• Demographics• Before Zoning • Nuisance Law Suits • Exclusionary Deed Restrictions• 1920s http://www.ourstage.com/blog/2010/1/11/metal-monday-old-dogs-vs-young-guns • Standard Zoning Enabling Act • Finding a Balance • Provides a common statutory • Over-regulation basis for zoning that makes court (HOA cities) decisions on zoning applicable • Protect the Health, nationwide. Safety, and Welfare • Standard Planning Act of the public
in the incorporation of a conservationethic into urban planning
The intrinsic character of land should guide its use London 1850-1900 • The idea of a greenbelt is introduced in England to prevent one town from growing into another. • Henry David Thoreau writes about the “importance of preserving some portions of nature herself unimpaired.” • Frederick Law Olmstead develops the concept of linked systems of parks and parkways.http://www.ripitupandstartagain.org/pechakucha/pechakucha-13
Conserving natural places for future generations Yellowstone National Park 1900-1920 • President Theodore Roosevelt’s love for the great outdoors sets the stage for the National Park System. • Warren Manning uses the overlay technique to analyze natural & cultural information about a site.http://www.rockymountainmagazine.com
Linkage established between ecology & design Regional Planning Commissions in Missouri 1930-1950 • New Deal greenbelt cities. • Victor Shelford calls for the preservation of natural areas and buffer zones. • Aldo Leopold introduces the concept of a land ethic. • Benton MacKaye develops the discipline of regional planning.http://oseda.missouri.edu/modot/rpc/index.shtml
• Scientific, definable process for land-use planning & suitability analyses 1960s • Protecting core areas of• Congress passes the wilderness Wilderness Act. • Rachel Carson publishes• William H. Whyte coins the Silent Spring, bringing term “greenway.” attention to man’s impact on• Ian McHarg argues that nature. ecology should serve as the • Sciences emerge – basis for design. Landscape Ecology and Island Biogeography – to• Philip Lewis creates a method study the relationships of landscape analysis that between biological includes vegetation, scenery, communities and the physical and environmental corridors. environment.
Linkages between natural areas are needed to protect biodiversity and ecosystem processes 1970-1980 • Conservation Biology is introduced as a discipline. • GIS is introduced as a tool for regional planning. City of Neosho - EcologicalCartography by Ronda Headland, MDC Landtype Associations
• Landscape scale focus • Participatory decision- making City of Springfield Stakeholder Input Meeting 1990-present • Planning efforts to create statewide greenway systems. • Interest grows in green infrastructure as a tool to guide land conservation & development. • President forms a Commission on Sustainable Development.Photo by Ronda Headland, MDC
or the role urban planning plays inthe conservation of natural resources
• Euclidean • Segregation of land uses• Performance • Effects based planning• Incentive http://www.urbanindy.com/tag/zoning/ • Rewards are given to meet urban development goals• Form-based • Determine patterns & appearances rather than land uses http://www.cooltownstudios.com/2010/11/19/form-based-planning-os-key-to-knowledge-economy
Conservation Overlay District Planned Unit Developmenthttp://www.thedailypleasantville.com/ http://www.buckwaltercommercial.com/buckwalter_pud.aspx
• Conservation Subdivision Zoning • Cluster ZoningConventional Rural Residential • Open Space Zoning5 Acre Minimum • Forestry & Agricultural ZoningA Model Ordinance for a Conservation Subdivision. Wisconsin’s Assembly Committee on Natural Resources. February 28, 2011.
• Clearing & Grading• Steep Slopes• Sediment Erosion Control• Rain Water Management• Source Water Protection Photo by Ronda Headland, MDC
• Tree Preservation• Planting Requirements• Habitat Protection• Light Pollution No shade tree? Blame not the sun, but yourself. – Chinese Proverb http://mcrol.trianglealumni.org/
Photo by Ronda Headland, MDC Photo by Guy Headland
http://www.wday.com/event/image/id/568/headline/Flood%20buyouts/ Photo by Ronda Headland, MDCCourtesy Patti Banks Associates
• Greenbelt• Urban Services Boundary• Nodal Development• Wedges & Corridors• New Urbanism• Smart Growth Charlotte-Mecklenburg Planning, Charlotte Department of Transportation. Transit Ready in Charlotte. Presented at the Congress for New Urbanism. June 2009.
• Access Rightshttp://www.busybunny.com/catalog/bundle-of-apple-sticks-bb-22.htm • Mineral Rights • Timber Rights • Right to Sell • Right to Build or Develophttp://www.kids-birthday-party-favors.com/pixi-stix/
Sending Zone Receiving ZonePhoto by Francis Skalicky, MDC http://www.cooltownstudios.com/2010/02/24/denvers-living-city-block-green-model
Urban Planners today… • Embrace the three E’s – Equity, Economy, Environment • Acknowledge that to design a 21st century city we must have the “Right Rules in the Right Places” • Are confident that we have the tools necessary to make wise land use decisions • Advocate for the public interest and therefore shall have a special concern for the long-term consequences of present actions (AICP code of ethics) • Recognize that the role of a planner in a community is to Lead, Inspire, and InnovatePhoto by Francis Skalicky, MDC