Welcome! Sex Education Preparation  &  HIV Certification Muskegon ISD
Wisdom From Young Scholars <ul><li>Liter: A nest of puppies </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent contraception, use a  condominium...
Plusses… <ul><li>Laws      </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive workshop      </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced sexual h...
…  & Wishes <ul><li>Early dismissal (3:00)         </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer room   </li></ul><ul><li>Long day   </...
<ul><li>Increase awareness for the opportunities and challenges that exist in teaching human sexuality. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Sexual Messages in Society <ul><li>Discuss the messages you heard in the last  day.  </li></ul><ul><li>Verbally summarize ...
<ul><li>A new monk arrives at the monastery. He is assigned to help the other monks in copying the old texts by hand. He n...
What Do I Really Mean by “Abstinence”? <ul><li>Individually, write your personal definition of abstinence. </li></ul><ul><...
Key Abstinence Concepts: <ul><li>Must begin prior to sexual activity </li></ul><ul><li>Make it the norm for youth </li></u...
Key Abstinence Skills: <ul><li>Goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Personal limit setting </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li>...
What Is Intimacy? <ul><li>Define “intimacy.” </li></ul><ul><li>What promotes intimacy? </li></ul><ul><li>What blocks intim...
<ul><li>The Many Faces of Intimacy… </li></ul><ul><li>Mother & Infant </li></ul><ul><li>Parent & Child </li></ul><ul><li>B...
Levels of Physical Intimacy <ul><li>Shoulder to Shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Eye to Eye </li></ul><ul><li>Voice to Voice </l...
Levels of Sexual Intimacy <ul><li>Smiles, Kidding around, Flirting </li></ul><ul><li>Words and Gestures that show caring, ...
Sexual Intercourse Among Michigan Youth in Grades 9-12 <ul><li>Ever Had Sex </li></ul><ul><li>9th 27% </li></ul><ul><li>10...
13,000 Adolescents Speak:  A Profile of Michigan Youth <ul><li>Sexual Behavior in 7th Graders: </li></ul><ul><li>Boys </li...
Reasons Teens Give for Having Sex For pleasure or fun Pressures from peers To feel grown-up Love Curiosity Hold onto a boy...
Reasons Teens Give for Postponing Sex Fear of pregnancy Fear of getting a sexually transmitted infection Afraid parents wi...
HIV Huddles <ul><li>What did you first hear about HIV or AIDS, and how did you feel about that information? </li></ul><ul>...
THERE IS NO CURE, THERE IS NO VACCINE, THERE IS ONLY EDUCATION. <ul><li>AIDS Quarterly , February 1, 1990 </li></ul>
HIV/AIDS  Prevention Education “ AIDS 101”
Defining AIDS <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired </li></ul><...
Levels of Infection <ul><li>Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Kaposi’s sarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculos...
Continuum of HIV Infection I C An Sx AIDS Asymptomatic HIV Infection Symptomatic HIV Infection I = Day of Infection C = Co...
United States <ul><li>Cumulative AIDS cases diagnosed 2003-2007: 1,051,875 </li></ul><ul><li>9,209 Are Pediatric (<13 year...
Transmission Modes for HIV <ul><li>Male-to-Male Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Injecting Drug Use </li></ul><ul><li>Male-male Sex &...
Michigan HIV/AIDS Cases  by Age at HIV Diagnosis* *Living with HIV or AIDS 2009
Gender Comparisons <ul><li>U.S. AIDS 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan Living with AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan Living wi...
Stages of HIV Infection HIV Exposure Remain  HIV Free HIV Infection Able to Transmit HIV Positive 1-2 weeks 2 months (3-6)...
Possible Co-Factors ...May trigger the virus to activate in the body <ul><li>Re-exposure to Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Poor N...
Characteristics of HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus <ul><li>Retro virus: -RNA virus -Entwines itself into the genetic mat...
Infectivity of Body Fluids <ul><li>Confirmed Risk = Actual transmission Documented cases </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul...
High Risk Behavior: Pregnant Woman to Unborn Child
High Risk Behavior: Contaminated Blood & Blood Products
High Risk Behavior: Sharing Needles
High Risk Behavior: Intimate Sexual Contact ELIMINATE RISK by... Abstain from intimate sexual contact Lifetime monogamy RE...
Disease Transmission Possible  in the School Setting Vomit Saliva Urine Feces Blood Semen Nasal
How would it be if…?
Risk Ranking <ul><li>Rate each behavior according to risk of transmitting HIV: </li></ul>No Risk=no risk Low Risk=very few...
Continuum of Risk Behaviors <ul><li>Low Risk  Some Risk  High Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Safe = No risk...
What  behaviors  do you want to encourage? What  skills  do students need in order to demonstrate the behaviors? What do s...
Health Belief Model Skills Self-Efficacy Environmental Support Abilities to act in  a healthy way Belief that one can use ...
Common Practice Skills Self-Efficacy Environmental Support Behaviors Knowledge
Skills-Based Instruction <ul><li>Introduce </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Model </...
Skill Sequence: <ul><li>Personal limit setting </li></ul><ul><li>Communication  </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying trouble </li...
LaTisha’s Personal Action Plan <ul><li>I will only date guys who are my age. </li></ul><ul><li>I will only go on double da...
Brad’s Personal Action Plan <ul><li>I will wait until I am 16 to date. </li></ul><ul><li>I will go to a girl’s house only ...
Communicating With Others <ul><li>Share Information: </li></ul><ul><li>Address by name </li></ul><ul><li>State your plan… ...
Make the Message Clear <ul><li>Speak clearly, slowly, and in a firm voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Stand straight and tall. </li...
Steps for Identifying Trouble <ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Name the trouble </li></ul><ul><li>State the consequ...
The situation:  You have a crush on Chris. You think Chris likes you, too. It is after school, and you are talking to Chri...
<ul><li>Chris:  I want to be alone with you. We could get to know each other and spend some time together. My folks won’t ...
The situation:  You are new at school, and you still feel out of place. About the only person who even talks to you is Pat...
<ul><li>Pat:  It’s Saturday. Everyone’s going to be there. Except my parents, of course. That’s what’s so cool—no adults! ...
Effective Refusal Skills <ul><li>Ways to refuse: </li></ul><ul><li>Say a direct “no.” </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest another ac...
Tips for Role Playing: <ul><li>Describe the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Write out a script </li></ul><ul><li>Select role p...
Condom Practice Cards <ul><li>As a group, decide on the correct order for the steps for using a condom. </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
<ul><li>A kindergarten class had a homework assignment to find out about something exciting and relate it to the class the...
 
 
Answering Student Questions <ul><li>What is good practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Validate </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the questio...
 
 
Born Loser, by Art & Chip Sansom
 
Sexual Activity Related to Primary Source of Sex Education* % citing source  (33%)  (15%)  (26%)  (26%) *Grades 9 & 12 com...
Sex Education Evaluation Tool   I.   Is the curriculum meeting the needs of   your students?     II.   Is the curriculum c...
I. Need… <ul><li>What do your students need? </li></ul>
Sexual Intercourse Among Michigan Youth in Grades 9-12 <ul><li>Ever Had Sex </li></ul><ul><li>9th 27% </li></ul><ul><li>10...
13,000 Adolescents Speak:  A Profile of Michigan Youth <ul><li>Sexual Behavior in 7th Graders: </li></ul><ul><li>Boys </li...
Sexual Activity & Risk Reduction * At last intercourse, among students who had sex during previous 3 months 2009 MI YRBS
Sexual Behaviors of  14 to 17 Year Olds
Assets Protect From  High-Risk Behaviors 2001 Search Institute
II. Community Standards… <ul><li>What does your community support? </li></ul>
Most Parents Want a Two-Pronged Message Taught <ul><li>65% of parents want teens to be told to wait to have sex, but if th...
Parents’ Attitudes About Abstinence Are Complex <ul><li>33% say they want their children to postpone sex until marriage. <...
III. State Law… <ul><li>Are you in compliance with laws? </li></ul>
IV. Research & Best Practice… <ul><li>Are you implementing effectively? </li></ul>
Characteristics of  Effective Programs <ul><li>Research has shown that effective sexuality education programs have several...
Sex Education Resources <ul><li>2009 MI YRBS </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Education Evaluation ...
Sex Education Curriculum <ul><li>HIV Education     Sex Education </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive Health     Sex Education...
And in Closing… <ul><li>Complete: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post test </li></ul></ul><ul...
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Sex Ed Prep2 Muskegon2010

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Sex Ed Preparation and HIV Certification Training 3/26/2010

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  •        Explore attitudes, issues, and laws that affect teaching sex education       Analyze societal and educational messages about sexuality       Increase each participant’s personal comfort level and available repertoire of skills       Increase parental involvement in sex education       Practice effective strategies for teaching sex education  
  • Tell the participants they will work in small groups at their tables to share the results of their homework assignment on sexual messages in society. Assign group roles: spokesperson, leader, society recorder, teacher recorder Distribute markers and chart paper to each group Show overhead with task explanation Society’s message will be shared verbally, not on chart paper. After 10 minutes, ask each group’s spokesperson to share their two messages. Post the charts. Summarize by pointing out the difference between society’s messages and the messages caring adults want to share.
  • Using the Sex Education Evaluation Tool Use Tool as a guide Point out resources in packets for each section   I. Need: Observations and Interviews Search surveys 2001 YRBS results [O] Abstinence-only or Abstinence-plus   II. Community Standards: Community Survey: samples, how to, issues Sex ed advisory committee makeup: is it representative?   III. Legal Obligations Michigan laws Legal prohibitions Parental rights Advisory committee functions How are you utilizing your sex ed advisory committee? What are they called? Do they have other responsibilities? How often, when, do they meet?   IV. Research and Best Practice Evaluation information [H] Best practice—Kirby, characteristics, check lists Sample programs—curricular, service learning, mentoring Skills, skills, skills Staff development—Discuss the sex ed certification workshop
  • Effective Sexuality Education Programs Research has shown that effective sexuality education programs have the following thirteen characteristics: Identified and focused on clear health goals. Focused narrowly on specific behaviors leading to these health goals. Focused on sexual psychosocial risk and protective factors Implemented multiple activities to change each of the selected risk and protective factors. Created a safe social environment for youth to participate. Employed a variety of teaching methods designed to involve the participants and have them personalize the information.  Gave a clear message about sexual activity and condom or contraceptive use. Included messages and activities that were appropriate to the participants’ age, sexual experience and culture. Increased knowledge by providing basic, accurate information about the risks of teen sexual activity and methods of avoiding intercourse or using protection against pregnancy and STDs. Attempted to change individual values and attitudes about abstinence and condoms through various mechanisms. Used some of the same strategies to change perceptions of peer values and to address peer pressure to have sex. Identify specific situations that might lead to sex, unwanted sex, or unprotected sex and then identified methods of avoiding those situations or getting out of them. Provided modeling of and practice with communication, negotiation, and refusal skills in order to improve both skills and self-efficacy to use those skills. (Kirby, 2005, conference presentation )
  • National and state events Eaton ISD Plans and Services
  • Sex Ed Prep2 Muskegon2010

    1. 1. Welcome! Sex Education Preparation & HIV Certification Muskegon ISD
    2. 2. Wisdom From Young Scholars <ul><li>Liter: A nest of puppies </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent contraception, use a condominium. </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial insemination is when the farmer does it to the cow instead of the bull. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Plusses… <ul><li>Laws   </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive workshop   </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Informational   </li></ul><ul><li>Organized </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled good teaching behaviors and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Mingling with new people  </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed atmosphere  </li></ul><ul><li>Moving around  </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy video </li></ul><ul><li>Activities  </li></ul><ul><li>Learning things I thought I knew, but didn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Time went fast </li></ul><ul><li>Group work  </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions  </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of engagement  </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyable  </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrams fun </li></ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul><ul><li>Material given out  </li></ul><ul><li>All supportive of each other </li></ul><ul><li>Safe to share </li></ul><ul><li>Humorous setting </li></ul><ul><li>Glad I know male repro system </li></ul><ul><li>Snacks & lunch  </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting, knowledgeable instructor  </li></ul>
    4. 4. … & Wishes <ul><li>Early dismissal (3:00)    </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer room  </li></ul><ul><li>Long day  </li></ul><ul><li>More, shorter breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Music playing during work time </li></ul><ul><li>Two videos in a row zzzzz </li></ul><ul><li>No videos </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate anatomic drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Move more </li></ul><ul><li>Thought I would learn more about curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Chatty people at next table  </li></ul><ul><li>Pretzels </li></ul><ul><li>Faster pace </li></ul><ul><li>Copy of PowerPoint slides in our manual </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas for teaching 5 th graders correct anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Not sure what I’m teaching to my kids </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Increase awareness for the opportunities and challenges that exist in teaching human sexuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Receive updates in legal mandates for sex education, puberty, psycho-sexual development, criminal sexual code and reporting requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the process of implementing new curricula into existing human sexuality approved programs and explore human sexuality curricula. </li></ul><ul><li>Become certified HIV educators. </li></ul>Outcomes:
    6. 6. Sexual Messages in Society <ul><li>Discuss the messages you heard in the last day. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbally summarize the messages into one main message students hear from society. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what message YOU want to give kids. </li></ul><ul><li>Record it on your poster. </li></ul><ul><li>Report to the large group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>society’s message summarized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>your written message on the poster </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>A new monk arrives at the monastery. He is assigned to help the other monks in copying the old texts by hand. He notices, however, that they are copying from copies, not the original manuscript. So, the new monk goes to the head monk to ask him about this, pointing out that if there were an error in the first copy, that error would be continued in all of the subsequent copies. The head monk says, &quot;We have been copying from the copies for centuries, but you make a good point, my son.&quot; So, he goes down into the cellar with one of the copies to check it against the original. </li></ul><ul><li>Hours go by and nobody sees him. Eventually, one of the monks goes downstairs to look for him. Hearing sobbing coming from the back of the cellar, he finds the old monk leaning over one of the original manuscripts and crying. He asks the old monk what's wrong, and in a choked voice came the reply. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The original word was celebrate!&quot; </li></ul>
    8. 8. What Do I Really Mean by “Abstinence”? <ul><li>Individually, write your personal definition of abstinence. </li></ul><ul><li>With your small group, discuss your definitions. Try to come to consensus. </li></ul><ul><li>Individually, use your personal definition of abstinence and circle the behaviors that fit your definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the circled behaviors. Are these the behaviors you want young people to engage in? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Key Abstinence Concepts: <ul><li>Must begin prior to sexual activity </li></ul><ul><li>Make it the norm for youth </li></ul><ul><li>Say “later”…not “just say no” </li></ul><ul><li>Set goals for the future </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage parents to communicate and monitor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Practice skills </li></ul>
    10. 10. Key Abstinence Skills: <ul><li>Goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Personal limit setting </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy </li></ul>
    11. 11. What Is Intimacy? <ul><li>Define “intimacy.” </li></ul><ul><li>What promotes intimacy? </li></ul><ul><li>What blocks intimacy? </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>The Many Faces of Intimacy… </li></ul><ul><li>Mother & Infant </li></ul><ul><li>Parent & Child </li></ul><ul><li>Best Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Spouses or Committed Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Lovers </li></ul>
    13. 13. Levels of Physical Intimacy <ul><li>Shoulder to Shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Eye to Eye </li></ul><ul><li>Voice to Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Hand </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Waist </li></ul><ul><li>Face to Face </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Hand to Body </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth to Breast </li></ul><ul><li>Touch below Waist </li></ul><ul><li>Intercourse </li></ul>
    14. 14. Levels of Sexual Intimacy <ul><li>Smiles, Kidding around, Flirting </li></ul><ul><li>Words and Gestures that show caring, Hugging </li></ul><ul><li>Touching in Play, Sitting close, “Wrestling” </li></ul><ul><li>Holding hands </li></ul><ul><li>Arms around waist or shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Holding, Regular kissing </li></ul><ul><li>French kissing </li></ul><ul><li>Caressing above the waist </li></ul><ul><li>Caressing below the waist </li></ul><ul><li>Caressing to orgasm </li></ul><ul><li>Intercourse </li></ul>
    15. 15. Sexual Intercourse Among Michigan Youth in Grades 9-12 <ul><li>Ever Had Sex </li></ul><ul><li>9th 27% </li></ul><ul><li>10th 40% </li></ul><ul><li>11th 54% </li></ul><ul><li>12th 65% </li></ul><ul><li>Overall 46% </li></ul><ul><li>Never Had Sex </li></ul><ul><li>9th 73% </li></ul><ul><li>10th 60% </li></ul><ul><li>11th 46% </li></ul><ul><li>12th 35% </li></ul><ul><li>Overall 54% </li></ul><ul><li>2009 MI-YRBS </li></ul>
    16. 16. 13,000 Adolescents Speak: A Profile of Michigan Youth <ul><li>Sexual Behavior in 7th Graders: </li></ul><ul><li>Boys </li></ul><ul><li>Girls </li></ul><ul><li>Both </li></ul>
    17. 17. Reasons Teens Give for Having Sex For pleasure or fun Pressures from peers To feel grown-up Love Curiosity Hold onto a boyfriend or girlfriend Lonely Rebelling against parents See it on TV, in the movies Problems at home
    18. 18. Reasons Teens Give for Postponing Sex Fear of pregnancy Fear of getting a sexually transmitted infection Afraid parents will find out May be painful Against religious beliefs Might interfere with future plans Not financially ready for the responsibilities of a baby Not physically or mentally ready for sexual involvement Might ruin reputation Don’t want to
    19. 19. HIV Huddles <ul><li>What did you first hear about HIV or AIDS, and how did you feel about that information? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think young people need to know about HIV and AIDS? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you help prevent young people from getting infected with HIV? </li></ul>
    20. 20. THERE IS NO CURE, THERE IS NO VACCINE, THERE IS ONLY EDUCATION. <ul><li>AIDS Quarterly , February 1, 1990 </li></ul>
    21. 21. HIV/AIDS Prevention Education “ AIDS 101”
    22. 22. Defining AIDS <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Immune </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Syndrome </li></ul>
    23. 23. Levels of Infection <ul><li>Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Kaposi’s sarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Candidiasis </li></ul><ul><li>Dementia </li></ul><ul><li>T-cell count <200 </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Night sweats </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen glands </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul>Asymptomatic HIV Infection <ul><li>None </li></ul>AIDS Symptomatic HIV Infection
    24. 24. Continuum of HIV Infection I C An Sx AIDS Asymptomatic HIV Infection Symptomatic HIV Infection I = Day of Infection C = Communicability (2-4 wks) An = Antibodies (2-6 mos) Sx = Symptoms (6 mos – 15+ yrs.) AIDS = AIDS Diagnosis
    25. 25. United States <ul><li>Cumulative AIDS cases diagnosed 2003-2007: 1,051,875 </li></ul><ul><li>9,209 Are Pediatric (<13 years old) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, 37,041 people were diagnosed with AIDS. </li></ul>Living with AIDS through April. 1, 2009: 7,581 Living with HIV (not AIDS): 6,606 180 HIV and 62 AIDS are 0-12 years old Estimated HIV prevalence: ~18,200 Michigan
    26. 26. Transmission Modes for HIV <ul><li>Male-to-Male Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Injecting Drug Use </li></ul><ul><li>Male-male Sex & IDU </li></ul><ul><li>Heterosexual Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Undetermined: </li></ul><ul><li>Presumed Hetero </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Products </li></ul><ul><li>Perinatal </li></ul>46% 10% 4% 19% 19% 9% 11% 1% 2% Behavior MI
    27. 27. Michigan HIV/AIDS Cases by Age at HIV Diagnosis* *Living with HIV or AIDS 2009
    28. 28. Gender Comparisons <ul><li>U.S. AIDS 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan Living with AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan Living with HIV Infection </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Census Estimates 2007 </li></ul>
    29. 29. Stages of HIV Infection HIV Exposure Remain HIV Free HIV Infection Able to Transmit HIV Positive 1-2 weeks 2 months (3-6) May have flu-like symptoms Asymptomatic HIV Infection Symptomatic HIV Infection AIDS
    30. 30. Possible Co-Factors ...May trigger the virus to activate in the body <ul><li>Re-exposure to Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Drug/Alcohol Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Infections, Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma-surgery, injury </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinations-live virus </li></ul>
    31. 31. Characteristics of HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus <ul><li>Retro virus: -RNA virus -Entwines itself into the genetic material of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Outer protein coat: -Changes rapidly -No vaccine </li></ul>Attacks certain cells: -Helper T cells (WBC) -Macrophages (WBC) -Glial cells (brain) <ul><li>Lente virus: -May live dormant for years </li></ul>
    32. 32. Infectivity of Body Fluids <ul><li>Confirmed Risk = Actual transmission Documented cases </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Blood products </li></ul><ul><li>Semen </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Breast milk </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Risk = Possible, highly unlikely No documented cases </li></ul><ul><li>Urine </li></ul><ul><li>Feces </li></ul><ul><li>Vomit </li></ul><ul><li>Tears </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul>
    33. 33. High Risk Behavior: Pregnant Woman to Unborn Child
    34. 34. High Risk Behavior: Contaminated Blood & Blood Products
    35. 35. High Risk Behavior: Sharing Needles
    36. 36. High Risk Behavior: Intimate Sexual Contact ELIMINATE RISK by... Abstain from intimate sexual contact Lifetime monogamy REDUCE RISK by... Use latex condoms correctly Use a water-based lubricant Limit the number of partners Know the sexual history of partners Stop high-risk behaviors
    37. 37. Disease Transmission Possible in the School Setting Vomit Saliva Urine Feces Blood Semen Nasal
    38. 38. How would it be if…?
    39. 39. Risk Ranking <ul><li>Rate each behavior according to risk of transmitting HIV: </li></ul>No Risk=no risk Low Risk=very few cases Some Risk=many cases High Risk=major route of transmission
    40. 40. Continuum of Risk Behaviors <ul><li>Low Risk Some Risk High Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Safe = No risk of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Low = Very few documented cases </li></ul><ul><li>Some = Many confirmed cases </li></ul><ul><li>High = Major route of transmission </li></ul>
    41. 41. What behaviors do you want to encourage? What skills do students need in order to demonstrate the behaviors? What do students need to know to use the skills?
    42. 42. Health Belief Model Skills Self-Efficacy Environmental Support Abilities to act in a healthy way Belief that one can use their skills to change life The most important predictors of current and future health status Facts to make responsible Decisions Understand severity Risks and benefits Peer, school, home, community support and reinforcement for healthy behaviors Behaviors Knowledge
    43. 43. Common Practice Skills Self-Efficacy Environmental Support Behaviors Knowledge
    44. 44. Skills-Based Instruction <ul><li>Introduce </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate </li></ul><ul><li>Check for Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Practice With Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul><ul><li>Use in real life </li></ul>
    45. 45. Skill Sequence: <ul><li>Personal limit setting </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying trouble </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal </li></ul>
    46. 46. LaTisha’s Personal Action Plan <ul><li>I will only date guys who are my age. </li></ul><ul><li>I will only go on double dates or group dates. </li></ul><ul><li>I will not sit in a parked car with a date. </li></ul><ul><li>I will only attend parties where drugs and alcohol are not available. </li></ul><ul><li>I will keep my clothes on when I’m with a boy. </li></ul><ul><li>I will wait to have sexual intercourse. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Brad’s Personal Action Plan <ul><li>I will wait until I am 16 to date. </li></ul><ul><li>I will go to a girl’s house only when her parents are home. </li></ul><ul><li>I will not use alcohol or other drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>I will kiss and hug someone I like, but not go any further. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Communicating With Others <ul><li>Share Information: </li></ul><ul><li>Address by name </li></ul><ul><li>State your plan… clearly and simply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Say what you will do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Say what you won’t do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use one sentence each. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be sure you are heard: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat your message. </li></ul><ul><li>Say, “Listen to me.” </li></ul><ul><li>If interrupted, continue from where you were interrupted. </li></ul>7/8 HIV/STD Michigan Model
    49. 49. Make the Message Clear <ul><li>Speak clearly, slowly, and in a firm voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Stand straight and tall. </li></ul><ul><li>Look the person in the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Face the person. </li></ul>7/8 HIV/STD Michigan Model
    50. 50. Steps for Identifying Trouble <ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Name the trouble </li></ul><ul><li>State the consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest an alternate activity </li></ul><ul><li>Move it, sell it, and leave the door open </li></ul>
    51. 51. The situation: You have a crush on Chris. You think Chris likes you, too. It is after school, and you are talking to Chris... <ul><li>Chris: I love that shirt on you. You’re really looking good! Let’s spend some time together. You want to come to my house? Or should we go to yours? </li></ul><ul><li>Partner A: (Ask questions.) </li></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>Chris: I want to be alone with you. We could get to know each other and spend some time together. My folks won’t be home for a couple hours. We could really have some fun! </li></ul><ul><li>Partner A: (Name the trouble. State the consequences. Suggest an alternative.) </li></ul><ul><li>Chris: Oh, I don’t want to do that. I really want you to come to my house. </li></ul><ul><li>Partner A: (Move it. Sell it. Leave the door open.) </li></ul>
    53. 53. The situation: You are new at school, and you still feel out of place. About the only person who even talks to you is Pat. Pat has lots of friends, but they don’t say much to you either. After school, Pat comes rushing up to you... <ul><li>Pat: Hey! This is your lucky day! I’m having a party, and all my best friends are going to come. Of course, that means you, too! </li></ul><ul><li>Partner B: (Ask questions.) </li></ul>
    54. 54. <ul><li>Pat: It’s Saturday. Everyone’s going to be there. Except my parents, of course. That’s what’s so cool—no adults! I’ve been stashing away some of their booze in my room, so they won’t notice it’s gone. And here’s the best part—Tony thinks you’re hot and wants to get to know you at the party! </li></ul><ul><li>Partner B: (Name the trouble. State the consequences. Suggest an alternative.) </li></ul><ul><li>Pat: Quit being a baby! No wonder you don’t have any friends. Come on! You’re my friend...aren’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>Partner B: (Move it. Sell it. Leave the door open.) </li></ul>
    55. 55. Effective Refusal Skills <ul><li>Ways to refuse: </li></ul><ul><li>Say a direct “no.” </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest another activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the message over and over. </li></ul><ul><li>Say why not…fact, feeling, or opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Walk away… </li></ul>7/8 HIV/STD Michigan Model
    56. 56. Tips for Role Playing: <ul><li>Describe the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Write out a script </li></ul><ul><li>Select role players vs volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Act out the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Give a clear cue to end </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss with role players, then observers </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback and correction </li></ul><ul><li>Express appreciation to role- players </li></ul>
    57. 57. Condom Practice Cards <ul><li>As a group, decide on the correct order for the steps for using a condom. </li></ul><ul><li>We will discuss the order in five minutes. </li></ul>
    58. 59. <ul><li>A kindergarten class had a homework assignment to find out about something exciting and relate it to the class the next day. </li></ul><ul><li>The first little boy walked up to the front of the class and, with a piece of chalk, made a small white dot on the blackboard, then sat back down. </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzled, the teacher asked him just what it was. “It’s a period, said the little boy. “Well, I can see that,” she said, “but what is so exciting about a period?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Darned if I know,” said the little boy. “But this morning my sister was missing one, Daddy had a heart attack, Mommy fainted, and the man next door shot himself.” </li></ul>
    59. 62. Answering Student Questions <ul><li>What is good practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Validate </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the question </li></ul><ul><li>Know the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a question back </li></ul><ul><li>Pause </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t know…find out” </li></ul><ul><li>KISS </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the door open </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to boundaries </li></ul>
    60. 65. Born Loser, by Art & Chip Sansom
    61. 67. Sexual Activity Related to Primary Source of Sex Education* % citing source (33%) (15%) (26%) (26%) *Grades 9 & 12 combined Minnesota Dept. of Education
    62. 68. Sex Education Evaluation Tool   I.   Is the curriculum meeting the needs of your students?     II.   Is the curriculum consistent with community standards?   III. Is the curriculum consistent with research and best practices?   IV.   Is the curriculum consistent with state law?  
    63. 69. I. Need… <ul><li>What do your students need? </li></ul>
    64. 70. Sexual Intercourse Among Michigan Youth in Grades 9-12 <ul><li>Ever Had Sex </li></ul><ul><li>9th 27% </li></ul><ul><li>10th 43% </li></ul><ul><li>11th 46% </li></ul><ul><li>12th 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Overall 42% </li></ul><ul><li>Never Had Sex </li></ul><ul><li>9th 73% </li></ul><ul><li>10th 57% </li></ul><ul><li>11th 54% </li></ul><ul><li>12th 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Overall 58% </li></ul><ul><li>2007 MI-YRBS </li></ul>
    65. 71. 13,000 Adolescents Speak: A Profile of Michigan Youth <ul><li>Sexual Behavior in 7th Graders: </li></ul><ul><li>Boys </li></ul><ul><li>Girls </li></ul><ul><li>Both </li></ul>
    66. 72. Sexual Activity & Risk Reduction * At last intercourse, among students who had sex during previous 3 months 2009 MI YRBS
    67. 73. Sexual Behaviors of 14 to 17 Year Olds
    68. 74. Assets Protect From High-Risk Behaviors 2001 Search Institute
    69. 75. II. Community Standards… <ul><li>What does your community support? </li></ul>
    70. 76. Most Parents Want a Two-Pronged Message Taught <ul><li>65% of parents want teens to be told to wait to have sex, but if they don’t, to use birth control and practice safer sex. </li></ul><ul><li>33% of parents want teens to only be told to have sex when they are married. </li></ul>Kaiser Family Foundation Survey at www.kff.org
    71. 77. Parents’ Attitudes About Abstinence Are Complex <ul><li>33% say they want their children to postpone sex until marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet a majority of those parents want their children to also get information about risk reduction as part of their sex education course: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>71% think they should be taught how to use condoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>68% think they should be taught where to get and how to use birth control </li></ul></ul>
    72. 78. III. State Law… <ul><li>Are you in compliance with laws? </li></ul>
    73. 79. IV. Research & Best Practice… <ul><li>Are you implementing effectively? </li></ul>
    74. 80. Characteristics of Effective Programs <ul><li>Research has shown that effective sexuality education programs have several specific characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Please review page 6 of the “Effective Programs” section. </li></ul><ul><li>How does your approved program measure up? </li></ul>
    75. 81. Sex Education Resources <ul><li>2009 MI YRBS </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Education Evaluation Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Materials Center (EMC) website at www.emc.cmich.edu </li></ul>
    76. 82. Sex Education Curriculum <ul><li>HIV Education  Sex Education </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive Health  Sex Education </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive Anatomy  Sex Education </li></ul><ul><li>Videos  Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Worksheets  Curriculum </li></ul>
    77. 83. And in Closing… <ul><li>Complete: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do CEU forms </li></ul><ul><li>Have a graduation ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Sign out </li></ul>
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