Quantum Delegation


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This is a new model for delegation based in chaos theory that uses the concepts of reciprocity and mathematical recursion to explain its practical application.

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Quantum Delegation

  1. 1. Quantum Delegation by William John Baum 2010 William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  2. 2. Purpose To propose a model for collaborative delegation that incorporates the personal values, perspectives, and innovative ideas of associates at the point of impact, or point of service. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  3. 3. Research Question • How can leaders redefine the concept of delegation in light of Quantum Leadership theory (Porter-O’Grady & Mallock, 2007), so as to empower associates to collaborate in decision-making and solve problems at the point of service? William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  4. 4. Theoretical Framework: Order Exists Amid Chaos • M.C. Escher’s “Day and Night” Woodcut in Two Colors, 1938 http://puffin.creighton.edu/museums/archive/8_dkovach/nf-Tour8.html • Reflects the relationship between chaos and order: two concepts that we use to describe relative differences within the same, inexplicable reality. • They always coexist, in the sense that they are defined by one another: as darkness is defined as the absence of light, so is chaos defined as the absence of order. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  5. 5. Chaos in Action http://www.nuh.com.sg/healthinfo/images/ stoma3.gif • Colostomy Care - a hole too small to be used appropriately for elimination • The patient managed it at home with a crochet hook • Artistic Practice vs. Scientific Practice • The gap in science left by unforeseen, chaotic events prompted the innovative use of an instrument for a task that it was not designed to perform- a simple example of artistic practice. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  6. 6. Reciprocal Concepts • Artistic Practice & Scientific Practice • Interdependence & Autonomy Ying-Yang here • Leadership vulnerability & Individual competence • Delegation & Empowerment The search terms for this presentation “The Yin-Yang symbol presents some of the most fundamental concepts in Daoist and Tantric logic, philosophy, and spirituality. The most prominent concept is polarization: the division & union of two halves. Each half can in turn be polarized, giving some insight into recursion and forming the base for synthesis. The Yin-Yang is not a symbol of dualism, but a statement of transcendence into monism, a snapshot of change.” Leonardo Gonzalez (1999) William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  7. 7. Visual Representation of Reciprocality M.C. Escher’s “Drawing Hands,” Lithograph 1948 http://puffin.creighton.edu/museums/archive/8_dkovach/nf-Tour11.html William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  8. 8. Reciprocality Repeated from Rank to Rank forms a Recursion “recursive ¦ri kərsiv¦ Recursive Reciprocal Leadership adjective- Characterized by recurrence • A form of leadership which or repetition, in particular Bonewits’ requires multiple iterations of • Relating to or involving the Ying-Yang here reciprocal acts of teaching and repeated application of a rule, learning between successive definition, or procedure to successive ranks of authority, to achieve the results. corporate explication of a given process, event, or situation. recursion ¦ri kər zh ən¦ Yin Yang: The oriental noun- In such a system, each successive symbol The repeated application of a echelon uses a similar reciprocal of the recursive procedure or definition.” model for reporting and Laws of Polarity delegation, forming a recursion. and Synthesis Apple Dictionary (2010). (Bonewits, 1958) William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  9. 9. Traditional Management • Hierarchical & Vertically oriented • Linear & Unidirectional • Dyadic management style - Elitist - Decisions made farther from point of impact • Central principles: - Command - Control - Standardization (Porter-O’Grady & Mallock, 2007) William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  10. 10. Quantum Leadership • Recursive & Horizontally oriented • Circular & Reciprocal • Emergent leadership style - Grass-roots - Decisions made closer to point of impact • Central principles - Collaboration - Flexibility - Custom Application (Porter-O’Grady & Mallock, 2007) William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  11. 11. Quantum Leader Action Matrix For any Particular Task, Group of Tasks, or Role: Associate Associate Associate Associate Is Left in place, or Is Left in place, or Reassigned has ability (+) has ability (+) Advanced to (good motivation) lacks vision (-) has vision (+) Leadership Role or (good motivation) Offered Farewell Leader Leader or (poor motivation) Directs Delegates Offered Incentives (poor motivation) Associate Associate Is Oriented Associate Associate Is Reassigned (good motivation) lacks ability (-) lacks ability (-) (good motivation) or lacks vision (-) has vision (+) or Offered Farewell Leader Leader Offered Farewell (poor motivation) Demonstrates Develops (poor motivation) (Adapted from Galbraith, 1971) William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  12. 12. Quantum Delegation An innovative, interdependent, and fluid Redefinition of Delegation • Strengthens the development of an organization’s strategic plans with the infusion of leaders’ and associates’ values, insights, and preferences (Porter-O’Grady & Mallock, 2007), thereby harnessing the natural power of self- determination in motivating the organization’s members to work together to implement those plans. • Strengthens implementation at the point of impact, by ensuring that all essential barriers are mutually identified. The resulting common understanding facilitates collaborative problem-solving, which leads to optimal results. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  13. 13. An Effective Model for Delegation Why is it important? • As associates become more experienced and better skilled, leaders can increase the amount and complexity of tasks delegated to associates, granting increasing levels of professional autonomy. • The ability to delegate tasks to paraprofessional assistants has been identified by healthcare providers as a major factor in their ability to improve patients’ health outcomes (Broussard, 2007). • Inappropriate delegation impedes the delivery of timely and effective care. • Welford (2002) identified a manager’s ability to lead as the best retention tool- when leaders delegate appropriately, they foster professional autonomy, which leads to drops in absenteeism and decreased turnover. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  14. 14. Value of An Effective Delegation Model • Could lead to significant improvements in the effectiveness of organizational management and practice at many levels of health care delivery. • Could be applied anywhere care is delivered or patients are educated how to care for themselves. • The Recursive Reciprocal Delegation Model has imbedded pathways that promote continuous, open, collaborative communication among leaders and associates. • This model’s applicability is not exclusive to healthcare, but could also be used in other environments. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  15. 15. The Recursive Reciprocal Delegation Model-> >- Leader as Follower Associate as Guide -> -> Input *Lets go of the fear of losing control Report *Informs leader of needs Output<- <- *Active Listening *Informs leader about problems <- <-Feedback *Acknowledging & Appreciating that arise at point of impact Feedback associates’ input, feedback, and work *Informs leader about feedback *Supports associate’s preferences & Feedback from clients & subordinates provides for needs, as appropriate *Reports outcomes (Porter-O’Grady & Mallock, 2007) Error as Opportunity Voluntary Disclosure Open Communication Leader as Creator Associate as Creator *Shapes corporate culture: *Shapes personal approach trust, empowerment, consistency to successful application of *Develops crisis management plan collaborative plans *Tinkers, innovates *Empowered to do what is known Mindful of Professional and solve problems that arise *Tinkers, innovates Interdependence Autonomy Open Communication Leader as Guide Associate as Follower *Picks appropriate personnel by matching Report *Informs leader of preferences their abilities w/ project demands to complete tasks, given desired outcomes *Shows positive attitude towards associates *Expresses values, perceptions, ideas, innovations *Establishes goals and measurable outcomes *Actively listens & seeks to achieve leader’s goals *Mentors, coaches, teaches Feedback *Manages Conflict Leadership Sense of Vulnerability Empowerment (Porter-O’Grady & Mallock, 2007) William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  16. 16. Leader as Follower • Leaders must let go of the fear of losing control, and will gain influence by doing so (Davidhizar & Shearer, 2002). • Effective leaders exhibit a positive attitude towards associates, through active listening and appreciation (Welford, 2002). • When leaders listen to feedback from associates, leaders are able to collaborate with associates in problem- solving, and leaders can support associates appropriately, in implementing jointly-developed plans at the point of care (Porter-O’Grady & Mallock, 2007). William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  17. 17. Leader as Creator • Leaders influence the shaping of organizational culture, by promoting: trust, trustworthiness, empowerment, delegation, consistency, and mentorship (Kane-Urrabazo, 2006). • Leaders help to solve problems by developing crisis management plans in collaboration with associates (Porter-O’Grady & Mallock, 2007). William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  18. 18. Leader as Guide • By learning to let go of controlling ways, leaders allow themselves to fulfill the roles of facilitator & mentor (Davidhizar & Shearer, 2002). • Through appropriate delegation and collaboration, leaders promote professional autonomy, which facilitates innovation (Welford, 2002). • Through delegation, leaders empower associates to feel free to act on what they know at the point of care (Davidhizar & Shearer, 2002). • Viewing error as opportunity, leaders replace the disempowering behaviors of commanding, controlling and inspecting, with the empowering behaviors of supporting, coaching, and teaching (Palmier, 1998). • Effective leaders foster openness and active, collaborative problem-solving (Palmier, 1998). William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  19. 19. Associate as Follower • Listens to leader’s goals, metrics, and timeline • Informs leader of both necessary and preferred elements in completing assignment • Expresses personal values, perceptions, ideas, innovations. • Actively attempts to meet leader’s reasonable goals. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  20. 20. Associate as Creator • When empowered, associates have control over how they carry out their day-to-day responsibilities, and themselves determine how they will achieve value- added outcomes (Broussard, 2007). • Empowered associates increase their own effectiveness, and thus, the organization’s corporate effectiveness (Kane-Urrabazo, 2006). • Professional empowerment is associated with improved productivity and increased job-satisfaction among associates (Broussard, 2007). William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  21. 21. Associate as Guide • Palmier (1998) suggests that staff members who practice and directly implement all procedures and policies, have a unique ability to recognize problems at the point of care. • When error is viewed as opportunity, associates are free to collaborate in identifying and solving problems (Palmier, 1998). William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  22. 22. Conclusions • Delegation is a strong tool for improving patient outcomes, because it empowers associates to make necessary decisions at the point of care. • The ability to delegate responsibilities appropriately is a hallmark of effective leadership. • The Quantum Leader Action Matrix and Recursive Reciprocal Delegation Model are tools that can help to guide leaders in making appropriate decisions. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13
  23. 23. References Apple Dictionary (2010). Recursive; Recursion. Retrieved from Apple.com. Bonewits, P.E.I. (1958). Yin Yang: The oriental symbol of the Laws of Polarity and Synthesis. Real Magic. Berkeley: Creative Arts Book Company, 94. Broussard, L. (2007). Empowerment in school nursing practice: A grounded theory approach. Journal of School Nursing (Allen Press Publishing Services Inc.), 23(6), 322-328. Retrieved from Ebscohost. Davidhizar, R., & Shearer, R. (2002). Taking charge by "letting go". Health Care Manager, 20(3), 33-38. Retrieved from Ebscohost. Escher, M.C. (1938). Day and Night. Woodcut in two colors. Retrieved from http://puffin.creighton.edu/museums/ archive/8_dkovach/nf-Tour8.html Escher, M.C. (1948). Drawing Hands. Lithograph. Retrieved from http://puffin.creighton.edu/museums/archive/ 8_dkovach/nf-Tour11.html Galbraith, J.R. (Feb, 1971). Matrix Organization Designs: How to combine functional and project forms. Business Horizons, 29-40. Gonzalez, L. (1999). Yin-Yang: Polarization, recursion, and transcendence in Daoism and Tantra. Retrieved from http:// mor.phe.us/writings/Yin-Yang.html. Kane-Urrabazo, C. (2006). Managements role in shaping organizational culture. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(3), 188-194. Retrieved from Ebscohost. Orem, D. (1991). Nursing: concepts of practice, 4th Ed. (pp. 19-25). St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book, Inc. Palmier, D. (1998). How can the bedside nurse take a leadership role to affect change for the future? ConceRN, 27(1), 16-17. Retrieved from Ebscohost.com. Porter-O’Grady, T., & Mallock, K. (2007). Quantum Leadership: a resource for health care innovation, 2d Ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Welford, C. (2002). Transformational leadership in nursing: Matching theory to practice. Nursing Management - UK, 9(4), 7-11. Retrieved from Ebscohost.com. William John Baum, Copyright 2010Tuesday, April 2, 13