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The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 
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The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 

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  • 1. The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 30th Jubilee International Conference on Organizational Science Development Portorož, 23. March 2011 Hans-Dieter Zimmermann FHS St. Gallen, University of Applied Sciences, St. Gallen, Switzerland www.hdzimmermann.net This presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Switzerland License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ch/
  • 2. AgendaThe Web: From 1991 until todayGeneral Developments on different levelsEmergence of Electronic MarketsThe eCommerce PioneersThe Customer in the Center: eCommerce 2.0  Five conceptsConclusions 2
  • 3. The World Wide Web – still a TeenagerDo you remember?There was a lifebefore the Web !The Web startedonly in August 1991 ! http://www.flickr.com/photos/27443865@N08/ 3
  • 4. The E-Business Hype Cycle Seite 4
  • 5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/27048731@N03/3764657489/ The Web DevelopmentsSeite 5
  • 6. … and TodayThe Web is part of our daily life … at work, at home, on the road … as employer, as mom and dad, as consumer, a citizen, as patient, … basically in any role we can take … the respective infrastructures are availableEmergence of Web 2.0 and Social Media 6
  • 7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/popoever/234877734/7
  • 8. http://www.flickr.com/photos/fredcavazza/2564571564/
  • 9. Web 2.0 and Social Media:It‘s not about tools and technology!It‘s about behavior!… on the  Societal  Organizational  IndividualLevel http://www.flickr.com/photos/pigatto/332193181/ 9
  • 10. Societal Level – (1) Facebook-/Twitter- Revolutions in the Arab World …http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150435486980651 http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1850044009242 10
  • 11. Facebook-/ Twitter - Revolutions … http://www.flickr.com/photos/syoung/3955230375/… the right term?No!Revolutions are initiatedby people who fight for their rightsbut …(Social) Media support people in terms ofcoordination, organizing, communication 11
  • 12. http://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_200863076591392&ap=1 „e-Egypt Party“
  • 13. The fear of the mighty …http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=490028917075
  • 14. Societal Level –(2) Open, transparent, participatory societiesThe Web as Enabler for  eGoverment  eParticipation  eInclusion  eDemocracy  …… for new civil societies… (primarily) in western countries http://www.flickr.com/photos/oxfam/3982928597/ 14
  • 15. Open Goverment: USAhttp://www.whitehouse.gov/open 15
  • 16. Open Goverment: UKhttp://data.gov.uk/ 16
  • 17. eZurich - eParticipation The eZürich Ideas Competition collected >600 ideashttp://www.ezurich.ch/en 17
  • 18. City of St. Gallen – Social Media & eParticipationhttp://www.stadt.sg.ch 18
  • 19. City of St. Gallen – MySG.ch A Facebook like community platform for citizenshttp://mysg.ch 19
  • 20. Organizational LevelMajor steps of ICT application within andacross organizations 1960s Automation and improvements in efficiency Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Interorganizational Systems (IOS) eBusiness and Supply Chain Management (SCM) today Enterprise 2.0 20
  • 21. Individual LevelMajor steps of ICT utilization through individuals Automated Teller Machines (ATM) 1980s Online Networks for Consumers  Compuserve, Videotex, Bildschirmtext, Minitel, Prodigy, AOL, … Personal Computer (PC) World Wide Web (WWW) today Web 2.0 and Social Media 21
  • 22. Individual LevelMajor areas of ICT utilization through individuals 1990s eCommerce Consumer eGoverment, e.g., eTax Citizen eHealth Patient eHealth 2.0 ePatient eDemocracy and eParticipation Citizen 2.0 today 22
  • 23. A Major Trend on the Individual Level:Selftracking and Selfmonitoring (Personal Informatics)Individuals track personal data to monitor personal activities to share their data with  Friends on social networks  Doctors Enabling Self Management  For people having chronic diseases  For people to stay healthy and active 23
  • 24. Selftracking and Selfmonitoring http://www.fitbit.com 24
  • 25. http://www.fitbit.com Selfmonitoring Selftracking and http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2011/02/25/adventures-in-25 self-surveillance-fitbit-tracking-my-movement-and-sleep/
  • 26. Selftracking and Selfmonitoring “ithlete - new heart rate technology that tells you when to train and when to rest” Calculates recommendations based on the Heart-rate variability (HRV)http://www.myithlete.com/ 26
  • 27. The ePatient Equipped with the skills to manage their own condition. Enabled to make choices about self-care and those choices are respected. Empowered Engaged patients are engaged in their own care Equals in their partnerships with the various physicians involved in their care Emancipated Expert patients can improve their self-rated health status, cope better with fatigue and other generic features of chronic disease such as role limitation, and reduce disability and their dependence on hospital care. 27
  • 28. Emergence of Electronic Markets or How it Began
  • 29. Electronic Market HypothesisCACM paperJune 1987Based onTransaction CostEconomicsMain idea:More market-likecoordination Malone, Thomas; Yates, Joanne; Benjamin, Robert I.: Electronic markets and electronic hierarchies, Communication of the ACM 30, 484-497 (1987) 29
  • 30. Electronic Markets Newsletter SSCI listed journal September 1991 Vol 20 (2010) 32
  • 31. Also the Bled eConference started in 1987 http://bledconference.org 33
  • 32. The eCommerce Pioneers
  • 33. 1995 - AmazonStart as an Online booksellerToday: Online shopping center Market platforms for  Consumers and  Businesses
  • 34. 1995 - eBayStart as an Online auction based marketplace („flea market“)Today:marketplace for C2C and B2C Auctions Fixed prices New products 36
  • 35. Changing Value Creation in the Digital Economy: Changing Value Creation Processes: The Integration of Customers into Value Creation
  • 36. The Integration of Customers into Value Creation Supplier Wholesaler Retailer Customer Traditional Value Chain  ‘Production’  Need Inter- Emerging Customers mediary Value Network  Solution 41
  • 37. The Integration of Customers into Value CreationeBay Individual as seller or buyer Through ratings the individual contributes to the business partner’s profile  new responsibilityAmazon Evaluation of products Individual Recommendations Affiliate program …  the individual as co-creator of services 42
  • 38. The Customer in the Center: eCommerce 2.0
  • 39. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, …Individuals can give feedback on any transaction  Product related  Business partner related 44
  • 40. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, … 45
  • 41. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, … 46
  • 42. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, … 47
  • 43. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, …[http://faz-community.faz.net/blogs/netzkonom/archive/2008/11/23/marketing-im-web-2-0.aspx]
  • 44. [http://faz-community.faz.net/blogs/netzkonom/archive/2008/11/23/marketing-im-web-2-0.aspx]
  • 45. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ross/3941293767/2. Social Software Engage people Connect peopleWeblogsMicroblogs (Twitter, …)WikisSocial Network Services (Facebook, LinkedIn, XING, …)… location based SNS (Foursquare, Gowalla, …)Social Bookmarking (del.icio.us, …) … for scholarly references (BibSonomy, CiteULike, Mendeley, …)Social Music (blip.fm, spotify, simfy, …)Social ShoppingSocial Media Sharing (Flickr, Youtube, …)SocialTV… http://www.flickr.com/photos/thbernhardt/2984100802/ 50
  • 46. Social Software Value Matrix52 http://www.flickr.com/photos/ross/3486654131/
  • 47. 2. Social Software – Social Networks: FacebookCreate your communityhttp://www.facebook.com/adidasoriginals 53
  • 48. 3. CrowdsourcingUtilizing the intelligence of the massesOutsourcing of tasks  Brainstorming, design, funding, … http://www.flickr.com/photos/beansandgrapes/4196948772/Examples  spreadshirt.de  Starbucks Idea (mystarbucksidea.force.com)  IdeaStorm (Dell) (www.ideastorm.com)  Library of Congress & Flickr (www.loc.gov/rr/print/flickr_pilot.html)  … Platforms  atizo.ch, bonspin.de, ideabounty.com, … 54
  • 49. 3. Crowdsourcing - Example www.thejohnnycashproject.com 55
  • 50. 4. Mass CustomizationCombining individualization of products and efficiencies of mass productionExamples Books (pegastar.com) Watches (121time.com) Shirts (dolzer.de) Parts (emachineshop.com) Sport shoes http://nikeid.nike.com 56
  • 51. 4. Mass Customization http://nikeid.nike.com/nikeidhttp://shop.adidas.de/miadidas mongolianshoebbq.puma.comhttp://www.miadidas.com/Main.action Seite 57
  • 52. Mass Customization - Example58 http://www.myswisschocolate.ch/
  • 53. 5. The Long Tail
  • 54. ‚Web 2.0‘ – The Long Tail(Chris Anderson, 2004, www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html)The Three Forces of the Long Tail  Force 1: Democratize the tools of production  Force 2: Democratize the tools of distribution  Force 3: Connect supply and demand
  • 55. 61
  • 56. Conclusions
  • 57. The role of the individual has changeddramatically in the last two decadesWeb 1.0: Individuals are at the end of theone-way digitalized value chainWeb 2.0: Individuals are able to activelyparticipate in value creation in differentstages Citizens, Patients, Consumers … are at eye-level with their partners … have to take responsibilities for themselves and for others … need media and information literacy 63
  • 58. „Wir teilen Informationen undunterschätzen doch ihre Macht“(We share informationbut underestimate their power) Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Blogger from Tokio, Japan [FAZ.net 23.3.2011] 64

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