Political History 1960 CAR independent from France on 13 August. David Dacko, Minister of the Interior, forces parliament to elect him as first president. 1964 Dacko, candidate of single party established in 1962, wins first elections. 1965 Colonel Jean-Bedel Bokassa, former captain of the French army, takes power in a bloody coup over a weak Dacko on 31 December with a mission to eradicate corruption and improve the economy. 1979 Apr – Support to Bokassa weakens after “Ngaragba massacre,” when 250 students demonstrating in Bangui were beaten and thrown into Ngaragba prison, where dozens died. 20 Sep – Bokassa overthrown; Dacko put back into power. French army forced to secure Bangui following demonstrations of discontent. 1981 Dacko wins elections over Ange-Felix Patassé, leader of the Movement for the Liberation of the CAR (MLPC), however, unconfident he hands power to the Military Committee for National Recovery (CRMN) headed by General André Kolingba, the Central African Armed Force’s (FACA) Chief of Staff. 1982 Two attempted coups blocked; one by Patassé and one by François Bozizé and Alphonse Mbaïkoua. Bozizé flees to Chad and Mbaïkoua to Markounda, north CAR. Context | 3
Political History 1991 Multi-party system ratified in reformed constitution. 1993 Patassé defeats Kolingba in elections; ending military rule. 1997 After a series of mutinies between 1996 and 1997, France boosts military presence in Bangui to protect constitutional order. French troops later replaced by 750 peacekeeping troops from the Inter-African Commission to Monitor Implementation of the Bangui Accords (MISAB). 1998 1,350 soldiers with the UN Mission for the Central African Republic (MINURCA) replace MISAB with a mandate to ensure security in Bangui for three months. 1999 Patassé defeats multiple parties in first round of elections. 2000 1 Apr - UN withdraws peacekeeping force, MINURCA, and established UN Peacebuilding Office in the CAR (BONUCA). Heightened unrest over civil servants’ wages. Context | 4
Political History 2001 May - Attempted coup; Kolingba first claims responsibility, but later thought to may have been Bozizé, then FACA Chief of Staff. Government supporters attack Kolingba supports, forcing 50,000 residents to flee Bangui. Patassé maintains his position in power with the support of Libyan soldiers sent by Colonel Qaddafi. Dec 2001 – 300 peacekeeping troops from the Community of Sahel Saharan States (CEN-SAD), formed by Qaddafi, deployed to Bangui to secure capital. 2002 Oct - Supporters of Bozizé raid Bangui; driven back by Libyan forces and combatants of the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC). Dec – 300 Force Multinationale en Centrafrique (FOMUC) soldiers replace CEN-SAD. 2003 Bozizé, with support from Chad, launches a successful coup in March and becomes Head of State and Minister of Defense. Wave of looting by the liberators in Bangui and even more in central and northern regions. 2005 Bozizé wins elections over Martin Ziguélé in second round. Context | 5
Political History 2005 - 2008 Insecurity increases in the northern regions where civil administration fled due to lack of payment, leaving FACA as the only government representatives. The Presidential Guard and the FACA conduct attacks against the population and rebel groups, and increase in banditry profiting from a weak state. Many rebel groups formed or strengthened to protect their civilians, keep control of their resources and demand support from the State. More than 300,000 displaced within the CAR or fleeing to Cameroon and Chad. Sep 2007 U.N. Mission in CAR and Chad (MINURCAT) established under Security Council resolution 1778 in order to contribute to the protection of civilians; promote human rights and the rule of law; and promote regional peace. In the CAR, presence limited to Vakaga, isolated prefecture in the north-east. Feb 2008 First Lord’s Resistance Army attack on the southeastern regions of CAR, driving people from their villages to seek refugee in main towns. June 2008 Libreville Comprehensive Peace Agreement reached between the Government and all but one rebel group. Agreement calls for the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) process. Context | 6
Political History Jul 2008 Regional peace-keeping force MICOPAX, under the responsibility of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), replaces FOMUC starting its mandate in Jan 2009 with an objective to protect civilians, secure the territory, contribute to the national reconciliation process and facilitate political dialogue. Jun – Aug 2009 Ugandan People’s Defense Force (UPDF) establish presence in the LRA-affected southeast. Sep 2009 Front Populaire pour le Redressement (FPR), Chadian armed rebel group led by Baba Laddé, stage first attack in the CAR . Nov 2010 MINURCAT ends its mandate, and leaves Vakaga. 23 Jan 2011 Bozizé wins presidential elections against Patassé, and his national party, Kwa na Kwa, takes the majority in the parliament in legislative elections. 12 Jun 2011 Government of CAR signs a ceasefire agreement with the Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (CPJP), the only major armed group not to have signed the June 2008 Libreville Comprehensive Peace Agreement. 25 Jun 2011 Launch of the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) for ex-combatants with 5 groups to participate. Sources: International Crisis Group, European Commission, UN DPKO, UN Security Council Reports Context | 7
The People of CAR • Population : 4,442,000 (70% living in the western parts of the country) • Languages: French (official language), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), and more than 74 local languages • Religion*: 35% indigenous beliefs, 35% Protestant, 25% Roman Catholic, 15% Islam • Ethnic Groups: 33% Gbaya, 27% Banda, 13% Mandjia, 7.9%, 10% Sara, 7% Mboum, 4% M’Baka, 4% Yakoma, 2% other *Animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority Sources: UNFPA (2010), CIA World Fact Book (2011) Context | 8
Neighbors in state of conflict or instability1. Chad 4. Darfur, SudanInsecurity due to armed rebel Ongoing conflict between rebelgroups, inter-ethnic tensions factions and the Government ofover access to land and natural Sudan.resources and banditry.: 5. South Sudan Newly independent, inter-clan2. Lord’s Resistance Army 1 conflict and tensions with the 4 north still remain.Actively committing atrocities insoutheast CAR, northern DRC 5 6. Ituri, DRCand South Sudan. While the land disputes between agriculturalists and 2 pastoralists have calmed, armed groups remain active. 3 6 7. The Kivus, DRC3. Equateur, DRC Conflict fueled by vast naturalInter-ethnic clashes led to 7 resources in the region, themassive displacement in 2009 Army is fighting mainlyand 2010. The situation has Rwandan Hutu rebels (FDLR)since calmed with an on-going and a collection of otherreconciliation process. insurgents.
Economy and Development Human Development Index rank 179HDI 1 out of 187 1 countries Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita rank 168GDP 1 out of 173 1 countries Living on less than US$1.25 per day rank 103POV 1 out of 111 1 countries Central African Republic Country in Sub-Saharan Africa Other country Source: UNDP Human Development Report 2011 Context | 10
Millennium Development Goals – Where are we? Progress by goal with 3.5 years to go until 2015 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieved Very likely to be achieved, Achieve universal primary education on track Possible to achieve if Promote gender equality and empower some changes are made women Off track Reduce child mortality Insufficient information Improve Maternal Health Combat HIV/AID, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development Status in accordance with national government reporting. Source: National MDG Report 2010 Context | 11
GrowthCAR’s HDI grew by 10% between 2005 and 2011, above the average for Sub-SaharanAfrica which grew by 7.4%Human Development Index (HDI) Growth since 2005 (%) 20% Country in Sub-Saharan Africa 15 Sub-Saharan Africa average Central African Republic 10 5 0 -5 2005 2011 Source: UNDP Human Development Report 2011 Context | 12
Governance The Ibrahim Index of African Governance, measuring the delivery of public good and services to citizens by government and non-state actors, ranked CAR 48 out of 53 (53 being low value) in 2010. Mauritius (score of 83) Seychelles (79) Botswana (76) Cape Verde (75) South Africa (71) Namibia (67) Ghana (65) Tunisia (62) Egypt (60) Lesotho (60) Sao Tomé and Príncipe (58) Benin (57) Morocco (57) Senegal (56) Algeria (55) Tanzania (55) Zambia (55) Gambia (53) Mali (53) Mozambique (52) Burkina Faso (52) Malawi (52) Libya (51) Uganda (51) Swaziland (51) Kenya (51) Gabon (50) Madagascar (49) Comoros (49) Djibouti (49) Rwanda (47) Sierra Leone (46) Burundi (45) Cameroon (44) Ethiopia (44) Mauritania (43) Nigeria (43) Liberia (43) Togo (43) Niger (42) Congo (42) Angola (39) Guinea-Bissau (39) Côte d’Ivoire (37) Guinea (36) Equatorial Guinea (35) Sudan (33) Central African Republic (33) Zimbabwe (33) Eritrea (32) Democratic Republic of the Congo (31) Chad (29) Somalia (8) Sources: Mo Ibrahim Foundation (2008/09) Context | 13
Infrastructure A country slightly larger than France with less than 700km of paved roads. UNHAS, ICRC and BINUCA flights are the only domestic flight available to most humanitarians and are often disrupted during the rainy season. Context | 14
High Resource Potential Timber and diamonds are the CAR’s principal exports, accounting for over US$100 M in 2009, 7% of the GDP. Diamond deposits Uranium deposits Gold deposits Wood productionSources: Banque des Etats de l’Afrique centrale (2009), DPDDA (2011), PARFAF (2008), HDPT (2010)
Pockets of fragility, instability and/or conflict North-east Ethnic tensions and inter-tribal attacks. Increase in insecurity North-central and displacement during the Chronically problematic due to dry season with transhumance nomadic group movement, movements. 2011 has seen an banditry and presence of increase in criminality in this national and international region, what some are calling armed groups. “Darfourization.”North-westA recovering region withspontaneous returns of IDPsand refugees. The DDRprocess could create more South-Eastdurable conditions for a Lord’s Resistance Army activelysystematic return, however committing atrocities forcingrisks leaving a security vacuum. people off their land and confining them to larger villages.
Humanitarian Access Constraints 1 Attacks by national and foreign rebel groups – Close to 10 rebel groups and national and international forces operate in CAR. Armed attacks and conflicts in the north, east and south-east make it often too dangerous for humanitarian access and military authority pose access restrictions. 2 Banditry and highway robbers – Banditry is a chronic problem throughout the entire of the CAR, especially along main roads where civilians are often the targets of armed ambushes. Humanitarian organisations are victim to armed robbery, looting and kidnapping. 3 Difficult terrain and poor infrastructure – Slightly larger than France, CAR has less than 700km of paved roads. During the May- November rainy season, there is no road access to the east and north- east. UNHAS, ICRC and BINUCA flights are the only domestics flights available to most humanitarians and are often disrupted during the rainy season. Humanitarian Situation | 19
Health Quick facts Years of life lost by causes 7% Injuries • Less than 30% of population have Non-communicable diseases access to health services and 78% live more than 10km from the nearest health 14% center 78% Communicable • 1 physician for more than 55,500 diseases people and 1 health worker for 7,000 people • Life expectancy fell from 52 to 48 Causes of death in children under-5 between 1990 and 2007 being at 48 for women and 48 for men 1% Injuries 2% Congenital • 47% of births not assisted abnormalities 4% Neonatal sepsis 28% Malaria • Maternal mortality rate at 850 per 7% Birth asphyxia 100,000 as compared to 620 for 8% Prematurity 14% regional average 17% Diarrhea 15% • Under-5 mortality rate at 179 per 1,000 Pneumonia as compared to 127 for regional Other average Sources: Preliminary MICS IV (2010), World Bank, WHO Health Profile (Apr 2011) Humanitarian Needs | 21
HIV/AIDS Quick facts HIV/AIDS prevalence by prefecture for women and men aged 15-49 (%) • 5.9% of population are HIV-positive, with over 10% infected in some prefectures • Women significantly more affected, with no data 6.3% affected as compared to 5.4% of men 4.4 • Prevalence 2.94 times higher in urban 9.2 areas than rural 6 0.8 2.1 3.9 9.1 3.3 14.3 • Prevalence of contraceptives only 19% 4 as compared to 24% regional average 7.9 2 5.3 2.4 10.7% in 6.3 Bangui Source: Preliminary MICS IV (2010) Humanitarian Needs | 22
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Quick facts Access to improved water source • 67% of the population (92% in urban CAR and 51% in rural areas) using improved 67% drinking water source • Only 34% of population (43% in urban Sub-Saharan Africa and 14% in rural areas) using improved 60% sanitation facilities • 25% of 4,000 water points in the country currently not functioning, and awareness Access to improved sanitation levels as well as technical expertise to maintain water points is insufficient. CAR • Open-air defecation common 34% • No waste management system Sub-Saharan Africa 31% Source: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (2010) Humanitarian Needs | 23
Food Security and Nutrition Quick facts • Two in five children under the age of five chronically malnourished, and one in ten are underweight. • High agricultural potential with 15 million ha arable land, one of the highest rainfalls per person in the world and 74% of the population engaged in agriculture. Low agricultural output with only 4% of arable land cultivated each year. • 94% of farming is subsistence and the average cultivated land per farmer is less than 0.5 hectares Cultivated Arable land land Source: Preliminary MICS IV (2010), WASH Cluster (2011) Humanitarian Needs | 24
Education Quick facts Pupils per teacher in Sub-Saharan Africa (top 20) • Only 1.5% of GDP spent on education, almost 5% below African average Central African Republic 95 pupils Rwanda 68 for every teacher • Primary net enrolment rate 63% in 2009 Congo 64 Mozambique 61 • Pupil to teacher ratio 95:1 in primary Chad 61 Ethiopia 58 education Tanzania 54 • Almost 60% of teacher are parents Burundi 51 Mali 50 • Only 36% of pupils completed basic Uganda 49 Burkina Faso 49 primary education in 2009 Madagascar 48 Kenya 47 • Adult literacy rate for 69.8% men and Cameroon 46 47.2% for women Benin 45 Guinea 44 Côte d’Ivoire 42 Togo 42 Mauritania 39 Niger 39 20 40 60 80 100 pupils Source: Min. of Education (2009), UNESCO (2009) Humanitarian Needs | 25
Protection Quick facts • An estimated 66,545 Central Africans are precariously returning, and an estimated 105,206 remain displaced Study by the IDMC and Watchlist in within the CAR. More than 22,180 were Geneva in May 2011 found evidence that newly displaced in 2011 in the north and the east due to ongoing conflicts. “at least four of the six grave 164,905 Central Africans are refugees in violations monitored under UN neighboring countries. Security Council Resolution 1612 • Doubts remains over the impartiality and (2005) are still being committed independence of judicial system which against children in CAR: the is weak and often absent. abduction of children, recruitment • Poor legal documentation of citizens. or use of child soldiers, attacks against schools, and the denial of • Common issues include domestic violence, forced and early marriage and humanitarian access to children.” accusations related to witchcraft resolving in violent confrontations. Traditions often overplay human rights violations, allowing them to be left Source: UN OCHA (2011), IDMC/Watchlist (May 2011) unpunished Humanitarian Needs | 26
Humanitarian Strategy 1 Provide coordinated and vital assistance in response to the needs of people affected by violence or other humanitarian crisis based on needs assessments and a human rights-based approach while maintaining an emergency capacity response for the rest of the country. 2 Protect people affected by conflict, in particular IDPs, refugees, returnees and other people of concern whose rights have been violated and need protection and advocacy support. This includes chiefly the development of a national legal framework for protection, the promotion of rule of law and human rights and the reinforcement of key institutions and civil society. 3 Support IDPs, returnees, host communities and others living in post-emergency settings in restarting their lives by ensuring minimum infrastructures and basic social services and an increase in self- reliance. Humanitarian Response | 29
Humanitarian ProjectsNumber of proposed projects and priorities per sector (as of 17 Nov 2011) Health Food Security Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Early Recovery Education Protection Priority Immediate Nutrition High Coordination and Support Services Medium Not Specified Not Specified Multi-Sector Assistance to Refugees 5 projects 10 15 20 25 30 Source: OCHA FTS Humanitarian Response | 30
US$141 M required 43%Humanitarian Requirements in 2011 fundedRequirements and funding per sector (as of 17 Nov 2011) Food Security 33.5 Health required 27.4 Multi-Sector Assistance to Refugees 23.6 Protection 16.4 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 11.2 Nutrition 8.2 Funding* Early Recovery Requirements 7.9 Coordination and Support Services *Funding include contributions, 7.8 commitments and carry-over. Education 5.6 Funding not yet allocated 0 US$10M 20M 30M Source: OCHA FTS Humanitarian Response | 31
Humanitarian Projects Chronically UnderfundedRequirements and Funding 2007 - 2011 Requirements 149 Funding at year-end 139 Funding* at mid-year *Funding include 118 contributions, commitments and carry-over. 90% 100 100M 91M required 73% 74% funded 44% US$20M 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: OCHA FTS (June 2011) Challenges | 33
Challenges in the Transition to Early Recovery 1 Administrative branch fragile and limited. 2 Unpredictable security situation in post-conflict leave a handicap in implementation of early recovery activities. 3 Poor baseline data and challenge in collecting data make it difficult prioritize socio-economic projects and to formulate indicators for monitoring and evaluation of the progress. 4 Low level and low capacity of local communities to self-manage and maintain socio-economic structures and infrastructures developed by humanitarian actors. 5 Lack of technical service support to the local communities in the design, development and implementation of technical projects for the rehabilitation of communities. 6 Sustainability of income-generating activities and factors blocking private entrepreneurship. Challenges | 34
Development Assistance Rate Behind Others in the RegionDevelopment aid to Sub-Saharan Africa increasing on average by 181% since 1985, andonly 37% to CARODA Growth since 1985 (%) Sub-Saharan Africa 700% 600 500 400 300 200 Central African Republic 100 0 -100 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 Source: OECD (Aug 2011), Development Assistance Disbursements (constant USD), All donors Challenges | 35
Security Sector Reform (SSR) slow to progress Often misunderstood or thought to solely include the reform of law- enforcement in the CAR, the ultimate objective of the SSR is make the State’s ability to perform its duties most effectively to guarantee legal security thus creating a climate conducive to the resumption of economic activities leading to the economic autonomy of the CAR. National approach adopted at the SSR Seminar in April 2008 outlining 4 fundamental assumptions: 1 Holistic and comprehensive approach to SSR meaning each component (civil or military) must be coordinated 2 The SSR is based on actual national ownership, and the national context is the starting point 3 The commitment of the entire government is essential to effective support to political action and economic development 4 The SSR is inseparable from the democratic control of the sector, highlighting the crucial role of Parliament, civil society, the media, etc. Joint assessment of national and international experts in October 2009 found that the majority of short term tasks were carried out satisfactorily, however no progress since. Window of opportunity with the creation of a SSR unit within BINUCA and a push to encourage parties involved to re-launch the SSR. Challenges | 36
Perspectives for 2011 and 2012 – Peace Consolidation Opportunities Threats • Disarmament of 5 political-military • SSR heavily reliant on strong national groups underway in the field, and plan approach in the State and a revision of for reintegration of 8,000 former the national SSR approach of which combatants both are lacking • Returns to the north-west driven by • Increased criminality partnered with a confidence in an post-crisis population weak military leave population vulnerable, especially along the • Convention of Patriots for Justice and international borders Peace (CPJP), the only armed group not to have signed the June 2008 • Violent ethnic radicalization, especially Libreville Comprehensive Peace in the northern and eastern regions and Agreement, signed cease-fire with the tensions with transhumance groups Government of CAR in June 2011 opening the doors for their integration • Lord’s Resistance Army increasingly into the DDR process active in the south-east Security, collaboration and good Slip back into full-scale violence governance allows opens up doors for growth and development Challenges | 37
Perspectives for 2011 and 2012 – Economic Growth Opportunities Threats • Second Poverty Reduction Strategy • Little room for development and growth Paper 2011-2015 underway, promoting within a context of poor governance a common strategy for the government and development community • Poor infrastructure and violence inhibits access to development actors • Most of the population in the north- western part of the country who were • Lack of the State in resource rich displaced by the conflict between 2002 regions limit formal business activity and 2006 have returned, are well • Economic growth heavily dependent on established and transitioning or ready to peace consolidation transition to recovery and take back control of the agricultural sector • Weak interest and funding to early recovery and development projects • Increase in timber and diamond exports help stimulate the GDP Break circle of poverty and move Remain in circle of poverty and into early recovery and dependence on foreign aid and development humanitarian interventions Challenges | 38
For more information, please visit http://hdptcar.net and http://www.unocha.org November 2011
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.