()#-#!6,#5/3/(!2&#/1!()#,#!3,#!-.45,&.6-!^*&,!#736$#!43-#0!&/!35#1!-&%+&J#%&/&+%-!&,!5#&5,36)+%3$!$&%3(+&/_!()3(!0,+/8!&,#!)#3K+$=!()3/!&()#,-;!!<)#!,#-.$(-!6,&K+0#!3!.-#*.$!0#-%,+6(+&/!&*!2&#/!3((#/0+/5!%$+/+%-!+/!6,#0&+/3/($=!coloured 3,#3-;!<)#!0&+/3/(!%)3,3%(#,+-(+%-!&*!()#!5,&.6!2#,#?!4#(2##/!FQ!J!HQ!=#3,-!&*!35#n!-+/5$#!^Teo_n!E),+-(+3/!^eF;Po_n!2+()!*&,3$!#0.%3(+&/!4#(2##/!PJAQ!=#3,-;!:-!)+5)!3-!SF;Po!30+((#0!(&!K3,=+/5!0#5,##-!&*!3$%&)&$!+/5#-(+&/!0.,+/5!6,#5/3/%=!2+()!4##,!4#+/5!()#!0,+/8!&*!%)&+%#!^aA;To_n!()#!0,+/8+/5!63((#,/!23-!&*!3!f4+/5#h!/3(.,#;!9&8+/5!23-!,#6&,(#0!4=!ST;Uo!3$(&5#()#,1!3/0!Fa;Uo!30+((#0!(&!-&8+/5!3/0!0,+/8+/5;!<)+-!$#*(!&/$=!SA;F!o!&*!2&#/!.-+/5!/#+()#,!3$%&)&$!/&,!%+53,#((#-;!!<)+-!+-!+6&,(3/(!03(3!&/!2)+%)!(&!43-#!+/(#,K#/(+&/-!(&!,#0.%#!0,+/8+/5!+/!6,#5/3/%=1!3/0!%3/!3$-&!-#,K#!3-!3!43-#$+/#!(&!%&63,#!(&!3*(#,!3!*#2!=#3,-;!34 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  34. 34. I(!+-!3$-&!3$3,+/5!(&!,#3$+-#!*,&!()#!03(3!()3(!.6!(&!a;To!&*!()#!2&#/!2#,#!3(!,+-8!&*!)3K+/5!3!%)+$0!2+()!V:9!&,!3!+$0#,!K#,-+&/!()#,#&*!^:>cM!l!3$%&)&$!,#$3(#0!/#.,&$&5+%3$!0#*#%(-_;!NK#/!()&.5)!)&/#-(=!+-!3/!+--.#!2)#/!+(!%&#-!(&!-#$*J,#6&,(#0!03(3!,#$3(+/5!(&!3$%&)&$!.-#!3/0!-&8+/51!()#!3.()&,-!,#6&,(!()3(!+(!-###0!/&(!(&!4#!3!%&/%#,/!+/!()+-!-(.0=;!!!5 NORMS FOR DRINKING!B/#!&*!()#!+--.#-!()3(!#K#,=!,#-#3,%)#,!-)&.$0!4#!323,#!&*!2)#/!#3-.,+/5!3$%&)&$!%&/-.6(+&/!+-!()#!%&/%#6(!&*!2)3(!+-!,#53,0#0!3-!normal drinking ina particular community;!<)#!,#$3(+&/-)+6!4#(2##/!3$%&)&$!3/0!%.$(.,#1!3/0!-6#%+*+%3$$=!2)3(!+-!K+#2#0!3-!normal!3/0!not-normal!0,+/8+/51!0+**#,-!2+0#$=!+/!0+**#,#/(!3,#3-!&*!()#!2&,$0;!I(!+-!3$-&!+6&,(3/(!(&!,#%&5/+-#!()3(!6#&6$#!3,#!-(,&/5$=!+/*$.#/%#0!4=!-.%)!/&,-1!#;5. We keep spirits for special occasionslike dances, and people get very drunk.<)#!,#30+/5!4=!Z#//#((!#(!3$!^AaaH_!6,&K+0#-!3/!+/-+5)(!+/(&!f)&2!6#&6$#!*,&!0+**#,#/(!%.$(.,#-!0+**#,#/(+3(#!4#(2##/!/&,3$!3/0!63()&$&5+%3$!0,+/8+/5h!^Z#//#((1!AaaH?!AaQ_1!2)+%)!+-!+/!+(-#$*!3!3&,!+/*$.#/%#!&/!0,+/8+/5!63((#,/-;!! READING:!Z#//#((1!R;!:;1!X3/%31!:;1![,3/(1!Z;!V;!`!93,(&,+.-1!c;!^AaaH_;! Z&./03,+#-!Z#(2##/!c&,3$!3/0!G3()&$&5+%3$!M,+/8+/5?!:!E,&--JE.$(.,3$! E&63,+-&/;!Alcohol Health & Research World, Ae!^H_?!AaQJAaT;!9##!66!HaJSU!+/! ()#!,#30#,;!!!<)#!636#,!3$-&!-.3,+-#-!2)3(!2#!%&K#,#0!+/!&.,!0+-%.--+&/!&*!63((#,/-!&*!%&/-.6(+&/;!:$()&.5)!()#,#!3,#!/&!-+6$#!#76$3/3(+&/-!&,!0#-%,+6(+&/-!&*!0,+/8+/5!63((#,/-!*&,!3/=!%&./+(=1!()#!3.()&,!5+K#-!-&#!#3/-!(&!3/-2#,+/5!()#!when, where, who, how, what!3/0!why!&*!3$%&)&$!.-#;!:-!=&.!,#30!+(1!(,=!(&!3/-2#,!()#!@.#-(+&/-!+/!<3-8!T;! TASK 6 – The effects of alcohol: descriptors used in your community. :*(#,!,#30+/5!()+-!636#,1!%&/-+0#,!()#!*&$$&2+/5!@.#-(+&/-?! ! 3_! ")3(!3,#!()#!3+/!@.#-(+&/-!()3(!)3K#!4##/!3-8#0!+/!()+-!636#,!&/!()#!#**#%(-! &*!3$%&)&$i!! 4_! :66$=!()#!-3#!@.#-(+&/-!(&!#4#,-!&*!=&.,!&2/!%&./+(=!3/0!2,+(#!0&2/! =&.,!,#-6&/-#-!+/!3!-++$3,!23=!(&!()#!,#-.$(-!+/!(34$#-!F!3/0!H; %_! ")+%)!%&./+(=!+/!()#!-(.0=!+-!&-(!-++$3,!(&!=&.,!%&./+(=!3/0!2)=!0&! =&.!()+/8!()+-!+-!-&i 0_!!!")3(!3,#!-&#!&*!()#!*3%(&,-!2)+%)!+/*$.#/%#!0,+/8+/5!63((#,/-i! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 35
  35. 35. FEEDBACK")#/!0&+/5!3!-+(.3(+&/3$!3/3$=-+-!+/!&,0#,!(&!6$3/!3/=!+/(#,K#/(+&/!,#$3(#0!(&!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-1!+(!+-!#--#/(+3$!(&!)3K#!3!-#/-#!&*!()#!6,#K3+$+/5!/&,-!3,&./0!0,+/8+/5!3$%&)&$;!I*!6#&6$#!+/!()#!%&./+(=!0&!/&(!K+#2!,+-8=!0,+/8+/5!+/!()#!-3#!23=!3-!=&.!0&1!=&.!2+$$!)3K#!0+**+%.$(=!+/K&$K+/5!()#!+/!3/=!6,#K#/(+&/!&,!)3,!,#0.%(+&/!6,&5,3#;!:/=!+/(#,K#/(+&/-!/##0!(&!4#3,!+/!+/0!()#!-(3(.-!&*!()#!0,+/8#,-!3-!2#$$!3-!()#!*3%+$+(3(+/5!3/0!+/)+4+(+/5!*3%(&,-!+/!,#$3(+&/!(&!who drinks where!3/0!how much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where, when,how much!3/0!why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asters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  36. 36. 7 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING! ! :#,+%3/!G-=%)+3(,+%!:--&%+3(+&/;!^AaaS_;!Diagnostic and statistical manual mental disorders1!*&.,()!#0+(+&/;!"3-)+/5(&/1!ME?!:#,+%3/! G-=%)+3(,+%!:--&%+3(+&/;! ! The Public Health Bush Book: A Resource for Working in Community Settings in the Northern Territory.!^Aaaa_;!M3,2+/?!c&,()#,/!<#,,+(&,=! O#3$()!9#,K+%#-;! ! G3,,=1!M;!O;!E;!`!Z#//#((-1!:;!R;!^AaaP_;!Alcohol Policy and Public Health in South Africa;!E36#!<&2/?!B7*&,0!C/+K#,-+(=!G,#--;!! ! "OB;!^Aaaa_;!Global Status Report on Alcohol.![#/#K3?!9.4-(3/%#!:4.-#! M#63,(#/(1!9&%+3$!E)3/5#!`!Y#/(3$!O#3$()1!"OB; Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 37
  37. 37. 38 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  38. 38. Unit 1 - Session 3Theories of Alcohol Use andAddictionIntroduction:$()&.5)!&-(!&*!()+-!&0.$#!*&%.-#-!&/!&0#,3(#!3$%&)&$!.-#!%&/-.#0!+/!3!,+-8=!63((#,/1!+(!+-!3$-&!+6&,(3/(!(&!0+-%.--!%&/-.6(+&/!2)+%)!&%%.,-!3-!3!,#-.$(!&*!3!0#6#/0#/%=!,#$3(+&/-)+6!4#(2##/!3/!+/0+K+0.3$!3/0!3$%&)&$;!!!Y.%)!&*!()#!#6)3-+-!+/!()#!63-(!23-!&/!f()#!3$%&)&$+%h1!2)+$#!$+(($#!#6)3-+-!23-!6$3%#0!&/!&()#,!%&/-.#,-;!Z#*&,#!=&.!,#30!3/=!*.,()#,1!%)&&-#!()#!0#-%,+6(+&/!&*!3$%&)&$+-!2)+%)!=&.!4#$+#K#!(&!4#!%&,,#%(?!!!:!6#,-&/!2)&!+-!300+%(#0!(&!3$%&)&$!^3/!3$%&)&$+%_?! -! )3-!3!0+-#3-#!%3$$#0!f3$%&)&$+-h!&,!! -! )3-!0#K#$&6#0!3!)34+(!()3(!%3//&(!4#!%&/(,&$$#0;!!!<)+-!@.#-(+&/!,#3+/-!0#43(34$#1!-&!,#30!()#!+/(#,#-(+/5!3,(+%$#-!()3(!*&$$&2!3/0!()#/!,#*$#%(!&/!=&.,!&2/!./0#,-(3/0+/5!&*!3$%&)&$!300+%(+&/;!!")+$#!2#!3,#!*&%.-+/5!&/!+/0+K+0.3$!3$%&)&$!.-#1!2#!2+$$!3$-&!366$=!(2&!&*!()#!2#$$J#-(34$+-)#0!()#&,+#-!&*!O#3$()!Z#)3K+&.,1!+/!&,0#,!(&!./0#,-(3/0!()#!+/(#,,#$3(+&/-)+6!&*!K3,+&.-!*3%(&,-!+/!()#!0#%+-+&/!(&!0,+/8!3/0!()#!$#K#$!&*!0,+/8+/5;!!Contents!A! R#3,/+/5!&.(%&#-!&*!()+-!-#--+&/!F! >#30+/5-!!H! Y&0#$-!*&,!./0#,-(3/0+/5!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-! !S! <)#&,+#-!&*!O#3$()!Z#)3K+&.,!T! 9#--+&/!-.3,=!U!! V.,()#,!,#30+/5!Timing of this sessionI/!()+-!-#--+&/!()#,#!+-!&/$=!&/#!(3-81!3/0!()#!(3-8!,#@.+,#-!=&.!(&!-(3,(!300,#--+/5!+--.#-!+/!=&.,!$&%3$!%&/(#7(;!<)#,#!3,#!3$-&!*&.,!*3+,$=!$&/5!,#30+/5-!(&(3$$+/5!UH!635#-;!:$$&2!3(!$#3-(!*&.,!)&.,-!(&!%&6$#(#!()#!-#--+&/;!! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 39
  39. 39. 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THIS SESSION By the end of this session, you should be able to: ! N76$3+/!3/0!366$=!()#!0+**#,#/(!()#&,+#-!&*!300+%(+&/!3/0!0#6#/0#/%#1!+;#;!()#! #0+%3$1!6-=%)&$&5+%3$!3/0!-&%+&%.$(.,3$!()#&,+#-; ! M#-%,+4#!)&2!()#-#!()#&,+#-!+/*$.#/%#!6,#K#/(+&/!3/0!(,#3(#/(!366,&3%)#-;! ! :66$=!-#$#%(#0!()#&,+#-!&*!O#3$()!Z#)3K+&.,!(&!3$%&)&$!.-#; ! M#&/-(,3(#!+/-+5)(!+/(&!6&--+4$#!#76$3/3(+&/-!*&,!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-;2 READINGS !!W&.!2+$$!4#!,#*#,,#0!(&!()#!*&$$&2+/5!,#30+/5-!+/!()#!%&.,-#!&*!()+-!-#--+&/; Author/s Publication details Page numbers in the Reader V+/53,#((#1!O; ^AaPP_;!E)!H!J!")3(!E3.-#-!:$%&)&$+-i!I/!! 95-108 Heavy Drinking: The Myth of Alcoholism as a Disease.!Z#,8#$#=1!E3$+*&,/+3?!C/+K#,-+(=!&*! E3$+*&,/+3!G,#--?!SPJUa; N023,0-1![;1! ^Aaae_;!E)!AA!J!M,+/8+/5!G,&4$#-!3/0!()#! 79-86 Y3,-)3$$1!N;!X;!`! R+*#!E&.,-#;!I/!Treatment of Drinking E&&81!E;!E;!O; Problems: A Guide for the Helping Professions.!E34,+05#1!C]?!E34,+05#! C/+K#,-+(=!G,#--?!AeTJAPT;! <&/#-1!Z;!];!`! !^FQQA_;!E)!F!J!9#$#%(+/5!I/0+%3(&,-!&*! 437-446 <+$*&,01!9; 9.%%#--?!<)#!I6&,(3/%#!&*!<)#&,+#-!&*! E)3/5#;!I/!Health Promotion: Effectiveness, Efficiency and Equity.!E)#$(#/)31!C]?! c#$-&/!<)&,/#-?!eSJaH;!! Y&,&#$#1!c; ^Aaae_;!E)!AF!J!:0&$#-%#/(!:$%&)&$!Y+-.-#;!I/! 257-270 E;!0#!$3!>#=1!c;!M./%3/!`!<;9)#*#,!`!:;!K3/! c+#8#,8!^#0-_;!Contemporary Issues in Human Development. A South African Focus.! X&)3//#-4.,5?!I/(#,/3(+&/3$!<)&-&/?!FQeJ FHF;3 MODELS FOR UNDERSTANDING ALCOHOL PROBLEMSY3/=!3%30#+%!&0.$#-!&/!-.4-(3/%#!34.-#!2&.$0!4#5+/!2+()!()#!()#&,=!&*!3$%&)&$!%&/-.6(+&/!3/0!3$%&)&$+-!3-!+(!366$+#-!(&!+/0+K+0.3$-;!I/!()+-!&0.$#!2#!)3K#!6.,6&-#$=!%&K#,#0!()#!environmental approach!^#3/+/5!-&%+&J40 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1
  40. 40. 6&$+(+%3$1!%.$(.,3$!3/0!#%&/&+%!+--.#-_!(&!300,#--+/5!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-!*+,-(;!<)#!,#3-&/-!*&,!()+-!2+$$!4#%&#!%$#3,#,!3-!2#!6,&%##0!(),&.5)!()#!./+(-;!O&2#K#,1!()#!3+/!,#3-&/!+-!()3(!2#!3,#!(38+/5!3!O#3$()!G,&&(+&/!366,&3%)1!*&%.-+/5!&/!3$%&)&$!.-#!3/0!6,&4$#-!*,&!3!,+-8=!0,+/8+/5m)3,!,#0.%(+&/!!6#,-6#%(+K#!3/0!43$3/%+/5!()#!#/K+,&/#/(3$!K3,+34$#-!2+()!+/0+K+0.3$!*3%(&,-;!!!!I(!+-1!)&2#K#,1!/#%#--3,=!(&!./0#,-(3/0!()#!()#&,+#-!2)+%)!3,#!366$+#0!(&!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-?!()+-!2+$$!#/34$#!=&.!(&!%)&&-#!2)+%)!&0#$!=&.!6#,-&/3$$=!3%%#6(!3-!()#!&-(!.-#*.$!#76$3/3(+&/!*&,!3$%&)&$!0#6#/0#/%#1!3/0!(&!+0#/(+*=!()#!&-(!$+8#$=!-#(!&*!*3%(&,-!+/*$.#/%+/5!()+-!4#)3K+&.,;!!!>#30!()#!%)36(#,!4=!V+/53,#((#!^AaPP_!+/!2)+%)!()#!3.()&,!@.#-(+&/-!()#!K3,+&.-!#76$3/3(+&/-!&*!3$%&)&$+-n!()#/!,#K+#2!=&.,!3/-2#,!(&!()#!@.#-(+&/!2#!3-8#0!2)#/!2#!4#53/!()+-!-#--+&/;!!! READING: V+/53,#((#1!O;!^AaPP_;!E)!H!J!")3(!E3.-#-!:$%&)&$+-i!I/!Heavy Drinking: The Myth of Alcoholism as a Disease.!Z#,8#$#=1!E3$+*&,/+3?!C/+K#,-+(=!&*! E3$+*&,/+3!G,#--?!SPJUa;!9##!66!aTJAQP!+/!()#!>#30#,;!!")#()#,!=&.!4#$+#K#!+/!()#!%&/%#6(!&*!an alcoholic,!3/0!()3(!+(!+-!3!0+-#3-#!2+()!5#/#(+%!+/*$.#/%#!3/0!6)=-+&$&5+%3$!#76$3/3(+&/-1!2+$$!0+,#%($=!+/*$.#/%#!=&.,!366,&3%)!(&!6,#K#/(+&/!3/0!(,#3(#/(;!Y3/=!(,#3(#/(!6,&5,3#-1!+/%$.0+/5!()#!:$%&)&$+%-!:/&/=&.-!&,53/+-3(+&/1!43-#!()#+,!366,&3%)!&/!()#!6,#+-#!()3(!+*!3!6#,-&/!)3-!)30!()#!6,&4$#!&*!3$%&)&$!0#6#/0#/%#1!()#=!2+$$!,#3+/!3/!f3$%&)&$+%!+/!,#%&K#,=h!*&,#K#,;!<)+-!+-!2)3(!2#!%3$$!()#!M+-#3-#!Y&0#$?!+(!(#/0-!(&!*&%.-!&/!()#!+/0+K+0.3$!3/0!()3(!f63()&$&5=h!(&!()#!#7%$.-+&/!&*!()#!%.$(.,#!3/0!%&/(#7(!+/!2)+%)!()#!6#,-&/!0,+/8-;!!:/!3$(#,/3(+K#!6#,-6#%(+K#!+-!(&!K+#2!3$%&)&$!%&/-.6(+&/!&/!3!%&/(+/..1!2)#,#!3/=&/#!3=!0,+/8!3(!3!$+5)(1!&0#,3(#!&,!)#3K=!$#K#$1!&%%3-+&/3$$=!&,!,#5.$3,$=;!:.()&,-!-.%)!3-!V+/53,#((#!6,#*#,!(&!#76$3+/!0,+/8+/5!63((#,/-!*,&!3!-&%+3$!3/0!%.$(.,3$!6#,-6#%(+K#!3/0!,##%(!()#!/&(+&/!&*!3!./+K3$#/(!0+-#3-#;!V&,!()#!()#,#!+-!/&!-+/5$#!%3.-3$!#76$3/3(+&/;!<)+-!+-!%3$$#0!()#!9&%+&%.$(.,3$!Y&0#$!3/0!-.55#-(-!()3(!)#3K=!0,+/8#,-1!2)&-#!0,+/8+/5!+-!%3.-+/5!6,&4$#-1!/##0!(&!4#!+/0+K+0.3$$=!./0#,-(&&0!3/0!/&(!3.(&3(+%3$$=!%$3--+*+#0!3-!f#/(3$$=!+$$h!2+()!3$%&)&$+-;!!!:!%&4+/3(+&/!&*!()#!6-=%)&$&5+%3$!)=6&()#-+-!3/0!()#!-&%+&%.$(.,3$!#76$3/3(+&/!+-!&-(!$+8#$=!(&!$#30!(&!3!(,#3(#/(!366,&3%)!()3(!43$3/%#-!()#!/#%#--+(=!*&,!+/0+K+0.3$!%&./-#$+/5!2+()!38+/5!%)3/5#-!+/!()#!/&,-!()#!6#&6$#!./0#,!(,#3(#/(!3%%#6(!3/0!()#!%&/(#7(!&*!()#+,!0,+/8+/5;!!<)#!M9Y!ID!E,+(#,+3!*&,!38+/5!3!0+35/&-+-!&*!3$%&)&$!0#6#/0#/%#!3,#!-(3(#0!+/!()#!,#30+/5!4=!Y&,&#$#!^Aaae?!FAH_;!<)+-!%$3--+*+%3(+&/!-=-(#!*&,!#/(3$!)#3$()!6,&4$#-!3((#6(-!(&!3+0!%$+/+%+3/-!3/0!,#-#3,%)#,-!(&!0+35/&-#!6,&4$#-!+/!3!-(3/03,0+-#0!23=;!Z.(!3-!Y&,&#$#!-.55#-(-!+/!()#!3,(+%$#!=&.!2+$$!,#30!$3(#,!+/!()+-!-#--+&/1!()#!%$3--+*+%3(+&/!-=-(#!+-!/&(!3$23=-!366$+%34$#! Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1 41
  41. 41. (&!30&$#-%#/(-;!I(!3=!3$-&!/&(!4#!366$+%34$#!(&!()&-#!&*!&()#,!35#-!+/!6&6.$3(+&/-!&.(-+0#!&*!"#-(#,/!0#K#$&6#0!%&./(,+#-;!:-!=&.!,#30!34&.(!()#!M9Y!ID!E,+(#,+31!%&/-+0#,!()#!#736$#!&*!3/!./#6$&=#0!3/!2+()!/&!63((#,/!&*!03+$=!3%(+K+(+#-?!)#!6,&434$=!0&#-!/&(!0,+K#!3/0!0&#-!/&(!&2/!3/=()+/5!-.4-(3/(+3$;!Y&-(!&*!()#!%,+(#,+3!3,#!/&(!366$+%34$#!(&!)+1!0#-6+(#!()#!*3%(!()3(!)#!-6#/0-!3!$&(!&*!(+#!0,+/8+/5!#K#,=!03=1!3/0!+-!3(!,+-8!&*!0#K#$&6+/5!$&/5J(#,!)#3$()!6,&4$#-;! READING: N023,0-1![;1!Y3,-)3$$1!N;!X;!`!E&&81!E;!E;!O;!^Aaae_;!E)!AA!J!M,+/8+/5! G,&4$#-!3/0!()#!R+*#!E&.,-#;!I/!Treatment of Drinking Problems: A Guide for the Helping Professions.!E34,+05#1!C]?!E34,+05#!C/+K#,-+(=!G,#--?!AeTJAPT;!9##! 66!eaJPU!+/!()#!>#30#,;!!!M#-6+(#!()#,#!4#+/5!$+(($#!%&/-#/-.-!4#(2##/!K3,+&.-!*&$$&2J.6!-(.0+#-!&*!6#&6$#!2+()!3$%&)&$!0#6#/0#/%#1!N023,0-!6,&6&-#-!-&#!*3%(&,-!2)+%)!%&.$0!4#!.-#0!(&!+/0+%3(#!6&(#/(+3$!*&,!,#%&K#,=!+/!()#!$&/5!(#,?!()#-#!+/%$.0#!43-#$+/#!%)3,3%(#,+-(+%-1!3%%#6(3/%#!&*!3!(,#3(#/(!5&3$1!(,#3(#/(!3/0!::!-.66&,(!3/0!/3(.,3$!6,&%#--#-!&*!,#%&K#,=;!>3()#,!()3/!-.66&,(+/5!3/=!+/(#/-+K#!(,#3(#/(1!N023,0-!6,&6&-#-!()3(!fg!+(!+-!()#!/.05+/5!&*!()#!6#,-&/!(&23,0-!3!&,#!%&/-(,.%(+K#!23=!&*!-##+/5!()+/5-1!()#!#/%&.,35##/(!&*!-#$*J3%(.3$+-3(+&/!3/0!()#!#/)3/%##/(!&*!-#$*J#**+%3%=1!)#$6!2+()!%)&+%#!&*!366,&6,+3(#!5&3$1!3/0!()#!3$$+3/%#!4#(2##/!()#,36#.(+%!+/(#,K#/(+&/!3/0!/3(.,3$!6,&%#--#-!&*!%)3/5#1!()3(!,#-#3,%)!-.55#-(-!3,#!+/!()#!$&/5J(#,!()#!&-(!6&(#/(!%&/(,+4.(+&/-!2)+%)!(,#3(#/(!%3/!38#!(&!,#%&K#,=h!^N023,0-1!Aaae?!APF_;!"#!2+$$!,#K+-+(!()+-!366,&3%)!+/!C/+(!S1!2)#/!2#!0+-%.--!()#!,&$#!&*!-#,K+%#!6,&K+0#,-!+/!%3,,=+/5!&.(!fZ,+#*!I/(#,K#/(+&/-h!2+()!6#&6$#!2+()!3$%&)&$!6,&4$#-;!4 THEORIES OF HEALTH BEHAVIOUR")#()#,!=&.,!+/(#,#-(!+/!3$%&)&$!3/0!)#3$()!+-!3(!()#!+/0+K+0.3$!$#K#$!&,!()#!4,&30#,!6&6.$3(+&/!$#K#$1!+(!+-!/#%#--3,=!(&!4#!34$#!(&!0#-%,+4#!()#!*3%(&,-!()3(!6,&&(#!3/0!+/)+4+(!3$%&)&$!.-#!3(!()#!+/0+K+0.3$!$#K#$;!9+/%#!3$%&)&$!.-#!%3/!K3,=!-&!.%)!*,&!&/#!6#,-&/!(&!()#!/#7(1!&/#!/##0-!(&!4#!34$#!(&!0#-%,+4#!()#-#!+/0+K+0.3$-!3-!63,(!&*!3!-.4J5,&.61!3/0!)3K#!3/!./0#,-(3/0+/5!&*!2)3(!()#!%,+(+%3$!*3%(&,-!3,#!()3(!+/*$.#/%#!()#+,!0,+/8+/5!63((#,/1!+/!&,0#,!(&!6$3/!366,&6,+3(#!+/(#,K#/(+&/-;!!:/!+6&,(3/(!-(35#!+/!()#!0#K#$&6#/(!&*!3!O#3$()!G,&&(+&/!,#-6&/-#!(&!3$%&)&$!,#$3(#0!6,&4$#-!+-!(&!)3K#!3!()#&,=!(),&.5)!2)+%)!(&!./0#,-(3/0!()#!./0#,$=+/5!*3%(&,-!&,!0#(#,+/3/(-;!D3,+&.-!)#3$()!4#)3K+&.,!&0#$-!2#,#!0#3$(!2+()!+/!()#!Health Promotion II!&0.$#!3/0!2+$$!/&(!4#!,#K+-#0!)#,#;!O&2#K#,1!I!)3K#!*&./0!()#!O#3$()!:%(+&/!Y&0#$!6,&6&-#0!4=!<&/#-!3/0!<+$*&,0!(&!4#!.-#*.$!2)#/!0#-%,+4+/5!()#!*3%(&,-!+/*$.#/%+/5!3$%&)&$!.-#1!3/0!./0#,-(3/0+/5!6&--+4$#!6&+/(-!*&,!+/(#,K#/(+&/;!!42 Masters in Public Health: Alcohol Problems - A Health Promotion Approach: U n it 1

×